2003 - In accordance with the National Strategy of Economic, Political and Cultural Development of Turkmenistan 2020, the strategy for the education sector is prioritized on modernization of education institutions for the needs of the Turkmen economy and increase the its competitiveness in the world market. The government will continue equipping educational institutions with computers, increase the number of computer classes, as well as arrange training of appropriate specialists on a free-of-charge basis. In addition, the government has been opening internet cafes to introduce ICT technology into the lives of the Turkmen people,
2006 - In partnership with the Ministry of Education, UNICEF introduced Child Friendly Schools (CFS) global initiative in Turkmenistan, which improves school facilities with up-to date technology that are widely recognized to enhance learning, boost students’ and teachers’ morale, increase motivation, modernize educational methods (interactive self-learning) and enable teachers to focus on facilitating learning rather than on confronting problems caused by dated systems. Through the program, UNICEF has provided training in teaching methods using modern technology to around 800 of the country’s teachers. The the second Country Programme Action Plan for 2010-2015 involves in strengthening the CFS development strategies and expansion of the programme to a larger number of schools nationwide. As of 2014, the program has focused on 26 Child Friendly Model Schools in Turkmenistan.
2008 - The Tech Age Girls (TAG) program was implemented by IREX with support from Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OCSE), Peace Corps, USAID, and US Department of State to develop information technology (IT) skills of young female leader. The program addresses the under representation of women in the IT field and promotes the online presence of girls’ voices in local languages.
2009 - In partnership with USAID, IREX has completed the Internet Access and Training Program (IATP). Initiated in 1995, the program promoted internet usage and information access by setting up IATP centers in over 250 locations in 11 Eurasian countries, including five in Turkmenistan. In addition, IATP staff created over a dozen training modules, covering basic computer literacy, Web design, internet research, blogging, and wiki creation.
2010 - The United Nations developed common strategic plan, the United Nations Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF) for Turkmenistan 2010-2015. The plan focuses on implementation of reforms in human rights, education, local development and governance, electoral and constitutional reform, Information and Communications Technology, and economic development.
2012 - The United Nations Economic and Social Council (UNESC) held a seminar on information and communication technology policy and legal issues in Ashgabat. The seminar was attended by Turkmenistan’s deputy ministers, chairmen, deputy directors and secretaries from ministries and institutions.
2013 - Turkmen Government adopted the National Education Law that modernizes the national educational system and develops science to the level of the developed states in the higher educational institutions. The intensive construction of new children’s preschool institutions, secondary schools and higher educational institutions is being carried out throughout the country. The latest information and communication technologies have been introduced into the educational system and teaching institution have been equipped with computers and multimedia in order to raise the quality and effectiveness of teaching process.
2014 - The United States Agency for International Development (USAID), in collaboration with IREX, has completed the Promotion of Information and Communication Technology Project (PICTT). Began in 2009, the project supported the development and institutionalization of the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Turkmen higher education institutions. The program has trained over 1,000 faculty, students, and researchers on ICT skills and has increased the number of ICT training courses available in Turkmen and Russian languages.
2015 - UNESCO Asia and the Pacific Regional Bureau for Education organized the Central Asia Symposium on ICT in Education (CASIE) as a sub-regional platform for the Member States (Republic of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Mongolia, Republic of Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Republic of Uzbekistan) to brainstorm possible solutions for integrating technologies into the education systems and teachers’ education. All participating member states and international experts convened to formulate a long-term (3 to 5 years) strategic action plan for the sub-region to achieve the effective integration of ICT in education.
International Research and Exchanges Board (IREX)
An international nonprofit organization provides leadership and innovative programs to promote positive lasting change globally. They enable local individuals and institutions to build key elements of a vibrant society: quality education, independent media, and strong communities. Their program activities include conflict resolution, technology for development,gender, and youth.
Committee on the Rights of the Child Reviews 12 countries’ Child Rights Records (2015)OHCHR
This report reviews 12 States’ actions based on the obligations to the Convention of the Rights of the Child and its optional protocols
“A World Fit for Children”: Turkmenistan Report (2008)Government of Turkmenistan
Report on modernization of education sector in Turkmenistan
Meta-survey on the Use of Technologies in Education in Asia and the Pacific (2003)Glen Farrell, Cédric Wachholz
This study identifies and analyses the different practices in the use of ICTs in education in Asia and the Pacific. it discusses countries’ policies, challenges and successful ICT integration in the region.
The age of majority in Turkmenistan is eighteen, the age of consent for sexual activity is sixteen. The legal age of consent for marriage is sixteen.
Turkmenistan’s Criminal Procedure Code was revised in 2010, reducing maximum sentences for the most serious crimes from 25 to fifteen years and introducing fines instead or imprisonment for some offenses.
- Article 4, Law on Education. This Article states that all citizens are guaranteed access to education regardless of their nationality, race, sex, origin, property and official status, place of residence, language, religion, political opinion or party affiliation or lack of affiliation to any party, as well as their age and health.
- Article 17, Law on Education. General requirements for the organization of educational activities. This Article states that (among other things) educational institutions will implement educational programs by using a range of educational technologies, including distance education through the use of IT networks to enable the interaction of students and teachers in remote mode, as well as e-learning, based on online and offline electronic content, using the ICT for its processing and transmission via the Internet.
- Article 30, Law on Education. Skills upgrading and retraining. This section specifically states that teachers are to receive training to update their skills in light of advances in science and technology, as well as international practices.
- Article 134, Criminal Code. Rape. The article states that rape, sexual intercourse with a physical violence, threat of violence, as well as with use of a helpless condition of a minor, shall be punished by five to fifteen years of imprisonment.
- Article 136, Criminal Code. Satisfaction of sexual needs in perverted forms. The article states that satisfaction of sexual needs in perverted forms with physical violence, threat of its use, as well as with use of a helpless condition of a minor shall be punished by imprisonment for a term of five to ten years.
- Article 139. Involvement in prostitution. The article states that any engagement in prostitution shall be punished with correctional labor for up to two years, or imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years.If the act is committed in respect of a minor shall be punished by imprisonment for a term of three to eight years.
- Article 141, Criminal Code. Procuring. The article states that persuasion someone to practice prostitution, shall be punished by imprisonment for a term up to five years with confiscation property.
- Article 143, Criminal Code. Sexual intercourse with a person under the age of sixteen. The article states that any involvement in sexual intercourse with a person under sixteen years of age, shall be punished by imprisonment for a term not exceeding three years.
- Article 144, Criminal Code. Sexual Abuse. The article states that any indecent assault without violence is committed against a person who has not attained the age of sixteen, shall be punished by imprisonment for a term not exceeding three years.
- Article 333, Criminal Code. Breach of algorithm, electronic computer software, databases and integral microcircuit topology legal protection. The article states that production of other’s algorithms, electronic computer software, databases and integral microcircuit topologies under one’s name, as well as illegal reproduction or spread of those products are punished with fine from twenty to forty average monthly wages or refinery works within up to one year.
- Article 334, Criminal Code. Unauthorized access to computer information. The article states that unauthorized access to law protected computer information in the electronic computers, their systems, networks or on the machine carriers resulted in erasing, blocking, modifying, copying information or disturbing the work of electronic computers, their system or network is punished with fine from fifteen to thirty average monthly wages or refinery works within up to one year. The same action performed by a group of persons or a person abusing his official position and having an access to electronic computers, their system or network is punished with fine from twenty-five to seventy-five average monthly wages or refinery works within up to two years.
- Article 335, Criminal Code. Production, use and spread of detrimental electronic computer software. The article states that production of detrimental electronic computer programs or introduction of changes into current ones resulted in erasing, blocking, modifying, copying information or disturbing the work of electronic computers, their system or network, as well as use or spread of such programs are punished with fine from twenty-five to seventy-five average monthly wages, refinery works within up to two years or imprisonment up to one year.
Actions of the Convention on the Rights of the Child: Turkmenistan has acceded, with no declarations or reservations to articles 16, 17(e) and 34 (c), to the Convention on the Rights of the Child and to articles 2 and 3, to the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography.
2010 - According to the Open Net Initiative and Reporters Without Borders, Turkmenistan is listed as one of the ‘enemies of the Internet’ because of the heavily censored internet. In addition to monitoring communications, social media sites such as Facebook and Twitter are blocked. The Open Net Initiative states in its country report on Turkmenistan that in order to sign up to subscribe to an Internet service, citizens have to submit a declaration and their passport, as well as agreeing to a range of terms which restrict what users are allowed to say or post online. In the event that content deemed unacceptable is accessed, the user receives a warning and, if they access forbidden content again their access is terminated. The report says that citizens self-censor, as do the hotels and other business that offer Internet access, in order to protect staff.
2015 - United Nations concluded an observation report regarding the fulfillment of the rights guaranteed under the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography. The Committee welcomes the adoption of the Law on Guarantees of the Rights of the Child 2002 and the Law on Combating Trafficking in Persons 2007 by the Turkmen Government.