2008 - Former president Tabaré Vázquez launched a government program called ‘Uruguay Digital Agenda 2008 - 2010’ (Agenda Digital Uruguay – ADU08-10) that worked toward the consolidation of all of Uruguay’s IT programs. Its main objective was to create a more inclusive and democratic society. It gave high priority to ‘Plan Ceibal’, the former initiative, now an agency aimed to ensure that every student and teacher in the country received an XO laptop under the One Laptop Per Child (OLPC) initiative. Students, teachers and parents are being educated in safe Internet use through this plan and that has distributed laptops to all children in the country. This pioneering project has seen Uruguay become the first country in the world to equip all public school students with free laptops known as ‘ceibalitas’.
Plan Ceibal has involved more than just a distribution of ceibalitas. The issue of connectivity has meant that some rural schools have also supplied with solar panels to provide an electricity supply. Over the course of the initial phase of the project, connectivity has been upgraded as technology advanced, with original connections upgraded to fiber optic ones. By 2012 all students in the country had received their ceibalitas and the focus shifted from one of digital inclusion, to one which focused on integrating technology into the classroom.
2010 - Plan Ceibal became Centro Ceibal in the national center for technology in education, coordinating programs to support technology in education and social inclusion. Besides, students receive online safety advice through Plan Ceibal’s website, and in late 2013 the Agency for the Development of Electronic Government and Information Society and Knowledge (AGESIC) joined forces with the country’s Computer Emergency Response Team (CERTuy) to launch Stop, Think, Connect: a campaign to teach children about the importance of safeguarding their personal data and how to avoid issues such as identity theft and phishing scams
In addition to Plan Ceibal, ADU08-10 aimed to develop educational content and resources related to existing training programs and other issues for people of all ages, from pre-school to adult education. This aim has led to the development of UruguayEduca, the national education portal. Students and teachers alike have access to a wealth of information organized by subject and grade level, whilst a section for parents provides general information regarding the education system in the country.
Uruguay’s ICT policy is the ‘Digital Agenda 2011 - 2015’ (ADU11-15), consisting of 15 objectives across six axes – access, education and culture, e-government, ICT industry, health, and environment. In terms of ICT for education, the government envisaged providing fiber optic connections to all public schools in urban centers with a population over 10,000 by the end of 2015, whilst a distance learning system utilizing video conferencing was installed by 2013.
The Digital Agenda promotes ICT education at all levels, and the strengthening of the digital capabilities of the overall population. To advance this objective, in June 2011, the Ministry of Education (MEC) and Antel, Uruguay’s government-owned telecommunications company, signed an agreement to establish a total of 180 digital literacy learning centers (MEC Centers across the country by 2015, covering 100% of towns with a population of 500 to 5,000 inhabitants. The MEC Centers work towards helping adults and young people overcome the fear of “touching” a computer through simple steps, without the academic pressure of exams or tests.
Another attempt to reduce the digital divide is attested in the ‘National Plan for Digital Literacy’ (Plan Nacional de Alfabetización Digital - PNAD), published in 2010. With adults as the target audience, the PNAD’s main objective is to reduce the generation digital divide and promote the use of ICT to improve access to services, goods, education and culture, contributing to the social integration.
The government has worked with partners such as Microsoft during the roll-out of the laptops. Faced with a teaching community where 90% had no previous ICT experience, Microsoft Uruguay worked with the Council of Primary Education and other expert partners to develop a portal to deliver online training. The training includes demonstrating the basic concepts of distance learning, showing how ICT can be integrated into the core curricula and teaching educators how to use computers in the classroom environment.
2011 - The U.S. Department of State in partnership with the Government of Uruguay launched TechCamp Montevideo, a project aimed to provide training to organizations working on education issues such as teacher training, digital literacy among students, and the provision of education to marginalized communities.
2014 - Beyond Access in collaboration with the Uruguay National Library and ANTEL launched a new digital inclusion project to provide ICT services to communities through public libraries. It will also provide computers, Internet access, and training programs to 10 participating libraries.
2016 - First national Internet Governance Forum of Uruguay is scheduled to be held on 17 May 2016.
Instituto Interamericano del Niño, la Niña y Adolescente (INN)
A specialized body of the Organization of American States (OAS) on children and adolescents policy that provides guidance to the different states on how they must assume protection.
INTERPOL is the world’s largest international police organization, with 190 member countries. Its mission is to enable police forces to collaborate globally to fight crime in the Internet age. Three areas of focus are crimes against children (with a focus on internet crimes and travelling sex offenders), cybercrime and human trafficking.
Latin American Network of Educational Portals (La Red Latinoamericana de Portales Educativos – RELPE)
Formed in 2004 by an agreement of the Ministries of Education from sixteen Latin American countries, a network of educational portals, allowing the collaboration and sharing of educational content between the member countries. It also provides for the construction of standards and methodologies of processes to position the network as a benchmark in the region and the world on collaborative management of educational content.
Latin American Network of ICT and Education (Red Iberoamericana de TIC y Educación – RIATE)
This organization promotes bilateral or multilateral cooperation for development through the exchange of information, initiatives and projects that promote the integration of ICT in education in 21 countries.
One Laptop per Child (OLPC)
A nonprofit organization launched by Massachusetts Institute of Technology Media Lab, whose aim to empower the world’s poorest children through education by providing a low cost laptops.
The Ministry of Education and Culture
It is responsible for all public schools in the Republic and the running of the country’s MEC Centers to increase digital literacy.
The Network for the Rights of Children and Adolescents to the Safe and Responsible Use of New ICTs - RedNATIC
It comprises a joint group of organizations from across Latin America. Its member organizations assume as shared the principles of the statements contained in the Theoretical Framework for the rights of children and teens to a Safe and Responsible Use of ICT.
State Party Examination of Uruguay’s Initial Report on the Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography (2015)Committee on Rights of the Child
Initial periodic report after the ratification of the Optional Protocols on the sale of children, child prostitution and Child Pornography on 03 July 2003.
Protecting Children from Cybercrime (2015)Simone dos Santos Lemos Fernandes, Legal Consultant, Global Forum on Law Justice and Development (GFLJD), Legal Vice Presidency, World Bank
This report studies different Latin American countries’ legislation on the prevention and combat of violence against children on the internet. It also identifies gaps and good practices on the protection of children from cybercrime.
Committee on the Rights of the Child Reviews 12 countries’ Child Rights Records (2015)OHCHR
This report reviews 12 States’ actions based on the obligations to the Convention of the Rights of the Child and its optional protocols
Concluding observations on the initial report submitted by Uruguay under article 12, paragraph 1, of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography (2015)UN Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC)
Conclusions on the initial report after the adoption of the Optional Protocols on the sale of children, child prostitution and Child Pornography on 03 July 2003.
Committee on Rights of Child examines reports of Uruguay under Convention, on children in armed conflict and sale of children. (2015)Committee on Rights of the Child
Third periodic report after the implementation of the provisions of the convention on the rights of the Child and the initial reports under the Optional Protocols on children and armed conflict and on the sale of the children, child prostitution and child pornography.
Haciendo visible lo invisible (2014)Save the Children
Document on good practices to protect children and adolescents from trafficking for labor exploitation.
Online Traffic Contents of Pornography Child. An Exploratory Research Among Countries in latin America 10 Focus on With Uruguay (2014)Sergio Delgado Coto, Omar França Tarragó
Study on the status of Uruguay regarding the traffic of online child pornography.
Uruguay: Children’s Rights References in the Universal Periodic Review (2014)Child Rights Internal Network (CRIN)
This is a compilation of information from different reports submitted to the second Universal Periodic Review.
The commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children in Latin America (2014)ECPAT International
This report studies the different forms of sexual exploitation of children inLatin America. Furthermore, it highlights the new emerging trends and how Latin america is addressing this phenomena
Maltrato y Abuso Sexual en la Infancia y la Adolescencia (2013)Magela Batista Gotta, Clyde Lacasa Lopez, Graciela E. Navarro
Compilation of booklets about different forms of domestic and sexual violence as the result of 4 main projects and some workshops carried out by the Red Uruguaya contra la Violencia Domestica y Sexual.
Los Programas una computadora por niño en Brasil y Uruguay: Estudio de Casos (2013)Veronica Gabriela Silva Piovani, Giovani De Lorenzi Pires
Documento on the effectiveness of the programs one laptop per child in Uruguay and Brasil.
E-Governing in Latin America: A Review of the Success in Colombia, Uruguay, and Panama (2013)Miguel A. Porrúa
Document on the improvement in the economy of Colombia, Panama and Uruguay, after the introduction of ICTs.
Uruguay 2013 (2013)Bureau of International Affairs
Report on the worst types of child labor in Uruguay during 2013. it also presents the laws and the government programs aimed to end them.
ICT IN EDUCATION IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN A regional analysis of ICT integration and e-readiness (2012)UNESCO Institute for Statistics
UNESCO Institute for Statistics, based on survey responses from 38 countries reveals the extent to which factors such as education policy, teacher training, and infrastructure drive or hamper the integration of ICTs in schools.
Digital technologies meet the challenges of inclusive education in Latin America: some examples of good practices (2012)NU. CEPAL, European Commission
The publication includes a series of studies on policies and programs to integrate digital technologies into education in various Latin American countries. The document also presents eight cases of good practices in ICTs that can be used in the Latin American school system to contribute to inclusion and reduce social inequalities.
Measuring ICTs in Education: The UIS role and its regional approach to data collection (2012)UNESCO Institute of Statistics
Presentation on models of ICTS in Education and the data collected by UNESCO.
Bridging the Digital divide by reaching out to vulnerable populations (2012)United Nations
Chapter on social inclusion regarding access to ICT. It talks about effective measurements to improve ICT that governments need to take into account for development.
Uruguay 2012 (2012)Bureau of International Affairs
Report on the worst types of child labor in Uruguay during 2012. it also presents the laws and the government programs aimed to end them.
Uruguay (2012)Bureau of International Affairs
Report on the worst types of child labor in Uruguay during 2012. it also presents the laws and the government programs aimed to end them.
2010 Human Rights Report: Uruguay (2011)Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor
Report on the worst types of child labor in Uruguay during 2014. It also presents the laws and the government programs aimed to end them.
D.5.4 - Status of ICT Policy Development Country Report Uruguay (2011)PRO-IDEAL
Report on the status of the ICT Policy Development in Uruguay. It’s purpose it to create a dialogo between Latin American Pro-IDEAL countries an EU countries for ICT policy collaborations.
Uruguay’s Plan Ceibal: Can Laptops in the Hands of Primary School Students Reduce the Digital Divide, Improve education, and Increase Competiveness (2011)Anna Prusa and Elizabeth Plotts
This Capstone Project’s purpose explores effectiveness of the Plan Ceibal on reducing the digital divide and increasing ICT literacy among marginalized students.
Computers in Schools: Why governments Should do their Homework (2011)Inter-American Development Bank
This chapter is a comparison of the Latin American governments include ICT in their educational programs.
Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children and the Internet (2011)Inter American Children’s Instirute
This is a report to the Organization of American States on the situation of the member states in the issue of commercial sexual exploitation and the impact of internet in their lives.
Los desafíos de las TIC para el cambio educativo (2009)Roberto Carneiro, Juan Carlos Toscano and Tamara Díaz
This is a collective Inter-American educational program which goals are projected until the year 2021. It analyses the challenges of the new era of education and the importance of incorporating ICT on it.
2008 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Uruguay (2009)Bureau of International Affairs
Report on the worst types of child labor in Uruguay during 2008. it also presents the laws and the government programs aimed to end them.
Contemporary forms of slavery in Uruguay (2006)Mike Kaye
Report on the different forms of slavery present in Uruguay and the government response.
La protección de los derechos de los niños, niñas y adolescentes frente a la violencia sexual (2003)Instituto Interamericano del Niño
Compilation of documents about child and adolescents sexual exploitation in the Latin American Region.
This section contains details of the country’s laws as they relate to sexual offenses, children and the use of the Internet in the commission of criminal activity. Where possible, sentence details have been given, including whether an increased custodial penalty is imposed where the victim is a child.
The age of consent for sexual activity in Uruguay is fifteen, as defined by the Uruguayan Penal Code Articles 267 and 272. The legal minimum age for marriage without parental consent is eighteen, as is the age of legal majority.
- Article 267, Penal Code. Abduction of a Married Woman or Child under Fifteen Years. States, among other things, that anyone who uses violence, threat or deception to abduct a minor under the age of fifteen for the purpose of having sexual intercourse, will be liable to imprisonment for between two to eight years.
- Article 268, Penal Code. Abduction of a Minor Between the age of Fifteen and Eighteen Years, With or Without Consent. This Article imposes a penalty of imprisonment for three months to three years for anyone who abducts a minor aged between fifteen and eighteen, with or without consent, for the purpose of having sexual intercourse with him/her.
- Article 272, Penal Code. Rape. Imposes a penalty of imprisonment for two to twelve years for anyone who compels another person to have sexual intercourse by the use of violence or threats. Violence is legally presumed until otherwise proven if the victim is aged between twelve and fifteen.
- Article 273, Penal Code. Indecency with Violence. This Article states that anyone who commits violent indecent exposure with intent to commit lewd or obscene acts with or on the victim, or to compel the victim to commit such an act on a third person, is guilty of an offense, punishable by imprisonment for eight months to six years. Where the victim was under the age of twelve, an aggravated prison sentence of two to six years will apply.
- Article 274, Penal Code. Corruption of Minors. Defines the offense of committing lewd or lascivious acts with a person aged between twelve and seventeen for the purpose of satisfying his/her own lust. The offender will be liable to a term of imprisonment of between six months to three years.
- Article 277, Penal Code. Public Indecency. States that anyone who publicly performs an obscene act will be liable to imprisonment for three months to three years.
- Article 333, Penal Code. Defamation. This Article states that anyone who disseminates a false statement about another person, which exposes the victim to hatred, ridicule or public contempt, or, if it were true, would lead to criminal or disciplinary proceedings, is guilty of defamation and liable to up to three years’ imprisonment or a fine of 180 adjustable units.
- Article 334, Penal Code. Libel. States that where defamation was committed in writing and where it offends the honor, righteousness or dignity of the victim, a penalty of three to eight months’ imprisonment or a fine of 60 to 300 adjustable units will apply.
- Article 335, Penal Code. Aggravating Circumstances. Prescribes an increase of one-sixth to one-third where libel or defamation was committed in public documents or writings, or publicly disclosed in any other manner.
- Article 1, Law on Commercial and Non-commercial. Sexual Violence Against Children, Adolescents and the Disabled, 17.815. Manufacture or Production of Pornographic Materials Involving Minors or the Disabled. This Article states that anyone who in any way makes or produces child pornography will be liable to imprisonment for two to six years.
- Article 2, Law 17.815. Trade or Dissemination of Pornographic Material Involving Minors or the Disabled. States that anyone who trades in, disseminates, exhibits, stores for the purposes of distribution, imports, exports, distributes or offers any child pornography will be liable to imprisonment for between one and four years.
- Article 3, Law 17.815. Facilitation of Marketing or Dissemination of Pornographic Material Involving Minors or the Disabled. States that anyone who in any way facilitates the commercialization, diffusion, exhibition, storage, or acquisition of child pornography will be punished by imprisonment for between six months and two years.
- Article 4, Law 17.815. Remuneration or Promise Thereof to Minors or the Disabled for Sexual or Erotic Acts of Any Kind .Defines the offense of promising a financial or other reward to a minor in exchange for carrying out sexual or erotic acts of any kind. The offender will face between two and twelve years’ imprisonment.
- Article 5, Law 17.815. Contribution to the Sexual Exploitation of Minors or the Disabled. States that prostituting a child for profit is punishable by a minimum jail sentence of between two and twelve years. The penalty will be increased by half if the offender abused a position of authority or his/her official status.
- Article 6, Law 17.815. Trafficking of Minors or the Disabled. Imposes a prison terms for trafficking children in or out of the country or contributing to the prostitution of a child, ranging from two to twelve years.
2004 - Montevideo hosted regional conference on trafficking in children and child pornography on the Internet. The conference was organized by the Inter-American Children’s Institute (IIN), a specialized branch of the Organization of American States (OAS), and the Embassy of the United States of America in Uruguay. Representatives submitted proposals for the development of legislative framework that will be compatible in all of the participating countries. (Declaration)