2003 - To support the development of a commercially viable communications infrastructure in rural Uganda, Uganda Communication Commission established Rural Connectivity Development Fund (RCDF). The fund offered financial grants to schools and NGOs in ten districts who are willing to share their Internet Centres with the wider community, later, RCDF extended the grant to the remaining 32 district.
2004 - Microsoft Partners in Learning and the Ministry of Education and Sport launched a pilot program to start incorporating ICT into schools, targeting eight secondary schools and few primary schools. Uganda was able to provide approximately 10 computers donated PCs from Microsoft to 100 schools.
2005 - MTN and the Ministry of Education and Sports established partnership to launched the Ministry’s Schools Connectivity Programme in nine primary and secondary schools. Since then, MTN Uganda Foundation has been working strong in connecting schools to internet. In 2015, the communication company introduced ICT Clubs for Primary Schools initiative by donating 25 computers to 5 primary schools, as well as setting up a MTN Internet Bus where students and teachers were taken through experiential introductory training in computer and internet driven education. New Partnership for Africa Development (NEPAD) launched its first NEPAD e-School Uganda, since the unveilment of NEPAD e-School Initiative in 2003. The program aims to assist Government of Uganda to transform 50 per cent of its secondary schools into NEPAD e-Schools by 2015 and all primary and secondary schools within a further ten years of this date. In total more than 600 000 schools across Africa will enjoy the benefits of ICT and connectivity to the Internet upon completion of the project.
2006 - The Ministry of Information and Communications Technology was established to promote the development of Information and Communications Technology (ICT) infrastructure and services throughout Uganda. ProjectFOCUS was founded in Southern Uganda, its initiative is to educate, inspire, and empower local communities in Southwestern Uganda and the United States.
2009 - United Nations High Commissioner of Refugees (UNHCR) launched the Community Technology Access (CTA) project in partnership with Microsoft and PricewaterhouseCoopers. The CTA program utilizes information and ICTs to provide expanded learning and employment opportunities for refugees. The Nakivale CTA center in Uganda has served more than 53,000 refugees.
2010 - The East African Community (EAC) has partnered with One Laptop per Child (OLPC), a nonprofit organization launched by Massachusetts Institute of Technology Media Lab, to provides laptops to children in Tanzania, Rwanda, Kenya, Uganda, and Burundi. Ericsson, Earth Institute at Columbia University, and Millennium Promise have launched the ‘Connect to Learn’ initiative to address some of the challenges relating to secondary education access and quality, particularly among the girls, by providing scholarships and bringing ICT to schools in remote, resource-poor parts around the world, including Uganda, over mobile broadband.
2011 - Through their Badiliko project, the British Council and Microsoft are working together to introduce ICT to children by setting up 80 digital hubs in 6 African Countries, including Uganda. The project aims to give teachers, students and the wider community access to ICT, as well as train teachers in leadership and innovative teaching practices to make the best use of the IT equipment for transforming student learning.
2012 - One Global Economy (OGE), who helps increase access to ICT content and training for low income communities, held a stakeholders engagement with local NGOs in Kampala. It is currently developing the Uganda Beehive, which offers information on health, jobs, education, governance, environment, and internet safety in both Luganda and English.
2015 - The Second National Development Plan 20015/16 - 2019/20 (NDPII) was released by the Ministry of Information and Communications Technology (MoICT), building on the achievements registered under the first National Development Plan (NDPI) 2010/11 - 2014/15. While there was no specific update on development of ICT in schools, the second plan reported an increase in primary to secondary school transition rate from 73% to 80% and Net Secondary Completion rate increase from 36% to 50%, as well as registered significant progress in better access to ICT infrastructure and its usage. Development and implementation of ICT training curriculum at all levels of the education system continuing to be one of many country’s objectives. UConnect has launched Life-Long E-Learning for Girls and Women Project where it plans to provide computers to NGOs that work with girls and women. Google launched the second phase of their Project Link in Uganda. By setting up 120 new Wi-Fi “hot zones,” Google has open up public Wi-Fi access across the capital. Currently, Google is working to expand its services within cafes, businesses, and private residences.
2016 - Uganda celebrated Safer Internet Day where NITA-U unveiled the Online Safety Educational Toolkit, which it developed in collaboration with Internet Society Uganda, to educate students on how to recognize online and offline potential internet risks.
Africa Child Online Protection Education & Awareness Center (ACOPEA)
The center focuses on education and awareness across Africa and the provision of mechanisms to report abuse and protect the rights of citizens in cyberspace.
African Network for the Prevention and Protection against Child Abuse and Neglect (ANPPCAN) Uganda
ANPPCAN is a pan African network that promotes child rights and child protection in Africa, including Uganda. The regional office offers psychological child support, policy advocacy and a forum for exchange of research and information on the problems affecting Ugandan children today.
A non-profit organization that operates as a national resource center on child abuse and neglect and children’s rights. It provides information and technical expertise on child protection and child rights issues, carry out research on emerging children’s issues and lobby governments, donors, other NGOs and communities on behalf of children.
An organization that works to eliminate child prostitution, child pornography and the trafficking of children for sexual purposes.
Global e-Schools and Communities Initiative (GeSCI)
Part of the UN ICT task-force, focused on ICT education across Africa and the developing world. Provides technical and research assistance to e-learning programs.
A non-profit organization made up of over 40 schools and youth organizations in Uganda. Empowers teachers and young people to work together online using the Internet and other new communications technologies.
Internet Society Uganda
The chapter promotes an open development, evolution, and use of the internet for the the benefit of all people in Uganda, including its education sector.
INTERPOL is the world’s largest international police organization, with 190 member countries. Its mission is to enable police forces to collaborate globally to fight crime in the Internet age. Three areas of focus are crimes against children (with a focus on internet crimes and travelling sex offenders), cybercrime and human trafficking.
ITU Development Sector, Africa
ITU-D fosters international cooperation and solidarity in the delivery of technical assistance and in the creation, development and improvement of telecommunication and ICT equipment and networks in developing countries.
Ministry of Education and Sports (MoES)
The ministry is responsible for all primary and secondary education in Uganda. It operates various initiatives of ICT in the education sector.
Ministry of Information and Communication Technologies (MoICT)
The Ministry’s objective is to provide strategic and technical leadership, overall coordination, support and advocacy on all matters of policy, laws, regulations and strategy for the ICT sector.
National Information Technology Authority - Uganda (NITA -U)
An autonomous statutory body established under the NITA-U Act 2009, to coordinate and regulate Information Technology services in Uganda. It is under the general supervision of the Ministry of Information and Communication Technology (MoICT).
NEPAD e-Africa Programme
The program works in the area of technology to pursue cross-sector initiatives so that ICT is developed and used in all social sectors, e-services are developed and Africa is digitally competitive.
One Laptop per Child (OLPC)
A nonprofit organization launched by Massachusetts Institute of Technology Media Lab, whose aim to empower the world’s poorest children through education by providing a low cost laptops.
Chicago-based nonprofit organization that undertakes a variety of projects aimed to better the lives of people in Uganda through art and practical assistance.
Save the Children Uganda
One of the largest child-focused non governmental organisations in Uganda, Save the Children strives to develop and implement durable solutions that will benefit children and their communities including improving health care systems, increasing access to quality basic education and creating capacity for preparedness and response to emergencies.
A non-profit organization, established in 1997, works with Uganda education institutions in setting up Information Communication Technology (ICT) facilities and developing technical and pedagogical capacity necessary to use ICT to enhance teaching and learning.
Terre des Hommes Netherlands
This NGO focuses on stopping child sexual exploitation, child labor, child abuse and child trafficking in Asia, East Africa and Europe.
Established in 1995, the organization helps students and teachers in Uganda to acquire and share knowledge and information through e-learning technologies.
Uganda Communications Commission (UCC)
The Commission is responsible for development of a modern communications sub‐sector and infrastructure in Uganda. Through their Rural Communications Development Fund (RCDF) the Commission provides support to the Ministry of Education and Sports to increase access and usage of ICT in schools.
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Education in Sub-Saharan Africa (2015)Peter Wallet
This document presents the current status of the Information and communication technologies in Education in the Sub-Saharan region.
Second National Development Plan 2015/16 - 2019/20 (2015)Ministry of Information and Communicaiton Technology
Second National Development Plan for Uganda
REPORTING, TRACKING, REFERRAL AND RESPONSE (RTRR) GUIDELINES ON VIOLENCE AGAINST CHILDREN IN SCHOOLS (2014)Ministry of Education and Sports
All forms of violence against children in schools are unacceptable; creating a violence free learning environment is a shared responsibility
Small World, Big Responsibility: The UK’s role in the global trade in children (2012)Erika Hall, Phillippa Lei
This report preset information on the different forms of child exploitation. Its purpose is to raise awareness to this global issue.
ICT Policies, Strategies, and Inisiatives Put in Place in Uganda (2010)The National Information Technology Authority‐Uganda
ICT Policies, Strategies, and Inisiatives for Uganda for inter-sessional panel of the United Nation Commission on Science and Technology Development
ECPAT Global Monitoring Report: Uganda (2007)ECPAT
Report on the status of action against commercial sexual exploitation of children
Global Monitoring Report Uganda (2007)ECPAT
Report on the status of action against commercial sexual exploitation of children
This section contains details of the country’s laws as they relate to sexual offenses, children and the use of the Internet in the commission of criminal activity. Where possible, sentence details have been given, including whether an increased custodial penalty is imposed where the victim is a child.
The age of consent for sexual activity in Uganda is defined by Section 129 of the Penal Code as being eighteen years of age.
- Section 123, Penal Code. Definition of Rape. Defines the crime of rape, which is described as having unlawful sexual intercourse with a woman or girl without her consent, or with her consent, if the consent is obtained by force, means of threat, intimidation, fear of bodily harm, or by means of false representations as to the nature of the act, or, in the case of a married woman, by personating her husband.
- Section 124, Penal Code. Punishment of Rape. States that anyone who commits the offense of rape is liable to the death sentence.
- Section 125, Penal Code. Attempt to Commit Rape. This section states that anyone who attempts to commit rape is guilty of a felony and is liable to imprisonment for life.
- Section 126, Penal Code. Abduction. Defines the crime of taking a person away or detaining them against their will, with the intent to marry or perform sexual intercourse, or to cause them to marry or have sexual intercourse with another person. It is also an offense to unlawfully take another person under the age of eighteen out of the custody of the parent(s) or person with lawful care or charge over them. The offense is punishable by imprisonment for up to seven years.
- Section 128, Penal Code. Indecent Assault etc. This section states that anyone who unlawfully and indecently assaults any woman or girl is guilty of a felony and liable to imprisonment for fourteen years. The section also states that it is no defense to a charge for an indecent assault on a girl under the age of eighteen years to prove that she consented to the act. With the intent to indecently assault a woman or girl, it is deemed a misdemeanor to insult the victim’s modesty by uttering any word, making any gesture or exhibiting any object. This is punishable by imprisonment for one year.
- Section 129, Penal Code. Defilement of Persons under Eighteen Years of Age. Defines the crime of defilement as performing a sexual act with another person who is below the age of eighteen. This is deemed to be a felony and is punishable by life imprisonment. Anyone who attempts to defile a person under the age of eighteen also commits an offense and is liable to imprisonment for up to eighteen years. This section also states that anyone who attempts defilement in certain circumstances is guilty of a felony called aggravated defilement and is liable to the death sentence. These circumstances are: where the victim is below the age of fourteen; where the offender to his/her knowledge is infected with HIV/AIDS; where the offender is the parent or guardian, or a person in authority over the victim; where the victim is a person with a disability; where the offender is a serial offender.
- Section 131, Penal Code. Procuring. This section states that it is an offense to procure a girl or woman who is under the age of 21 in order to have sexual intercourse with another person or persons, to become a common prostitute, or to leave Uganda with the intent that she may become a prostitute in a brothel elsewhere. This offense is punishable by imprisonment for seven years. The section also states that a person cannot be convicted of any of the offenses defined in this section upon the uncorroborated testimony of one witness only.
- Section 132, Penal Code. Procuring Defilement of Woman by Threats, etc. This section states that it is a misdemeanor to procure or attempt to procure any girl or woman by threat or intimidation, or by false pretense or representation, in order to have sexual intercourse, either in Uganda or elsewhere. It is also illegal to apply, administer to, or cause to be taken any drug, matter or thing by a girl or woman, with the intent to stupefy or overpower the victim and hence enable any person to have sexual intercourse with her. The section also states that no person shall be convicted of an offense under this section upon the uncorroborated testimony of one witness only.
- Section 133, Penal Code. Householder, etc. permitting defilement of girl under the age of eighteen. This section states that it is a felony to be the owner or occupier of or act or assist in the management of a premises that has any role in inducing a girl under the age of eighteen to have sexual intercourse with a man, whether intended to be with one man in particular, or any men generally. This act is punishable by imprisonment for five years.
- Section 134, Penal Code. Detention with Sexual Intent. Defines the offense of unlawfully detaining another person against their will for the purpose of sexual intercourse. A person shall be deemed to have detained a victim if the offender withholds the victim’s personal clothes or property, or where clothes have been lent or otherwise supplied to the victim, threatens them that they cannot remove them from the premises, for the purpose of keeping them detained. The section also states that no legal proceedings shall be taken against any person unlawfully detained for taking away or being found in possession of any such clothes which were necessary to enable the victim to leave the place or brothel where they were held. This crime is punishable by imprisonment for seven years. Where a person is in custody, any person with the authority to detain and any inmate or other person who procures, participates in, compels, facilitates or has unlawful sexual intercourse with the detained person, commits an offense punishable by death.
- Section 136, Penal Code. Person Living on Earnings of Prostitution. This section states that anyone who knowingly lives, wholly or in part, on the earnings of prostitution, or anyone who solicits or importunes for immoral purposes commits and offense and is liable to imprisonment for seven years. A person shall be deemed to be knowingly living on the earnings of prostitution if they live with, or are habitually in the company of, a prostitute, or if they have exercised control, direction or influence over the movements of a prostitute in such manner as to show that the offender is aiding, abetting or compelling the prostitution.
- Section 137, Penal Code. Brothels. States that anyone who keeps a house, room, set of rooms or place of any kind for the purposes of prostitution commits an offense and is liable to imprisonment for seven years.
- Section 138, Penal Code. Definition of Prostitute and Prostitution. Defines the term ‘prostitute’ as a person who, in public or elsewhere, regularly or habitually holds himself or herself out as available for sexual intercourse or other sexual gratification for monetary or other material gain.
- Section 139, Penal Code. Prohibition of Prostitution. This section constitutes that anyone who practices or engages in prostitution commits an offense and is liable to imprisonment for seven years.
- Section 140, Penal Code. Conspiracy to Defile. Defines the offense of conspiring with another person to induce any woman or girl, by means of false pretence or other fraudulent means, to permit any man to have sexual intercourse with them. The offender is guilty of a felony and will be punished by imprisonment for three years.
- Section 144, Penal Code. Knowledge of Age of Female Immaterial. States that, in the case of any of the offenses committed with respect to a woman or girl under a specified age, it is irrelevant that the accused person did not know that the woman or girl was under that age, or believed that she was not under that age, except as otherwise expressly stated.
- Section 145, Penal Code. Unnatural Offenses. Defines the offense of having anal intercourse with a person or permitting a male to have anal intercourse with him/her. The punishment for this offense is imprisonment for life.
- Section 146, Penal Code. Attempt to Commit Unnatural Offenses. This section states that anyone who attempts to have anal intercourse with a person is guilty of a felony and is liable to imprisonment for seven years.
- Section 147, Penal Code. Indecent Assault on Boys under Eighteen. States that anyone who unlawfully and indecently assaults a boy under the age of eighteen commits a felony and is liable to imprisonment for fourteen years.
- Section 148, Penal Code. Indecent Practices. This section states that it is an offense to commit any act of gross indecency with another person, to procure another person to commit any act of gross indecency with him or her or to attempt to procure the commission of any such act by any person with himself or with another person, in public or private. The offender is liable to imprisonment for seven years.
- Section 159, Penal Code. Child Stealing. States that anyone who, with intent to deprive a parent or guardian of a child under the age of fourteen years of the possession of such child, forcibly or fraudulently takes or entices away, or detains the child, or receives or harbors the child, knowing that it has been taken, enticed away or detained, is guilty of a felony and liable to imprisonment for seven years.
- Section 179, Penal Code. Definition of Libel. Defines the offense of unlawfully publishing any defamatory matter concerning another person, by print, writing, painting, effigy, or by any means other than solely by gestures, spoken words, or other sounds, with intent to defame that other person.
- Section 180, Penal Code. Definition of Defamatory Matter. States that defamatory matter is matter likely to injure the reputation of a person by exposing him to hatred, contempt or ridicule, irrespective of whether the person being defamed is living or dead.
- Section 181, Penal Code. Definition of Publication. States that a person publishes a libel if he causes the print, writing, painting, effigy or other means by which the defamatory matter is conveyed to be dealt with, either by exhibition, reading, recitation, description, delivery, or otherwise, so that the defamatory meaning becomes known or is likely to become known to the victim or any other person. The section also states that it is not necessary for libel that a defamatory meaning should be directly or completely expressed, and it suffices if its meaning can be collected either from the alleged libel itself or from any extrinsic circumstances.
- Section 182, Penal Code. Definition of Unlawful Publication. States that any publication of defamatory matter concerning another person is unlawful, unless the matter is true and it was for the public benefit that it should be published, or it is privileged on other grounds mentioned in this code.
- Section 22, Penal Code. General Punishment for Misdemeanors. This section states that if there is no punishment specifically provided for any misdemeanor in this Code, it is punishable with imprisonment for no more than two years.
- Article 23, Computer Misuse Act 2011. Child Pornography. This article states that anyone who produces for the purposes of its distribution, offers, makes available, distributes, transmits, procures, or possesses child pornography on a computer system commits an offense. It is also unlawful to provide sexually explicit images to a child. The punishment for these offenses is a fine of no more than 360 currency points or imprisonment for a maximum of fifteen years, or both. Child pornography in this section includes pornographic material that visually depicts a child or a person appearing to be a child engaged in sexually suggestive and explicit conduct, as well as realistic images representing children engaged in such conduct.
- Article 24, Computer Misuse Act 2011. Cyber harassment. Defined as using or knowingly allowing someone else to use a computer or electronic communication device to make obscene or indecent requests or suggestions, or to threaten physical harm to person or property. This offense is punishable by a fine not exceeding seventy two currency points or imprisonment not exceeding three years or both.
- Article 25, Computer Misuse Act 2011. Offensive communication. This article states that is is a crime to willfully and repeatedly use electronic communication to disturb or attempt to disturb the peace, quiet or right of privacy of any person with no purpose of legitimate communication (whether or not a conversation ensues). This offense is punishable by a fine not exceeding twenty four currency points or imprisonment not exceeding one year or both.
- Article 26, Computer Misuse Act 2011. Cyber stalking. This article states that it is a crime to willfully, maliciously, and repeatedly use electronic communication to harass or threaten another person or a member of that person’s immediate family. This offense is punishable by a fine not exceeding one hundred and twenty currency points or imprisonment not exceeding five years or both.
- Regulation of Interception of Communications Bill, 2010. Requires telecommunication providers to obtain every customer’s full name, residential address, business address, postal address and identity number, and when the customer is a business, its business name and address and the manner in which it is incorporated or registered. In addition, service providers have to install hardware and software facilities and devices to enable interception of communications at all times.
2009 - National Information Technology Authority-Uganda (NITA-U) was established by the NITA-U Act 2009, under the supervision of the Ministry of Information and Communication Technology (MoICT), to regulate internet technology services and enforce safe and productive internet use.
2011- Uganda developed a National Information Security Strategy to address challenges with online privacy and safety. UNICEF Uganda launched U-Report that allows citizens to speak-out on what is happening in their communities through free SMS social monitoring tool. It is designed to address issues that people care about and give young people a voice. The Government of Uganda enacted Computer Misuse Act 2011 that contains provisions against cyber bullying, cyber stalking and child pornography.
2013 - With support from UNICEF, Ministry of Education and Sport (MoES) conducted a study on child protection, safety and security issues for children in Uganda primary and secondary schools. Based on the recommendations of this study, MoES produced Reporting, Tracking,Referral and Response (RTRR) Guidelines to Violence Against Children in Schools. Internet Society launched a Promoting Child Online Safety project in Uganda, which promotes child online safety by educating children, teachers and parents at three urban schools; develops a user guide and advocates for sound policies that ensure Internet safety.
2014 - ITU and Uganda Communications Commission (UCC) held Africa Child Online Protection (ACOP) conference in Kampala, Uganda with the theme “Empowering the Future Digital Citizens.” The conference provided a platform to discuss challenges and identify solutions related to adopting regional approaches on child online safety. A multi-sectoral working group on Child Online Protection has been put in place centered at the Ministry of Internal Affairs with the main purpose of educating all categories of internet users including children on responsible use as well as creating awareness among key stakeholders and duty bearers. A four-day Interpol ‘cybercrime investigation’ course took place in Rwanda. All Interpol Zone V countries, including Uganda, participated in the training, which covered various cyber crime investigation areas like social media investigation and how to preserve and report online data.
2015 - Internet Watch Foundation (IWF) and the Government of Uganda launched a IWF Portal for Ugandan citizens to report child sexual abuse images and videos. Internet Society Uganda published their Child Online Safety in Uganda Report, reporting on their Promoting Child Online Safety in Uganda Project that began in 2013. The project aimed at promoting online child safety in Uganda through adopting a multi-stakeholder approach. Main project beneficiaries include young children in schools, teachers, parents, and policy makers and children activists in Uganda. MoICT launched a project for the development of the National Cybersecurity Strategy for Uganda.