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2006 – As part of the Enrich Iowa program, public libraries began receiving funds to support and improve library service and reduce inequities among communities. Libraries aided by the program must have an Internet use policy in place, although filtering is optional.
2007 – In a settlement of a class action suit against Microsoft, funds unclaimed by complaintants were allocated to K-12 public schools with substantial poverty throughout the state, through the Cy Pres program. Schools applied to the program, which provided technology to help them implement the Iowa Core curriculum. About $42 million was distributed to eligible schools.
Also in 2007, Iowa began measuring eighth graders’ technology literacy levels. The reports were based on observations, checklists, portfolios, testing or the completion of a technology class.
2010 – Iowa’s Technology Literacy curriculum was last updated. Part of the Iowa Core 21st Century Skills, the curriculum teaches students about using the Internet responsibly and to the benefit of their education. From kindergarten, students learn that sharing information about themselves online is unsafe and that they should tell adults when they come across inappropriate content.
2015 – Eligible schools could file for additional funds from the 2007 Microsoft settlement, which will be available for use on approved products through June 2017.
Ongoing – Under section 256.9 of state law, the Director of the education department must develop and provide to school districts examples of age-appropriate and research-based materials and lists of resources which parents may use to teach their children about the dangers of sexual exploitation by means of the internet including specific strategies to help students protect themselves and their personally identifiable information from such exploitation. School districts are also obliged to provide age-appropriate and research-based materials and a list of available community and web-based resources to parents at registration and to include them in the student handbook.
21st Century Learning Environments
This project helps implement 1:1 technology initiatives in Iowa school districts. It provides grant proposal tips to schools interested in the program, and has a map and searchable directory of initiatives.
Iowa Area Education Agencies Online (AEA Online)
This site provides educators and students with online resources for K-12 schools. This includes access to the AEA Digital Library.
Iowa Coalition Against Domestic Violence
The nonprofit’s website provides information on the importance of Internet safety in domestic violence cases, and provides useful tips. It also has a directory of domestic and sexual violence support services available throughout the state.
Iowa Department of Education
The Department of Education’s Educational Technology department facilitates the Iowa 1 to 1 Districts program, E-Rate grants, online learning and related initiatives for K-12 schools.
Iowa Internet Crimes Against Children Task Force (ICAC)
The ICAC involves collaboration between a number of public and private organizations, bringing together local, state and federal law enforcement agencies across Iowa to investigate child exploitation on the internet. Its website lists internet safety tips and internet crime resources.
Iowa Learning Online
This online learning program aims to help school districts expand learning opportunities for high school students and support existing school curriculum.
Iowa Learning Technology Commission
Appointed by the Iowa State Legislature, the commission supports the innovative uses of instructional technology in K-12 school districts.
Iowa Office of the Attorney General
The Office of the Attorney General’s website hosts the state’s searchable sex offender registry. The website has information on child sex trafficking and provides tips for parents on internet safety.
Iowa Technology Education Connection
ITEC promotes the use of technology in education by demonstrating to its members, other educators and the public, developments in educational technology and how its appropriate use supports teaching and learning.
Iowa Media Literacy Program - Educating Children about Advertisements (2015)M.E. Faulhaber, M. Hoger, C. Miller, C. Brouwer, J. Paulsen, J.A. Blanco, D. Gentile
The purpose of this study was to measure the effectiveness of the Iowa Media Literacy Program by analyzing pre- and post-intervention differences in the student’s suspicion, knowledge and attitudes toward media and advertisement.
The Validity of the Iowa Sex Offender Risk Assessment for Predicting Recidivism in Female Sexual Offenders (2015)W.J. McGinnis
This report found that the Iowa Sex Offender Risk Assessment is a valid risk assessment tool when predicting general and sexual or violent recidivism for female sexual offenders.
Drafting a Cyberbullying Policy for Iowa Schools (2013)K. Franklin
This paper lays out what should be in a cyberbullying policy at a minimum and how to implement and enforce said policy.
Profiles in Innovation: How the Enhancing Education Through Technology Program is Improving Teaching and Learning in America's Schools (2011)The Bernstein Strategy Group
This group of case studies from around the US looks at the status and successes of programs from the federal Enhancing Education Through Technology program. This program was designed to provide students with the skills and tools they need to succeed in the 21st century. Many of the recipients of the funding are in areas that lack access to technology and broadband at home and rely on schools for interactive and engaging learning opportunities.
Iowa Sex Offender Treatment and Supervision Task Force Report to the Iowa General Assembly (2007)Iowa Department of Human Rights
This report focuses on methods for updating the Sex Offender Registry, researching and recommending best practices for sex offender treatment, studying risk-assessment tools, evaluating the impact of electronic monitoring, and assessing the impact of the imposition of special sentences.
A Study of Web-Based Distance Learning Perceptions and Concerns of Superintendents and High School Prinicipals in Iowa (2004)J.B. Prescott
This study was designed to identify the perceptions and concerns of superintendents and high school principals in the state of lowa related to Web-based distance learning.
Iowa Sex Offender Registry and Recidivism (2000)G. Adkins, D. Huff, P. Stageberg
This study examined the effect of the Iowa Sex Offender Registry program on recidivism rates among sex offenders.
This section contains details of the state’s laws as they relate to sexual offenses, children and the use of the Internet in the commission of criminal activity. Where possible, sentence details have been given, including whether an increased custodial penalty is imposed where the victim is a child.
Sentences are as follows:
- Class A felony incurs life imprisonment.
- Class B felony incurs a prison term of up to 25 years.
- Class C felony incurs a prison term of up to ten years and a fine of between $1,000 to $10,000.
- Class D felony incurs a prison term of up to five years and a fine of between $750 to $7,500.
- Aggravated misdemeanor incurs a fine of between $625 to $6,250 and imprisonment for up to two years.
- Serious misdemeanor incurs a fine of between $315 to $1,875 and/or possible imprisonment for up to one year.
- Simple misdemeanor incurs a fine of between $65 to $625 and/or a possible imprisonment for up to 30 days.
In addition to the above, a person convicted of a sexually predatory offense, which means any serious or aggravated misdemeanor or felony offense which constitutes a violation of any provisions of chapter 709, sexual exploitation of a minor (728.12, subsection 1), enticing a minor (710.10, subsection 1), pandering involving a minor (725.3, subsection 2), will incur an enhanced sentence. If the offender has one prior conviction for a sexually predatory offense he/she will be liable to twice the maximum period of imprisonment. If he/she has two or more prior convictions, the offender will serve a minimum penalty of ten years’ imprisonment. Where the sexually predatory offense is a felony, recidivists will be liable to twice the maximum penalty or 25 years’ imprisonment, whichever is greater. Any subsequent felony offenses will lead to life imprisonment.
- Iowa Code (IC) 692A.101 through to 692A.130 Sex Offender Registry. States that a person convicted of an offense against a minor, a sexually violent offense or another relevant crime shall upon first conviction register for a period of 10 years. If the person fails to do so then they will be required to register for a further 10 years. A sex offender guilty of a second or subsequent offense, and sexually violent predators, must register for life. Any sex offender who has been convicted for a sexual offense against a minor may not reside within 300 feet of a school, public library or child care facility. Doing so means that they are guilty of an aggravated misdemeanor and may be sentenced to a term of imprisonment not exceeding two years.
- IC 708.7 Harassment. Defines the offense as a person who with intent to intimidate, alarm or annoy another person does any of the specified acts, notably if they communicate with another person by way of electronic means without legitimate purpose and in a manner likely to cause the other person annoyance or harm. This is harassment in the first degree, which is an aggravated misdemeanor punishable by imprisonment not to exceed 30 days and/or a fine. A person commits harassment in the second degree when the person commits harassment involving a threat to commit bodily injury or if the person has previously been convicted of harassment twice in the past 10 years. This is a serious misdemeanor. Any other act of harassment is harassment in the third degree, which is a simple misdemeanor.
- IC 708.15 Sexual Motivation. This section states that a person guilty of any crime under section chapter 708 shall be required to register as a sex offender if the victim was a minor and the offense was sexually motivated.
- IC 709.1 Sexual Abuse Defined. States that a person commits sexual abuse when a sex act is performed in any of the following circumstances: when the act is done by force or without the consent of the other person, when the other person has a mental defect, or when the other person is a child.
- IC 709.2 Sexual Abuse in the First Degree. Defines the offense as where in the course of committing sexual abuse, as defined above, the victim suffers serious injury. This is deemed to be a Class A felony and the offender may be imprisoned for the rest of their life.
- IC 709.3 Sexual Abuse in the Second Degree. A person commits sexual abuse in the second degree, when he/she displays a dangerous weapon or threatens the use of force which could cause death or serious injury in the course of committing sexual abuse. This crime is also committed if the victim is under 12 or if another person aids the offender. An offense against this section is a Class B felony, with a penalty of up to 25 years’ imprisonment.
- IC 709.4 Sexual Abuse in the Third Degree. Defines the offense as the commission of sexual abuse when the victim is 12 or 13 years old. Where the victim is 14 or 15 the offender must be a member of the same household, or be related by blood or be in a position of authority over the victim and uses that authority to coerce the victim to submit, or be more than four years older. This is a Class C felony and carries a term of up to 10 years’ imprisonment.
- IC 709.8 Lascivious Acts with a Child. States that it is an offense for any person over the age of 16 to perform the following acts with a child designed to arouse or satisfy the sexual desires of either one, unless they are married to them: to fondle or touch to genitals of the child, to permit or cause the child to fondle the genitals of the other person. These are considered to be Class C felonies. Where the offender encourages a child to engage in sex or inflicts pain upon a child or to causes a child to do so to them, it is deemed to be a Class D felony.
- IC 709.11 Assault with Intent to Commit Sexual Abuse. States that any person who commits an assault with the intent to commit sexual abuse is guilty of a Class C felony where serious injury results. If any bodily injury occurs that is not serious, this is a Class D felony.
- IC 709.12 Indecent Contact with a Child. Defines as a crime an act where a person aged over 18 touches the inner thigh, groin, buttock, anus, or breast of the child or the clothing covering the area. It is also an offense for the offender to solicit or permit a child to touch one of these areas on the person. This also applies to a person 16 or 17 when the child in question is at least five years younger, or when the person solicits the child to commit an act prohibited under section 709.8. This is an aggravated misdemeanor.
- IC 709.14 Lascivious Conduct with a Minor. Defines as unlawful the coercion of a minor, by someone over 18, to undress or partially undress for the sexual satisfaction of either person. This is a serious misdemeanor.
- IC 709.15 Sexual Exploitation by a Counselor, Therapist, or School Employee. Defines the offense as a pattern of sexual conduct by a counselor or therapist with a patient who is emotionally dependant. The offense is a Class D felony. It is an aggravated misdemeanor where the patient is not emotionally dependant and it is a serious misdemeanor where the provision of mental services relationship has been terminated for a year. A school employee who engages in sexual conduct, as part of a scheme, with a student is guilty of a Class D felony. Where it is not part of a pattern or scheme, the school employee is guilty of an aggravated misdemeanor.
- IC 709.21 Invasion of Privacy – Nudity. This section states that it is an offense to knowingly and without consent view photographs or film of another person in full or partial nudity, where that person has an expectation of privacy. It is a serious misdemeanor.
- IC 710.2. Kidnapping in the First Degree. A person commits this offense when the person kidnapped, as a consequence of the crime, suffers serious injury or is intentionally subjected to torture or sexual abuse. This is a Class A felony.
- IC 710.5. Child Stealing. A person commits this offense when, knowing the person has no authority to do so, the person forcibly or fraudulently takes, decoys or entices away any child with intent to detain or conceal the child from his/her parents, unless the person is a family member rightfully taking custody of the child. An offense is a Class C felony.
- IC 710.10. Enticing a Minor. A person commits a Class C felony when he/she entices or attempts to entice a person believed to be under 13 years old, with intent to commit sexual abuse or sexual exploitation. A person commits a Class D felony when he/she entices or attempts to entice a minor believed to be under 16 years old, with intent to commit an illegal sex act or sexual exploitation. A person also commits a Class D felony when the person entices a person believed to be under 16 years old with intent to commit an illegal act upon him/her. It is an aggravated misdemeanor to attempt to entice a person believed to be under 16 without authority and with the intent to commit an illegal act upon him/her. Enticement includes the use of personal contact and communication through the Internet, social media, text messaging, instant messaging and electronic mail.
- IC 710A.1 Human Trafficking – Definitions. Defines the offense as, among other things, to recruit, harbor, transport, supply or obtain another person to engage in commercial sexual activity through the use of fraud, force or threat thereof. Where the victim is under the age of 18, the offense does not need to involve coercion, force or fraud.
- IC 710A.2 Human Trafficking. States, among other things, that anyone who engages in human trafficking or benefits from it where the victim is under the age of 18 is guilty of a Class C felony. Where the offender causes or threatens to cause physical injury to another person, this is aggravated to a Class B felony.
- IC 710A.2A. Solicitation of Commercial Sexual Activity. It is an offense to entice, coerce, recruit, or attempt any of these actions on a person under 18 years old, or a police officer representing himself/herself to be under 18 years old, to engage in commercial sexual activity. This is a Class D felony.
- IC 715.4. Prohibitions – Transmission and Use of Software. It is an offense to deceptively modify the internet proxy the owner or operator uses to access or search the Internet, the owner’s list of bookmarks used to access Internet sites, or the website that appears when the owner launches an Internet browser. It is also an offense to deceptively collect the use of keystrokes made by an owner or operator of a computer, personally identifiable information with data respecting all or substantially all the of the Internet sites visited by the users, or personal information from the person’s hard drive. It is an offense against this section to modify the owner or user’s Internet security settings, among other provisions.
- IC 716A.2. Transmission of Unsolicited Bulk Electronic Mail — Criminal Penalties. A person who uses a computer network with intent to falsify or forge electronic mail transmission information or other routing information, or knowingly sells or distributes computer software to electronic mail transmission information, among related provisions, is guilty of an aggravated misdemeanor. A person is guilty of a Class D felony when the person knowingly hires, employs, uses or permits a person under 18 years old to assist in the transmission of unsolicited bulk electronic mail.
- IC 728.2 Dissemination and Exhibition of Obscene Material to Minors. It is an offense for any person, other than the parent or guardian of the minor, to knowingly disseminate or exhibit obscene material to a minor, including posting it where a minor could see it. This is a serious misdemeanor.
- IC 728.3 Admitting Minors to Premises Where Obscene Material is Exhibited. Sets the penalty for selling, giving or providing a child with access to premises where obscene material is displayed as that of an aggravated misdemeanor. Selling, giving or providing a minor, who is not a child, with access to such a place is a serious misdemeanor.
- IC 728.12 Sexual Exploitation of a Minor. This section states that it is an offense to employ, use, persuade or knowingly permit a minor to engage in a prohibited sexual act or in the simulation of a prohibited sexual act with knowledge that the act may be photographed or recorded. The offense is deemed to be a Class C felony. Should a photograph or recording of the above be purchased (among other definitions) the crime is deemed to be an aggravated misdemeanor, and second or subsequent offense are Class D felonies. A person who knowingly promotes any visual material depicting a live performance of a minor engaging in a prohibited sexual act or in the simulation of such an act is guilty of a Class D felony, and the court may assess an additional fine of up to $25,000.
- IC 728.14. Commercial film and photographic print processor reports of depictions of minors engaged in prohibited sexual acts. A commercial film and photographic print processor who has knowledge or observes a visual depiction of a minor, who he/she should reasonably know is under 18 years old, engaged in a prohibited sexual act or simulation of such an act must report the material to the county attorney general as required by this section. Failure to report the material is a simple misdemeanor.
- IC 902.14 Enhanced Penalty – Sexual Abuse or Lascivious Acts with a Child. Decrees that a person commits a Class A felony when they commit a second offense involving any combination of sexual abuse in the second degree, sexual abuse in the third degree and lascivious acts with a child.