2001 - The Bolivarian Foundation of Informatics and Telematics (Fundabit) is a department reporting into the Ministry of Education. Since 2001 it has been responsible for the installation of over 2,000 computer labs throughout the country and has trained in excess of 38,000 teachers in the use of ICT. Fundabit is also responsible for creating opportunities to more remote regions and is working towards this with the installation of solar panels in schools without connection to the national power supply. It has also introduced six mobile computer labs which allow the introduction of ICT into classrooms in remote areas.
2004 - Decree Number 3390 was published, Article 8 of which stated the intention of the National Executive to promote the widespread use of free and open-source software. The computers available in Venezuelan schools use the Linux operating system and children use Open Office as a word-processing and spreadsheet package.
The operating system, Canaima, forms the center of the project, Canaima Educativo. The project aims to provide students with free laptops which run Canaima, with content created by teachers from within the country. It is operated by the National Center for Information Technologies, the CNTI. The open-source Operating System, Canaima was adopted in 2011 as the country’s primary operating system for computers within the public sector. Further details on Canaima Educativo, a project designed to provide school children with computers running the Canaima OS.
2008 - Fundación Telefónica, previously called Educared, provides a range of information and advice to teachers on how to incorporate ICT into the classroom. In addition, EducaRed offers free online training courses to teachers on a range of subjects, including one to training of ICT coordinators in schools.
2015 - The OAS installed the first Popup School on the border or Venezuela and Colombia. Its education program Virtual Educa was built in 24 hours to assist displaced children affected by the situation on the Colombia-Venezuela border. The school is located in Norte de Santander, Colombia. This initiative allows children to access to the right to education for children while learning materials in an ICT environment.
This project provides school children in Venezuela with laptops running the Canaima open source Operating System, containing educational content which aligns with national standards.
Fundación Telefónica | Venezuela
It’s a portal that provides a range of information and advice to teachers on how to incorporate ICT into the classroom. In addition, Fundación Telefónica Venezuela offers free online training courses to teachers on a range of subjects, including one to training of ICT coordinators in schools.
Instituto Interamericano del Niño, la Niña y Adolescente (INN)
A specialized body of the Organization of American States (OAS) on children and adolescents policy that provides guidance to the different states on how they must assume protection.
INTERPOL is the world’s largest international police organization, with 190 member countries. Its mission is to enable police forces to collaborate globally to fight crime in the Internet age. Three areas of focus are crimes against children (with a focus on internet crimes and travelling sex offenders), cybercrime and human trafficking.
Latin American Network of Educational Portals (La Red Latinoamericana de Portales Educativos – RELPE)
Formed in 2004 by an agreement of the Ministries of Education from sixteen Latin American countries, a network of educational portals, allowing the collaboration and sharing of educational content between the member countries. It also provides for the construction of standards and methodologies of processes to position the network as a benchmark in the region and the world on collaborative management of educational content.
Latin American Network of ICT and Education (Red Iberoamericana de TIC y Educación – RIATE)
This organization promotes bilateral or multilateral cooperation for development through the exchange of information, initiatives and projects that promote the integration of ICT in education in 21 countries.
Red Escolar National
Provides resources for students at teachers on a range of subjects including ICT. Subjects are covered in varying detail depending on the age of the student but the section for older students has some good and fairly detailed information on computer safety, although Internet security is not a primary focus.
The Interactive Generations Forum
A nonprofit organization which mission is to promote the use of technology to improve people’s lives. It was founded in 2008 by Telefónica, the University of Navarra and the Inter-American Organization (OUI). The Forum seeks to understand the impact of technology on children aged between 6 - 18 in Latin America, to provide educational resources for that age group and to educate through its own programs.
Protecting Children from Cybercrime (2015)Simone dos Santos Lemos Fernandes, Legal Consultant, Global Forum on Law Justice and Development (GFLJD), Legal Vice Presidency, World Bank
This report studies different Latin American countries’ legislation on the prevention and combat of violence against children on the internet. It also identifies gaps and good practices on the protection of children from cybercrime.
2013 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor (2014)Bureau of International Labor Affairs
Report on the worst types of child labor in Venezuela during 2013. It also presents the laws and the government programs aimed to end them.
The commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children in Latin America (2014)ECPAT International
This report studies the different forms of sexual exploitation of children inLatin America. Furthermore, it highlights the new emerging trends and how Latin america is addressing this phenomena
Venezuela: Children’s Rights in International Labour Organisations Reports (2013)Child Rights International Network
Summary of individual observations by the ILO Committee of Experts on child Labour conventions
ICT IN EDUCATION IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN A regional analysis of ICT integration and e-readiness (2012)UNESCO Institute for Statistics
UNESCO Institute for Statistics, based on survey responses from 38 countries reveals the extent to which factors such as education policy, teacher training, and infrastructure drive or hamper the integration of ICTs in schools.
Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children and the Internet (2011)Inter American Children’s Instirute
This is a report to the Organization of American States on the situation of the member states in the issue of commercial sexual exploitation and the impact of internet in their lives.
Los desafíos de las TIC para el cambio educativo (2009)Roberto Carneiro, Juan Carlos Toscano and Tamara Díaz
This is a collective Inter-American educational program which goals are projected until the year 2021. It analyses the challenges of the new era of education and the importance of incorporating ICT on it.
Trafficking in Persons 2008 (2008)Embassy of the United States in Venezuela
This is a report on the problem of trafficking people of Venezuela. Moreover, it mentions the government progress on responding to this issue.
Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) (2006)WHO Region of the Americas
Comprehensive report on the ICT environment in Venezuela. It talks about infrastructure, access, human skills among other aspects.
ICTs and Education Indicators: (Suggested core indicators based on meta-analysis of selected International School Surveys) (2006)UNESCO Institute for Statistics
This article’s purpose is to provide information on the importance of ICT education and how beneficiary it is instead of only focusing on providing access to them
.ve (2001)Lino Clemente, Colin Maclay
Country profile on Venezuela’s status of ICT in 2001
This section contains details of the country’s laws as they relate to sexual offenses, children and the use of the Internet in the commission of criminal activity. Where possible, sentence details have been given, including whether an increased custodial penalty is imposed where the victim is a child.
Details of Venezuelan laws relating to offenses against children have been obtained from Interpol and are correct as at Spring 2006.16 The age of consent in Venezuela is not specified in law but the age of majority is eighteen.
The possession of child pornography is not classified as a crime under Venezuelan law, although various restrictions are in place to prevent children and adolescents being exposed to pornography in retailers and online.
- Article 8, Organic Law for the Protection of Children and Adolescents. Interests of the Child. This Article lays out the considerations that must be made when assessing a situation involving a child or adolescent. These include the views of the young person, the need to balance the rights of the child against the need for the common good and the need to strike a balance between the rights of others and the rights or interests of the child.
- Article 33, Organic Law for the Protection of Children and Adolescents. Right to be Protected from Sexual Abuse and Exploitation. States that all children and adolescents are entitled to be protected from any form of sexual abuse and exploitation. The State shall guarantee permanent programs, free help and comprehensive care for children and adolescents who have been abused or sexually exploited.
- Article 34, Organic Law for the Protection of Children and Adolescents. Forensic Services. Obliges the State to retain forensic services personnel who are specially trained to care for children and adolescents, predominantly in the cases of sexual abuse or exploitation. The Article states that these services should be separate to those offered for adults over the age of eighteen.
- Article 38, Organic Law for the Protection of Children and Adolescents. Prohibition of Slavery, Servitude and Forced Labor. States that no child or adolescent may be subjected to slavery, servitude or forced labor.
- Article 40, Organic Law for the Protection of Children and Adolescents. Trafficking in Children & Adolescents. States that the State must protect children and adolescents from being trafficked within the country or taken outside its borders.
- Article 50, Organic Law for the Protection of Children and Adolescents. Sexual and Reproductive Health. States that all children have a right to be educated and informed (in a manner appropriate to their age and development) about sexual health, reproduction, sexual behavior and responsible parenthood. The State must ensure that sexual and reproductive health services and care programs are made available for all children and adolescents. The programs must be affordable and respect the children’s right to privacy. Adolescents over the age of fourteen are entitled to access the services themselves, without parental intervention.
- Article 74 (Statute not specified.) Wrapper for matter and media containing content unsuitable for children and adolescents. States that any such material should be contained within a sealed wrapper and that in the case of pornographic material the wrapper should be opaque.
- Article 75 (State not specified.) Specific Information and images prohibited in publications aimed at children and adolescents. Prohibits audiovisual , printed matter, publications, videos, pictures, artwork, photographs and magazines from carrying images or text relating to the incitement of violence, the use of weapons, snuff, alcohol, narcotics or abuse.
- Article 237, Organic Law for the Protection of Children and Adolescents. Prohibits the use of a child or adolescent in a pornographic work where sexual intercourse does not occur and deems the penalty to be a fine of between ten and 50 months’ income. The same penalty applies to those who participate in such acts with the child or adolescent. It also applies to anyone who films or publishes such works. The film is subject to seizure by the authorities.
- Article 258, Organic Law for the Protection of Children and Adolescents. The section criminalizes the sexual exploitation of children and adolescents. It states that anyone who promotes, directs or profits from the sexual activity of children and adolescents will be punished by a term of imprisonment from three to six years. If the offender is in a position of authority over the child the sentence range increases to between four and eight years.
- Article 259, Organic Law for the Protection of Children & Adolescents. States that engaging or participating in a sexual act with a child is a crime punishable by one to three years’ imprisonment. If the act involves sexual penetration of the genitals or anus, or oral sexual contact, the term of imprisonment increases to between five and ten years. If the offender is a relative, guardian or person in a position of authority over the victim the sentence is to be increased by a quarter.
- Article 260, Organic Law for the Protection of Children & Adolescents. States that anyone engaging or participating in sexual acts against an adolescent against the will of the adolescent will be penalized according to the provisions of the previous section.
- Article 375, Penal Code. Defines the offense of committing a sexual act through the use of violence or threats. Includes committing such an act against a child under the age of twelve and states that whether or not violence or coercion is used they are deemed incapable of granting consent. Also includes the offense of committing a sexual act against a person under the age of sixteen where the offender is a relative, teacher or person in a position of authority over them. The penalty for this offense is between five and ten years’ imprisonment.
- Article 377, Penal Code. States that anyone who commits any lewd acts not covered under section 375 will be subject to imprisonment for between six and 30 months. If the act committed involved a breach of trust or involved a person who had a familial relationship to the victim, or involved violence or threats the penalty is increased to between one and six years’ imprisonment.
- Article 378, Penal Code. Specifies that if two or more persons are involved in the acts specified above, the term of imprisonment is increased by one third.
- Article 379, Penal Code. States that anyone who engages in sexual acts with a child aged between twelve and sixteen which do not fall under the provisions laid out in Article 375, will face imprisonment for between six to eighteen months. If the child was a virgin prior to the act being committed the sentence is doubled. If a sexual act is performed on a woman aged between sixteen and 21, where the promise of marriage is an aid to seduction, a sentence of six months’ to one year’s imprisonment may be imposed.
- Article 381, Penal Code. Defines the crime of incest and states that the penalty is between three and six years’ imprisonment.
- Article 382, Penal Code. States that anyone who commits an act in a public place that is not covered by previous articles but which outrages public decency is liable to imprisonment for a term of between three and fifteen months. This section also states that inducing, facilitating or promoting prostitution is illegal and carries a prison term of between one and six years.
- Article 383, Penal Code. States that anyone who outrages public decency by making, selling, distributing or publicly displaying obscene writings, drawings, objects or obscene articles in any other form is liable to a prison term of between three and six months. If the offense is committed with profit as a motive, the term of imprisonment is increased to between six months and one year.
In May 2007, as part of a celebration of the National Week of Children’s Rights, the Internet safety portal, Chamoseguro, was launched to raise awareness and provide safety information to children and adults. This was a progression from a 2005 safety campaign warning of the dangers of children talking to strangers on the Internet. Unfortunately, the website is no longer available.
In August 2013, Interpol worked with the National Police Cyber Center to conduct Operation Purity II, which consisted of 109 simultaneous raids in ten countries including Colombia, Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Spain, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela. They seized a total of 6,066 digital devices with suspected child pornography content: specifically, photographic images and video content of a sexually explicit nature involving minors.