United States Federal



Population 0‑14


Internet Users


Facebook Users

* Statistics provided by CIA.gov, Internet World Stats and GSMA Intellligence

1969 – The Supreme Court ruling on Tinker v. Des Moines determined that students do not lose their First Amendment rights to free speech when on school grounds. In order to justify suppressing speech, school officials must prove that the conduct in question would “materially and substantially interfere” with the operation of the school. Fear of possible disruption is not grounds for limiting speech, absent of any actual interference.

1974 – The Family Education Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) was passed by Congress. FERPA protects the privacy of student education records, applying to all schools that receive funding from the US Department of Education. It gives parents certain rights regarding their children’s education records until their child is 18 years old. Parents and eligible students have the right to inspect and review the student’s education records, and can request that the school corrects any inaccurate or misleading information. Schools must have written permission from the parent or eligible student to release any information from the educational record.

1997 – The United Service Administrative Company (USAC) was designated by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to administer its E-rate program. E-rate helps schools and libraries obtain affordable broadband services by providing funding.

1999 – Schools and libraries must meet the safety criteria established by the Neighborhood Children’s Internet Protection Act, which covers broad issues like electronic messaging, disclosure of personal information and unlawful online behavior.

2000 – The Children’s Internet Protection Act (CIPA) was enacted by Congress. CIPA addresses concerns about children’s access to obscene or harmful Internet content and imposes requirements on schools and libraries that receive E-rate benefits. Under this law, schools and libraries must have Internet safety policies that block or filter access to images that are obscene, child pornography or otherwise harmful to minors. Schools must also include monitoring of minors’ online activity in their Internet safety policies and educate minors about appropriate online behavior, including cyberbullying awareness and response.

2008 – The Protecting Children in the 21st Century Act was passed, requiring each school to certify that “as part of its Internet safety policy, [it] is educating minors about appropriate online behavior, including interacting with other individuals on social networking websites and in chat rooms and cyberbullying awareness and response.”

2013 - President Obama launched the ConnectED initiative, which aimed to connect 99 percent of American K-12 students to high-speed broadband and wireless Internet by 2018. It called on the FCC to reform the E-rate program to meet this goal.

2014 – The FCC adopted the Second E-rate Modernization Order, with an aim to maximize options for schools and libraries seeking to purchase high-speed broadband access. It also increased the E-rate spending cap.

2016 – The Office of Educational Technology released a new National Educational Technology Plan. The report focuses on the need for equitable access to technology in schools. It has sections on learning, teaching, leadership, assessment and infrastructure.

Berkman Center for Internet & Society, Harvard University

The center examines the development of the Internet and the norms of behavior that have developed alongside it. It also researches legislation in this field and student privacy.

Common Sense Media

This nonprofit provides rating information for parents and kids on a wide variety of topics including movies, TV shows, book, games, websites and music. The rating system allows parents to make informed choices on the types of media that their children consume. The nonprofit also advocates on behalf of children on a range of issues, which include the educational impact of technology, online privacy and children’s health and development. The group’s Common Sense Education program provides teachers and schools with tools to help their students use technology for learning and life. The program has a K-12 Digital Citizenship curriculum and Graphite, an educational rating system.

Congressional Internet Caucus Advisory Committee

CICAC is a diverse group of public interest, nonprofit and industry groups working to inform policymakers and the public on important Internet-related policy issues and provide a forum for debate on these issues. Its annual ‘State of the Net’ Conference is the only Internet policy conference with more than 50 percent of Congressional staff and policymakers in attendance.


This organization, based in California, aims to educate parents and children on how to stay safe online and how to use new technologies in a safe and responsible way. It is the US host of Safer Internet Day and the founder of the One Good Thing campaign, which celebrates the ways in which people use connected technology to better society. The site also provides news and a forum for interactive discussions.

Consortium for School Networking (CoSN)

CoSN is a professional association for school district technology leaders. Its aim is to provide support and assistance to enable technology to improve teaching and learning in K-12 schools.


This website of the National Cable and Telecommunications Association provides parents with information concerning online safety and appropriate use of the Internet by their children, as well as tips for using online parental controls. The website also has educational content on media literacy.

Crimes Against Children Research Center (CCRC)

The center, operating with the University of New Hampshire, aims to combat crimes against children by providing quality research to the public, policy makers, law enforcement and child welfare practitioners. Its research focuses on topics such as child abduction, rape and sexual abuse.

CTIA Wireless Foundation

This nonprofit works to educate children, parents and teachers about how to use cell phones safely. Its Growing Wireless campaign aims to teach families about wireless safety, including cyberbullying, sexting and privacy.

Cyberbullying Research Center

The organization provides information about the nature, extent, causes and consequences of cyberbullying. It conducts research on cyberbullying throughout the US and provides resources geared toward educators, parents and teens.


This website is aimed at educators, providing resources that can be used to teach children about using the Internet safely. The majority of the content is available through a paid subscription service, and includes online workshops.

Darkness to Light

This group aims to end child sexual abuse by changing rules, systems and structures surrounding children. It encourages communities to discuss child sexual abuse and break taboos, address the need for education and enable adults to protect children. To do so, it provides prevention programs, online trainings and resources.

Digital Citizenship

Digital Citizenship is a concept designed for teachers, technology leaders and parents to help them teach their children to use technology appropriately. It focuses on whether or not children know how to behave rather than whether they know how to use the technology. The site promotes “Nine Themes of Digital Citizenship,” which include digital etiquette, digital literacy and digital law.

Disney Online Safety

This website provides information for parents on how to keep their children safe online. It gives advice on how to talk to children about online safety, the types of rules to implement for children and a list of resources for further information.

Embracing Civility in the Digital Age

ECDA promotes approaches that strive to ensure all young people become cyber-savvy and address youth risk. The website includes information on cyberbullying and how to recognize harmful behavior.

Enough is Enough

Enough is Enough is a nonprofit focused on limiting children’s exposure to obscene content and deals with the issues of child pornograpy, sexual predation, cyberbullying and sexting. It has an ‘Internet Safety 101’ program for parents.

Family Online Safety Institute (FOSI)

FOSI is an international, nonprofit organization which works to make the online world safer for kids and their families. FOSI convenes leaders in industry, government and the nonprofit sectors to collaborate and innovate new solutions and policies in the field of online safety.

Federal Bureau of Investigation

The FBI offers a guide for parents designed to help them understand online child exploitation. The agency also gives safety tips for young children, including guidelines for giving out personal information and what to do if feeling threatened by someone online.

Federal Communications Commission

The FCC is the main regulatory body for radio, television, wire, satellite, wireless and cable communications in the US. In 2015, the FCC adopted Open Internet rules, protecting free expression and innovation on the Internet. The new rules prohibit broadband providers from blocking access to legal content, impairing or degrading lawful Internet traffic, and favoring some lawful Internet traffic over others for compensation of any kind. Within the agency, the Wireline Competition Bureau works to ensure access to broadband and voice services for schools, libraries and low-income consumers.

Federal Trade Commission

The FTC provides guidance from the federal government on different kinds of Internet safety issues via OnGuard Online. The website covers social networking, phishing, identity theft, cyberbullying, wireless usage and parental controls, among other topics. In partnership with the Department of Education and the FCC, the FTC published Net Cetera guidelines for children’s online safety. This is a guide for parents provides information and guidance on how to help children navigate the Internet. The FTC is charged with ensuring compliance under the 1998 Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act. In December 2009 the FTC issued a report on violent and sexually explicit content accessed by minors online, and best practices for shielding children and teens.

Generation YES

This nonprofit works to empower students to help their teachers use technology in classrooms, supporting school-wide integration and closing the digital divide. GenYES has implemented programs in every state in the US.


iKeepSafe is an international nonprofit that provides resource for parents, teachers and children on Internet safety for children. It is part of the Internet Safety Coalition which is a broad partnership of governors and/or first spouses, attorneys general, public health and educational professionals, law enforcement, and industry leaders working together to promote online safety for children. Their mission is to give parents, educators, and policymakers the information and tools to teach children about safe and healthy use of technology.


This organization’s website provides visitors with information on Internet safety, security and privacy. It gives advice and product reviews to consumers and works closely with regulatory bodies and law enforcement agencies.

Innocence En Danger

This international NGO brings together activists, Internet specialists, policy makers and the media to raise awareness of the sexual exploitation of children online, and support child victims and their families.

Instituto Interamericano del Niño, la Niña y Adolescente (INN)

A specialized body of the Organization of American States (OAS) on children and adolescents policy that provides guidance to the different states on how they must assume protection.


INTERPOL is the world’s largest international police organization, with 190 member countries. Its mission is to enable police forces to collaborate globally to fight crime in the Internet age. Three areas of focus are crimes against children (with a focus on internet crimes and travelling sex offenders), cybercrime and human trafficking.


i-SAFE is a nonprofit foundation launched in 1998 with the aim of educating and empowering youth to make sure that they remain safe on the Internet. The foundation does so by educating children with a K-12 curriculum on how to avoid dangerous, inappropriate and unlawful behavior online. It aims to make compliance with privacy laws simple for schools.

kidSAFE Seal Program

This independent safety certification service was designed for websites and technologies aimed at children, including online games, educational services and social networks.


This firm provides K-12 learning solutions for teachers to incorporate into the classroom. It offers digital literacy lessons and digital content tools.


Microsoft provides a range of information on a variety of Internet safety topics from securing computers to teaching children how to navigate the Internet safely.

National Center for Missing and Exploited Children

This national nonprofit works in partnership with the Department of Justice and all levels of law enforcement to investigate and prosecute case of child sexual exploitation, online enticement, child sex trafficking and other crimes against children. It works to locate non-compliant sex offenders, prevent crimes against children, and support victims and families. The site also has a reporting hotline for illegal and offensive online content.

National Coalition to Prevent Child Sexual Abuse and Exploitation

This group, composed of member organizations and individuals, aims to prevent child sexual abuse. It focuses on protecting children’s health and dignity, and ensuring adult and corporate responsibilities to children, through advocacy work.

National Crime Prevention Council

The National Crime Prevention Council works to help people avoid becoming the victims of crime. It provides advice on cyberbullying, identity theft and Internet safety.

National Telecommunications and Information Administration, Department of Commerce

This agency advises the president on telecommunications and information policy issues. NTIA focuses on expanding broadband Internet access, expanding Internet use and ensuring that the Internet remains a place for innovation and economic growth. The Children’s Internet Protection Act of 2000 directed the NTIA to evaluate existing technology-protection measures and to decide whether they adequately address the needs of educational establishments. The agency’s website provides information on private sector initiatives and at a policy level the NTIA organizes the Online Safety Technology Working Group which aims to evaluate industry efforts to protect children online.

Net Family News

This is youth and online safety advocate Anne Collier’s blog, where she provides up-to-date information on Internet safety issues. She is the former co-director of ConnectSafely.org.

NetSmartz Workshop

An educational program of the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children, this website provides resources geared toward children, tweens, teens, parents and guardians, educators and law enforcement. Content includes videos, games, activities and presentations to engage youth. Information is available on topics like cyberbullying, sexting, predators, Internet safety and social networking.

Office of Educational Technology

Part of the Office of the Secretary of Education, this office develops the national educational technology policy and establishes a national vision for technology in education. The office has initiatives on connectivity, equity, open education, professional learning, privacy, and research and innovation. It offers technology resources for students and families, teachers, school administrators, and developers.

One Laptop per Child (OLPC)

A nonprofit organization launched by Massachusetts Institute of Technology Media Lab, whose aim to empower the world’s poorest children through education by providing a low cost laptops.


Operates under the Federal Trade Commission, the organisation provides online security tips and resources for children, parents, and educators.

Online Safety and Technology Working Group (OSTWG)

This group was established by the Protecting Children in the 21st Century Act. It is tasked with evaluating industry efforts, and making recommendations for children’s online safety and preventing online crimes against children.

Pew Research Center: Internet, Science & Tech

This think tank conducts research on how Americans use the Internet, social media and other forms of digital communication. It conducts public opinion polling and demographic research on these topics.

Rape, Abuse and Incest National Network (RAINN)

This national organization has information for child victims of sexual abuse and their parents. This includes lists of behaviors that constitute sexual abuse, the warning signs of abuse and resources for reporting abuse.

Safe Connects

An online safety program by Net Literacy, Safe Connects aims to reflect that the Internet is a positive place when digital safety rules are used and discuss the consequences of poor online choices. The program prioritizes using youth voices in its programing, and aims to make online safety training part of school culture rather than an occasional event.


This organization focuses on educating Americans to use the Internet safely and securely. It provides information for individuals, teachers and business owners, and is powered by the National Cyber Security Alliance.


A global cybersecurity awareness campaign organized by the collaboration of private companies, non-profits and government organizations with leadership provided by the National Cyber Security Alliance (NCSA) and the APWG to help all digital citizens stay safer and more secure online. NCSA, in partnership with the APWG, continue to lead the campaign. The Department of Homeland Security leads the federal engagement in the campaign.

The Online Mom

This website provides parents with information and tips on Internet safety, technology and education.

United States Distance Learning Association

This nonprofit association supports distance learning research, development and practice. It encompasses distance learning for K-12 education, higher education, government training, telemedicine and other sectors.


The United States Computer Emergency Response Team, part of the Department of Homeland Security’s National Cybersecurity and Communications Integration Center (NCCIC), works to improve the nation’s cybersecurity, actively manage online threats and keeping the public up-to-date on the recent developments in this sphere.

US Department of Education

The Department of Education was created in 1980 to establish policies on federal financial aid for education, and distribute and monitor those funds. It is also tasked with collecting data on schools, focusing national attention on education issues, prohibiting discrimination and ensuring equality in education.

US Department of Justice

The Department of Justice’s mission is to enforce the law and defend the country, ensure public safety, provide federal leadership on preventing and controlling crime, justly punish offenders, and ensure a fair justice system. The department has task forces focused on the exploitation of children, both online and otherwise, and prosecuting sex offenders.

Virtual Global Taskforce (VGT)

This international partnership was formed in 2003 by law enforcement agencies, NGOs and industry leaders. It aims to protect children from online sexual abuse, with the objectives of making the Internet safer, locating and helping at-risk children and holding perpetrators to account.

Ending the Torment: Tackling Bullying from the Schoolyard to Cyberspace (2016)

United Nations

This document reports key issues of bullying and how to better understand/ prevent bullying online and in classrooms.

Parents, Teens and Digital Monitoring (2016)

M. Anderson

This report found that parents monitor teens' online behavior, but do not often use technical means like parental controls.

Teens, Social Media and Technology Overview (2015)

A. Lenhart

This study found that smartphones facilitated a shift in teens' communication landscape.

Child sexual exploitation: a study of international comparisons (2015)

Cameron, G., Sayer, E. M., Thomson, L., and Wilson, S

The report focuses on the issue of Child Sexual Exploitation (CSE) in high income countries, including Sweden, Ireland, Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the USA.

Child Sexual Explitation: A study of International Comparison (2015)

The Virtual Staff College

This report presents a rapid desk review of international comparisons of CSE.

Global Research Project: A Global Landscape of Hotlines Combating Child Sexual Abuse Material on the Internet and an Assessment of Shared Challenges (2015)

Melissa Stroebe, Stacy Jeleniewski, PhD

This report examines hotlines combating Internet-facilitated Child Sexual Abuse Material.

The Realities of Cyber Parenting: What Pre-teens and Teens Are Up To Online (2015)

Family Online Safety Institute and Intel Security

This global study examined the online behaviors and social networking habits of pre-teens and teens aged between 8 and 16 years old, as well as looking at the concerns of parents.

Cyberbullying in South African and American schools: A legal comparative study (2015)

Department of Mercantile Law and the Centre for Labour Law, Faculty of Law, University of the Free State

This article first provides a general overview of cyberbullying and its impact on learners, schools and education by studying the extent of the phenomenon in both the United States and South Africa.

Parents, Privacy and Technology Use (2015)

Family Online Safety Institute and Hart Research Associates

The project explored how parents view the role that technology plays in their kids' lives, how they manage their kids' online activity, and how parents model good technology use.

Student Privacy: The Next Frontier (2015)

P. Haduong, S. Cortesi, L. Plunkett, D.T. Ritvo, U. Gasser

This report offers recommended next steps and prioritizes open issues in K-12 ed tech and connected learning space.

Grade Level: Tracking Online Education in the United States (2015)

I.E. Allen, J. Seaman

This report shows the findings on a survey on the state of online learning in the United States.

Child Sex Trafficking and Commercial Sexual Exploitation: Health Care Needs of Victims (2015)

J. Greenbaum, J.E. Crawford-Jakubiak

This paper focuses on the role pediatricians play in addressing the public health issues faced by child victims of commercial sexual exploitation.

Teens, Technology and Romantic Relationships (2015)

A. Lenhart, A. Smith, M. Anderson

The report examines the role of social media and mobile phones in teens' romantic lives.

Teens, Technology and Friendships (2015)

A. Lenhart, A. Smith, M. Anderson, M. Duggan, A. Perrin

The report finds that video games, social media and moblie phones play an integral role in teen friendships.

Defining Cyberbullying: Implications for Research (2015)

J.W. Patchin, S. Hinduja

The article reviews the essential elements of cyberbullying that distinguish it from other peer-to-peer online interactions, in an effort to inform current-day approaches to its study.

Characteristics of Child Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking Victims Presenting for Medical Care in the United States (2015)

S. Varmaa, S. Gillespieb, C. McCrackenb, V.J. Greenbaum

The purpose of study was to describe distinguishing characteristics of commercial sexual exploitation of children/child sex trafficking victims who present for health care in the pediatric setting.

The Sexual Exploitation of Girls in the United States: The Role of Female Pimps (2015)

D.E. Roe-Sepowitz, J. Gallagher, M. Risinger, K. Hickle

A case study analysis of 49 female pimps from federal, state, and local cases explored whether there were differences in the penalties given to females when compared with their male co-defendants.

Youth Internet Safety : Risks, Responses, and Research Recommendations (2014)

A. Farrukh, R. Sadwick, J. Villasenor

This paper documents an overview of existing online safety research across a wide range of categories, an analysis of major findings,an identification of knowledge gaps, and a set of recommendations for specific areas of research that can further the policy dialog regarding online safety.

Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Children in the United States (2014)

V.J. Greenbaum

This article provides a general overview of child sex trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation, describing the epidemiology of international and domestic exploitation, and reviewing the challenges of conducting research on this population.

Demanding Justice Report (2014)

Shared Hope International

The purpose of this report is to measure criminal justice outcomes for commercial child sexual exploitation.

Child Sexual Abuse: A Handbook For Health Care And Legal Professions (2014)

D.H. Schetky, A.H. Green

This book includes chapters such as "true and false allegations of child sexual abuse," "child pornography and prostitution," and "treatment of the sexually abused child."

Online Child Sexual Exploitation: Prevalence, Process, and Offender Characteristics (2014)

J.A. Kloess, A.R. Beech, L. Harkins

This review provides an overview of current knowledge and understanding of the process of sexual grooming and exploitation of children via the Internet.

Microsoft Computing Safety Index (2014)


This annual survey of more than 10,000 adults in 20 countries around the world creates the data for the MCSI, which measures the actions that consumers take to help keep themselves and their families safe online.

Children’s Rights in the Digital Age (2014)

A. Third, D. Bellerose, U. Dawkins, E. Keltie, K. Pihl

This study found unequal access to digital media among youth from 16 countries, among other key findings on children's digital usage.

Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children/Sex Trafficking (2014)

U.S. Department of Justice

This is a comprehensive paper by the U.S. Department of Justice on the issue of Commercial Sexual Exploitations of Children

Teen Identity Theft: Fraud, Security, and Steps Teens are Taking to Protect Themselves Online (2013)

Family Online Safety Institute

The report found that teens are increasingly concerned abotu the privacy of their personal information online.

Teens, Social Media, and Privacy (2013)

Mary Madden, Amanda Lenhart, Sandra Cortesi, Urs Gasser, Maeve Duggan, Aaron Smith, Meredith Beaton

The study uses some measures from previous studies conducted in 2006 and 2012, enabling the examination of trends in the information teens choose to share.

Microsoft Computing Safety Index (MCSI). (2013)


This annual survey of more than 10,000 adults in 20 countries around the world creates the data for the MCSI, which measures the actions that consumers take to help keep themselves and their families safe online.

Cyberbullying among Adolescents: Implications for Empirical Research (2013)

J.W. Patchin, S. Hinduja

This article focuses on social and psychological maladies linked to experiences with cyberbullying.

Child Trafficking and Commercial Sexual Exploitation: A Review of Promising Prevention Policies and Programs (2013)

Y. Rafferty

This article highlights promising policies and programs designed to prevent child trafficking and CSE by combating demand for sex with children, reducing supply, and strengthening communities.

Cyberbullying Myths and Realities (2013)

R.A. Sabella, J.W. Patchin, S. Hinduja

This article reviews empirical research to examine the accuracy of commonly-perpetuated claims about cyberbullying, revealing several myths about the nature and extent of cyberbullying that are being fueled by media headlines and unsubstantiated public declarations.

Confronting Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States (2013)

E.W. Clayton, R.D. Krugman, P. Simon

This book focuses on commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking of minors through the following lenses: the legal system, health care, support services, commerce and education.

Understanding the Relationship Between Proactive and Reactive Aggression, and Cyberbullying Across United States and Singapore Adolescent Samples (2013)

R.P. Ang, V.S. Huan, D. Florell

This study examined cyberbullying among adolescents across United States and Singapore samples.

Social Influences on Cyberbullying Behaviors among Middle and High School Students (2013)

J.W. Patchin, S. Hinduja

The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which peers, parents, and educators influence the cyberbullying behaviors of adolescents.

Worldwide Online Bullying Survey (2012)


This survey explored children’s experience of online bullying in 25 countries across the globe.

Global Digital Communication: Texting, Social Networking Popular Worldwide (2012)

J. Menasce Horowitz, K. Simmons, J. Poushter, C. Barker

The report is a part of the Pew Research Center's Global Attitudes Project, which conducts opinion surveys on subjects ranging from people's assessments of their own lives to their views about the current state of the world and important issues of the day.

Mobile Apps for Kids: Disclosures Still Not Making the Grade (2012)

Federal Trade Commission

This follow-up survey to one released earlier in 2012 assesses whether apps are disclosing key information to parents prior to their download.

Defining and Measuring Cyberbullying Within the Larger Context of Bullying Victimization (2012)

M. Ybarra, d. Boyd, J. Korchmaros, J. Oppenhiem

This research records the findings of a study involving children aged between six and seventeen.

The Online Generation Gap: Contrasting attitudes and behaviors of parents and teens. (2012)

Family Online Safety Institute and Hart Research Associates

This research explores parents' and teens' online behaviors and views of teens' online safety.

Online Profile and Reputations Study (2012)

Microsoft and Edelman Berland

Commissioned to coincide with Privacy Day 2012, the study measured the respones of nearly 3,000 children and adults on their online activities.

School-based Efforts to Prevent Cyberbullying (2012)

J.W. Patchin, S. Hinduja

This article examines the prevention strategies that appear promising in reducing the prevalence and seriousness of cyberbullying.

This article aims to shed light on some of the critical legal questions faced by school administrators by reviewing several legislative actions and court cases involving problematic offline and online student speech or expressions. (2012)

Microsoft and Edelman Berland

Commissioned to coincide with Privacy Day 2012, the study measured the respones of nearly 3,000 children and adults on their online activities.

Worldwide Online Bullying Survey. (2012)


This survey explored children’s experience of online bullying in 25 countries across the globe.

ICT in Primary Education (2012)

Ivan Kalaš, Haif E. Bannayan, Leslie Conery, Ernesto Lava, Diana Laurillard, Cher Ping Lim, Sarietjie Musgrave, Alexei Semenov, Márta Turcsányi-Szabó

Status of implementation of ICT in primary schools in Slovakia, Jordan, United States, Chile, United Kingdom, Hong Kong, South Africa, Russia, and Hugnary.

The Protection of Children Online (2012)

Kristina Irion

The report provides key findings and policy recommendations to keep children safe online as a follow up to the 2008 Seoul Ministerial Declaration on the Future of the Internet Economy.

Internet-Facilitated Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children: Findings From a Nationally Representative Sample of Law Enforcement Agencies in the United States (2011)

K.J. Mitchell, L.M. Jones, D. Finkelhor, J. Wolak

This report explores the variety of ways in which the Internet is used to facilitate the commercial sexual exploitation of children and provides national incidence estimates for the number of arrests involving such technology-facilitated crimes in 2006.

Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children and the Internet (2011)

Inter American Children’s Instirute

This is a report to the Organization of American States on the situation of the member states in the issue of commercial sexual exploitation and the impact of internet in their lives.

Teens, Kindness & Cruelty on Social Network Sites (2011)

Pew Research Center

This report, produced in partnership with FOSI and with the support of Cable in the Classroom, examines how teens navigate challenging interactions online. It looks at the privacy controls they use and the extent to which their parents were involved in their online activities.

The State of K-12 Cyberethics, Cybersafety and Cybersecurity Curriculum in the United States (2011)

National Cyber Security Alliance

The NCSA has tested the attitudes of K-12 schools on digital safety, security and ethics annually since 2008; this is their third report.

Mobile Education in the United States (2011)


This is one of a series of country specific reports from the GSMA which considers the demand for mobile education from the formal education sector perspective.

Safety and Security on the Internet Challenges and Advances in Member States (2011)

World Health Organization

Evaluation of public health threat presented by the Internet in every Member States.

Who Needs Parental Controls? A survey of awareness, attitudes and use of parental controls (2011)

Family Online Safety Institute and Hart Research Associates

This research's objective is to better understand parents' knowledge and attitudes toward online saefty, and their self-reported use of parental controls technologies or other tools for monitoring children's online activity across varous platforms.

Exploring the Digital Nation - Computer Use at Home (2011)

Economics and Statistics Assocation and National Telecommunications and Information Administration

This report analyzes broadband Internet adoption in the US

Sexting: A Typology (2011)

Crimes Against Children Researh Center

The CCRC reviewed and classified over 550 sexting cases obtained from law enforcement agencies to present this typology, which was inteneded to show the diversity of sexting incidents.

Cyberbullying: A Review of the Legal Issues Facing Educators (2011)

J.W. Patchin, S. Hinduja

This article aims to shed light on some of the critical legal questions faced by school administrators by reviewing several legislative actions and court cases involving problematic offline and online student speech or expressions.

2010 Norton Online Family Report (2010)


Gaps in child activity and guardian awareness may present areas of vulnerability for children to come in contact with harm online. The researchers interviewed nearly 10,000 adults and children in 14 countries to understand children's online behavior and guardians' perceptions and understanding of that activity.

Broadband Adoption and Use in America (2010)

J. Horrigan

This paper was produced by the FCC Omnibus Broadband Initiative (OBI) and is the first Working Paper providing context for and in support of the National Broadband Plan. The paper provides details of broadband use and adoption across the United States.

Generation M2: Media in the Lives of 8 to 18 year-olds (2010)

Kaiser Family Foundation

This research reports on the media usage habits of children.

2010 Norton Online Family Report (2010)

Norton by Symantec

The report reveals how children are spending more time online and have had more negative online experiences than parents realize. It highlights different approaches taken by families globally and uncovers the emotional impact of children’s negative online experiences.

Cyberbullying and Self-Esteem (2010)

J.W. Patchin, S. Hinduja

Based on data collected from approximately 2,000 middle-school students in one of the largest school districts in the United States, this report found that students who experienced cyberbullying, both as a victim and an offender, had significantly lower self-esteem than those who had little or no experience with cyberbullying.

Evaluation of Evidence-Based Practices in Online Learning: A Meta-Analysis and Review of Online Learning Studies (2010)

B. Means, Y. Toyama, R. Murphy, M. Bakia, K. Jones

This meta-analysis found that, on average, students in online learning conditions performed modestly better than those receiving face-to-face instruction.

2010 NCSA/Norton by Symantec Online Safety Study (2010)

National Cyber Security Alliance, Norton by Symantec

This study analyzes cybersecurity behaviors and perceptions of nearly 3,500 Americans. The study reveals a number of interesting perceptions on the part of the respondents, including that 90% consider that the responsibility for teaching safe and secure computer behavior lies with parents and that 44% of respondents stated their view that responsibility for keeping the Internet safe and secure falls to individual users.

Evaluating Children’s Advocacy Centers’ Response to Child Sexual Abuse (2008)

T.P. Cross, L.M. Jones, W.A. Walsh, M. Simone, D.J. Kolko, J. Szczepanski, T. Lippert, K. Davison, A. Cryns, P. Sosnowski, A. Shadoin, S. Magnuson

This report examined Child Advocacy Centers in Texas, focusing on medical exams, child protection, mental health services, and criminal justice outcomes, among other factors.

Morality in Cyberspace: A comparison of Chinese and U.S. youth’s beliefs about acceptable online behavior. (2008)

Linda A. Jackson, Yong Zhao, Wei Qiu, Anthony Kolenic III, Hiram E. Fitzgerald, Rena Harold and Alexander von Eye

This cross-cultural comparison of approximately 600 youth in China and 600 youth in the U.S. focused on the moral values, acceptability of a variety of morally questionable online behaviors, and the relationship between moral values and acceptability of online behaviors.

Enhancing Child Safety & Online Technologies: Final Report of the Internet Safety Technical Task Force to the Multi-State Working Group on Social Networking of State Attorneys General of the United States (2008)

Berkman Center for Internet & Society at Harvard University

This reprort examines the role and the promise of technologies to reduce the risk to minors of harmful contact and content on the Internet.

Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children: What Do We Know and What Do We Do About It? (2007)

J. Albanese

This paper evaluates existing efforts to fight commecial child sexual exploitation and proposes other possible solutions.

Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children: A Fact Sheet (2005)

National Center for Missing & Exploited Children

Informational paper on Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children with facts from different studies on child abuse in U.S., Canada and Mexico

U.S. /European Summit on Missing & Exploited Children (2005)

International Centre for Missing & Exploited Children

Participants from different governments, law enforcement, and nongovernmental organizations participated in the U.S. /European Summit on Missing & Exploited Children. They discussed successes and shortcomings of current efforts to address the global problem of missing and exploited children, and adopted a comprehensive Action Plan.

Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children In the U.S., Canada Federal and Mexico (2001)

Richard J. Estes, Neil Alan Weiner

Research on the patterns of CSE and CSEC in U.S., Canada Federal and Mexico.

Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children In the U.S., Canada and Mexico (2001)

Richard J. Estes, Neil Alan Weiner

Research on the patterns of CSE and CSEC in U.S., Canada and Mexico.

1973 – The Supreme Court ruled in Miller v. California that obscene materials do not receive First Amendment protections. The court established a three-part obscenity test in the ruling, which includes: “(a) whether ‘the average person, applying contemporary community standards’ would find that the work, taken as a whole, appeals to the prurient interest; (b) whether the work depicts or describes, in a patently offensive way, sexual conduct specifically defined by the applicable state law; and (c) whether the work, taken as a whole, lacks serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific value.”

1997 – In the Reno v. ACLU case, the Supreme Court ruled that the 1996 Communications Decency Act was overbroad and violated the First Amendment. The CDA’s regulations were a content-based blanket restriction of fre speech, as the act failed to clearly define indecent communications or limit its restrictions to particular times or individuals, provide supportive statements from an authority on the unique nature of Internet communications, or conclusively demonstrate that the transmission of offensive material is absent of any social value.

  • The Child Online Protection Act (COPA). became law in 1998 and was designed to shield children from accessing harmful content online. Repeated legal challenges to the law, on the argument that it was unconstitutional, have meant that it has never been enforced and in January 2009 the U.S. Supreme Court refused to hear appeals on a 2008 lower court ruling. The law is therefore highly unlikely to ever become enforced.
  • Protecting Children in the 21st Century Act (S. 49). Enacted in 2008, this law established the Online Safety and Technology Working Group (OSTWG), which is comprised of private sector experts in the field of online safety, as well as federal government employees. The OSTWG evaluates industry efforts to promote online safety for children through various means which included education, labeling, and parental control technology. It also reviews industry efforts to prevent and respond to criminal activity involving children and the Internet.
  • Child Safe Viewing Act (S. 602) (Pub.L. 110-452). This law aims to develop the next generation of parental control technology. It required the FCC (Federal Communications Commission) to conduct an inquiry which would examine the availability of, and how to encourage the use of blocking and filtering technology.
  • American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (H.R. 1) (Pub. L. 111-5). Congress appropriated $7.2 billion in funds to “seek to ensure that all people of the United States have access to broadband capability and shall establish benchmarks for meeting that goal.” The Department of Commerce and U.S. Department of Agriculture have been tasked with the responsibility of allocating these broadband stimulus funds through loans and grants to organizations that apply for these funds. The funds will be allocated by the National Telecommunications and Information Administration and Rural Utilities Service. Part of the direction of the Broadband Technology Opportunities Program (BTOP), which is within NTIA, is to “provide broadband education, awareness, training, equipment and support to schools, outreach organizations, and job creating facilities.”
  • Preventing Sex Trafficking and Strengthening Families Act (H.R. 4980) (Pub. L. 113-183). States that state foster care and adoption agencies must develop policies and procedures for identifying, documenting and determining services for youth in the agency’s care who the state believes is, or is at risk of being, a victim of sex trafficking. Sex trafficking cases must be reported to law enforcement, sex trafficking data must be included in the adoption and foster care analysis and reporting system and requires children to be located and responded to when they run away from foster care. Information on missing or abducted children must also be reported to law enforcement for entry into the National Crime Information Center (NCIC) FBI database and the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children.
  • Justice for Victims of Trafficking Act of 2015 (S. 178) (Pub. L. 114-22). This section amends the criminal code to impose an additional $5,000 fine on any person convicted of enslaving or trafficking persons, sexual abuse, sexual exploitation or another form of child abuse, transportation for illegal sexual activity or human smuggling in violation of immigration laws. These funds will be distributed to states and localities to combat trafficking, support and protect trafficking victims, develop and implement child abuse investigation and prosecution programs, and provide services for victims of child pornography. Trafficking victims can obtain benefits and services without an official certification on their status as a victim from the Department of Health and Human Services.
  • Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA) (Pub. L. 114-38). The intent of this law is to give parents control over what information is collected from the Internet use of their children who are under 13 years old. It applies to commercial websites and online services directed to children under 13 who collect, use or disclose personal information from children and operates of general audience websites that know they are collecting, using or disclosing information from children under 13. Operators covered by the rule must post privacy policies specifically with regard to children’s information, obtain verifiable parental consent before collecting children’s personal information, and give parents access to their child’s personal information to review or make deletions, among other measures
  • Cybersecurity Information Sharing Act of 2015 (H.R. 2029) (Pub. L. 114-113). This section defines a cybersecurity threat as an action, not protected by the First Amendment, on or through an information system that may result in an unauthorized effort to adversely impact the security, confidentiality or integrity of an information system. It aims to prevent breaches of consumer data by offering legal protections to companies that share information about threats with the government and other businesses.
  • International Megan’s Law to Prevent Child Exploitation and Other Sexual Crimes Through Advanced Notification of Traveling Sex Offenders (H.R. 515) (Pub. L. 114-119). This law directs the Secretary of Homeland Security to establish the Angel Watch Center within the Child Exploitation Investigations Unit of US Immigration and Customs Enforcement. This center will monitor the travel of child-sex offenders, and will track decisions on whether to notify other countries and other countries’ responses to notification. It will establish an annual review process and create a mechanism to receive complaints from child-sex offenders affected by notifications of destination countries. The center is required to regularly consult with nongovernmental organizations with experience in identifying and preventing child sex tourism and rescuing minor victims, governments of countries interesting in collaborating on the creation of an international sex offender travel notification system, and Internet service providers regarding technology to implement such as system.
  • Senate Resolution 81. This resolution expresses the sense of the Senate that children trafficked for sex in the United States should not be treated or regarded as child prostitutes because there is no such thing as a “child prostitute,” only children who are victims or survivors of rape and sex trafficking. It calls upon lawmakers, law enforcement, the media and the public to reframe child trafficking for sex as an act of violence against children. The resolution supports efforts to arrest and prosecute sex traffickers and buyers of children trafficked for sex, aims to support survivors of sex trafficking and raise awareness on the services they need, and end the demand for children in the commercial sex market.
  • Senate Resolution 377. This resolution directs the Senate Legal Counsel to bring a civil action to enforce a subpoena of the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations to the CEO of Backpage.com. A bipartisan report found evidence that Backpage.com edited adult advertising to conceal illegal sex trafficking activity. The resolution was approved unanimously.

1987 – The Child Exploitation and Obscenity Section (CEOS) within the US Department of Justice was established. The team of attorneys works to protect children and communities by enforcing federal criminal statutes on child exploitation and obscenity. They prosecute defendants who have violated these laws, provide advice and training to federal prosecutors and work on policy development.

1998 – The Internet Crimes Against Children (ICAC) Task Force program was launched. ICAC is a national network of coordinated task forces, designed to help federal, state and local law enforcement enhance investigations on offenders who sexually exploit children online. The program is funded by the Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

2002 – High Technology Investigative Unit (HTIU) was created to partner computer forensic specialists with CEOS attorneys. This unit investigates violators of child exploitation laws, provides training to law enforcement and government officials and participates in policy development.

2006 – The Adam Walsh Child Protection and Safety Act went into effect, establishing the following provisions to protect children from sex offenders. It imposes a fine and/or prison term of up to 10 years upon convicted sex offenders for failure to register or update registration as required. It requires the Attorney General to ensure access to the national crime information databases by the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children and government social service agencies tasked with protecting children. The law amends the Controlled Substances Act to prohibit the distribution of date rape drugs via the Internet. It prohibits the use of grant money for transitional housing to be used for sexually dangerous persons where they are likely to come into contact with minors. It revises record keeping requirements for producers of pornography to include digital images or computer-manipulated images. It establishes the Internet Safety Act, amending the federal criminal code to (1) impose criminal penalties for participation in a child exploitation enterprise; (2) increase penalties for registered sex offenders who commit a felony sex offense against a minor; and (3) prohibit the embedding of deceptive words or images in a website to deceive an individual, including a minor, into viewing obscene material.

The Adam Walsh Act also established the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act (SORNA), which provides a comprehensive set of minimum standards for sex offender registration and notification programs in the United States.

It set up the Dru Sjodin National Sex Offender Public Website (NSOPW). This partnership between the US Department of Justice and local governments works for the safety of adults and children. It provides a directory of sex offenders, searchable by name, address, zip code and county. The website also has education and prevention resources, as well as support for victims.

In addition, the law created the Office of Sex Offender Sentencing, Monitoring, Apprehending, Registering, and Tracking (SMART). This office provides jurisdictions with guidance on the implementation of the Adam Walsh Child Protection and Safety Act and provides technical support to local governments and other organizations. SMART also tracks legislative and legal developments regarding sex offenders and administers grant programs for the sex offender management process.

Also in 2006, the Department of Justice launched Project Safe Childhood. The project is led by the US Attorneys’ Offices and the Criminal Division’s CEOS, the project marshals federal, state and local resources to prosecute individuals who sexually exploit children and rescue victims.

2012 – The National Coalition to Prevent Child Sexual Abuse and Exploitation published a national plan for its namesake goals. Areas of focus included researching the issue, raising public awareness of the issue, ending demand for child sexual abuse, developing policies and practices, working on collaborative efforts, and fundraising.

2015 – The National Coalition to Prevent Child Sexual Abuse and Exploitation released its Six Pillars for Prevention: (1) strengthen youth serving organizations (YSOs) sexual abuse and exploitation prevention capacity; (2) support healthy development of children; (3) promote healthy relationships and sexuality education for children and youth; (4) end the demand for children as sexual commodities; (5) sustainable funds for prevention; and (6) prevent initial perpetration of child sexual abuse and exploitation.