ICT was first introduced to the Thai school system in 1984 when computer courses were first included in the mathematics curriculum. In order to promote the use of ICT in the classroom, Thailand allocated substantial money for various training programs throughout the early 2000s. Thailand also has received educational aid from international organizations and initiatives.
UNESCO’s Next Generation of Teachers (Next Gen) project offers teachers in Thailand additional opportunities to acquire ICT knowledge and skills.14 Organized to increase the capacity of teacher education institutions (TEIs) in the Asia-Pacific region including Thailand, the Next Gen project was created to give TEI graduates better training. The program was developed in 2005 and Phase 1 was completed int he years following. Some of the ways in which this is being achieved include enhancing the leadership in TEIs through the Deans’ Forum; updating the skills of teacher educators through ICT-pedagogy integration workshops; and assisting curriculum reform in pre-service teacher education through curriculum development workshops. Next Gen Phase 2 was launched with the 4th Deans Forum in Bangkok in June 2009. Two forum highlights were the commitment of the Deans to organize local initiatives to promote ICT in teacher education and UNESCO Bangkok’s announcement that they would deliver a series of curriculum development workshops through 2011.
In addition to possessing basic ICT skills, it is recognized that teachers in Thailand need to understand what it means to use ICT in the classrooms and see its importance. Intel’s program Intel Teach helps teachers across the country learn how to effectively integrate technology into lesson plans. With a focus on developing advanced thinking skills, the program is currently available in 76 provinces nationwide. Through undertaking the training, teachers learn to create assessment tools to help them and their students meet learning objectives and national education standards.
The Office of the Commission on Higher Education in Thailand is also committed to making technology and ICT education more accessible to the whole country, instituting projects like the Thailand Cyber University project that provides online ICT education to students, teachers, and the general public.
Government policies have focused on improving ICT infrastructure, developing educational curriculum content, and enabling universal access to the Internet. In 2011, the Thai government published its “ICT 2020 Policy Framework”, detailing anticipated programs and growth over the next decade. The policy noted both youth education and cyber security as goals on its 10 year ICT plan, specifying that “curricula and content concerning values and ethics of ICT usage, along with knowledge, understanding and awareness about the impacts of ICT on the environment should be introduced in all grades.”
Childline Thailand Foundation (CTF)
The foundation runs a nationwide 24-hour telephone helpline to provide services for any child under the age of 18, in order to uphold the rights of children outlined in the UN Convention on the Rights of a Child.
Child Rights Coalition Asia
CRC is a network of children’s rights and human rights organizations in Asia, which brings the child rights perspectives and agenda to regional and international advocacy.
Computers for Thai Kids
The organization was launched in January 1998, it provides computers to schools and trains teachers and children to use them.
Department of Special Investigations
The department operates under the Ministry of Justice addressing case of child pornography, child sex tourism, human trafficking, and other international crimes.
EAC-UNESCO Asia Pacific Regional Bureau for Education Strengthening Education Systems for Out of School Children
This project in partnership with UNESCO and EAC aims to improve the education system for Out of School Children, or OOSC, and give them a better start in life.
INTERPOL is the world’s largest international police organization, with 190 member countries. Its mission is to enable police forces to collaborate globally to fight crime in the Internet age. Three areas of focus are crimes against children (with a focus on internet crimes and travelling sex offenders), cybercrime and human trafficking.
Ministry of Information and Communication Technology
The Ministry is responsible for policy regarding ICT development, including continued development of secure and accessible internet infrastructure. A Technology Crime Suppression and Protection Office exists under the Ministry to address IT crimes.
Ministry of Science and Technology
The ministry handles national science and ICT policy, as well as administers the National Science and Technology Development Agency, which serves a variety of ICT-related functions, including conducting cybersecurity research, providing online resources to academic institutions and the public, and providing technology education seminars.
Obscene and Pornographic Materials Elimination Centre
The center was established to take a leading role in arresting and prosecuting those involved in the trade of pornographic materials. The Centre works with ISPs to ensure that pornographic materials are removed from the Web.
Royal Thai Police
The law enforcement agency operates under the Office of the Prime Minister, has a High-tech Crime Division that addressed computer crimes and computer-facilitated crimes. The police force also works with Interpol Bangkok, the INTERPOL National Centre Bureau (NCB) for Thailand, which addresses child exploitation as one of its primary focuses.
Terre des Hommes Netherlands
This NGO focuses on stopping child sexual exploitation, child labor, child abuse and child trafficking in Asia, East Africa and Europe.
A member of INHOPE, the hotline is operated by a group of Thai ISPs and aims to reduce illegal and harmful content online via a reporting system for Internet users. The Hotline develops effective and secure mechanisms for users to report such websites and encourage cooperation among its ISP members, as well as provides information about financial online crimes, online safety in general and details about Netiquette.
The Criminal Justice Response to Cybercrime: ThailandSantipatn Prommajul
This report details current and planned effforts to address cybercrime in Thailand
Safer Internet for School Students (2016)Telenor Group
This study used samples of children in Thailand, Malaysia and Bangladesh to help understand the online behavior of students and children's experiences with online victimization.
The Current State of Cybercrime in Thailand : Legal, Technological, and Economic Barriers to Effective Law Enforcement (2015)Adam Ghazi-Tehrani
This paper discusses barriers to effective cybercrime prevention in Thailand.
Global Research Project: A Global Landscape of Hotlines Combating Child Sexual Abuse Material on the Internet and an Assessment of Shared Challenges (2015)Melissa Stroebe, Stacy Jeleniewski, PhD
This report examines hotlines combating Internet-facilitated Child Sexual Abuse Material.
Reducing violence agains children, with special focus on sexual exploitation of children and child sex tourism. (2014)The Netherlands, Defence for Children and ECPAT
This is a program by the Netherlands, Defence for Children and ECPAT, which objective is to reduce violence against children, with special attention to child sexual exploitation and child sex tourism.
INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT) IN EDUCATION IN ASIA (2014)UNESCO,UNESCO Institute of Statistics
A comparative analysis of ICT integration and e-readiness in schools across Asia
Reducing violence against children, with special focus on sexual exploitation of children and child sex tourism. (2014)The Netherlands, Defence for Children and ECPAT
This is a program by the Netherlands, Defence for Children and ECPAT, which objective is to reduce violence against children, with special attention to child sexual exploitation and child sex tourism.
Children’s Rights in the Digital Age (2014)A. Third, D. Bellerose, U. Dawkins, E. Keltie, K. Pihl
This study found unequal access to digital media among youth from 16 countries, among other key findings on children's digital usage.
Protection of Children Against Sexual Exploitation in Tourism (2013)ECPAT
Report on the different aspects of sexual exploitation of children on Thailand, Cambodia, Philippines, Gambia and Dominican republic. It also highlights they actions and mechanisms of protection.
Small World, Big Responsibility: The UK’s role in the global trade in children (2012)Erika Hall, Phillippa Lei
This report preset information on the different forms of child exploitation. Its purpose is to raise awareness to this global issue.
Online Child Sexual Abuse Content: The Development of a Comprehensive, Transferable International Internet Notice and Takedown System (2011)Internet Watch Foundation
Report analyzes the legislative frame in that regulates inlines child sexual abuse content.
Reversing the Trend: Child Trafficking in East and South-East Asia (2009)UNICEF East Asia and Pacific Regional Office
This report is a synthesis of seven country assessments, highlighting trends, gaps, lessons learned, promising and good practices across Asia.
Global Monitoring Report on the status of action against commercial sexual exploitation of children: Thailand. (2006)ECPAT International
This report provides a baseline of information on actions taken and remaining gaps for addressing child exploitation in Thailand
Our Children at Risk Online: The Example of Thailand (2003)Chitraporn Vanaspong, Isabelle Michelet, Guy Thompstone
This report discusses the risks to children on a global scale and examines the Internet habits of children in Thailand, as well as parental mediation.
Meta-survey on the Use of Technologies in Education in Asia and the Pacific (2003)Glen Farrell, Cédric Wachholz
This study identifies and analyses the different practices in the use of ICTs in education in Asia and the Pacific. it discusses countries’ policies, challenges and successful ICT integration in the region.
This section contains details of the country’s laws as they relate to sexual offenses, children and the use of the Internet in the commission of criminal activity. Where possible, sentence details have been given, including whether an increased custodial penalty is imposed where the victim is a child.
According to the Thai Prostitution Prevention and Suppression Act, a child is someone under eighteen years of age.
- Article 26, Child Protection Act. States that a person is forbidden to commit acts which result in torturing a child’s body or mind. The section also states that it is illegal to force, threaten, induce, encourage or allow a child to adopt behavior and manners which are inappropriate or likely to be the cause of wrongdoing. It is also illegal to force, threaten, use, induce, encourage or allow a child to perform or act in a pornographic manner, regardless of whether the intention is to obtain remuneration or anything else. Whether the child has given consent or not is irrelevant.
- Article 27, Child Protection Act. Defines the offense of advertising or disseminating by any means of the media or any other kind of information technology any information on a child or the child’s guardian, with the intention of causing damage to the mind, reputation, prestige or any other interests of the child or seeking benefit for oneself in an unlawful manner.
- Article 11, Computer Crime Act. States that those who send data or electronic mails to others without revealing their identity, or pose as someone else, in an act that disrupts the victim’s normal computer use are subject to a 100,000 Baht fine.
- Article 16, Computer Crime Act. Defines the offense of inputting developed, edited, added or altered photographs of another person into a computer system accessible to the public in a manner likely to impair the reputation of victim, to expose the victim to public hatred or contempt, or to shame the victim. The offense is punishable by imprisonment of up to three years, a fine of up to 60,000 Baht or both.
- Section 276, Penal Code.This section states that it is a crime to have sexual intercourse with a woman, without their consent, by threatening them in any way, acting violently, taking advantage of their inability to resist, or by deception. This offense is punishable by imprisonment for between four and twenty years, a fine of 8,000 to 40,000 Baht, or both. The penalty increases to 15 to 20 years, 30,000 to 40,000 Baht, or life imprisonment if the offense is facilitated by using any gun or explosive.
- Section 277, Penal Code. This section states that it is an offense to have sexual intercourse with a girl under fifteen years of age, with or without her consent, unless she is the offender’s wife. The penalty for this offense is imprisonment for between four and 20 years and a fine of 8,000 to 40,000 Baht. If the victim is between thirteen and fifteen years of age and gave her consent, and the Court grants the offender and the girl the right to marry afterwards, no punishment will apply. The section also states that it is an offense to have sexual intercourse with a girl under the age of thirteen years of age, regardless of whether consent is given. The punishment for this offense is imprisonment for between seven and 20 years and a fine of 14,000 to 40,000 Baht. The penalty increases to life imprisonment if the offense is facilitated by using any gun or explosive
- Section 277 bis, Penal Code. This section states that where sexual intercourse with a girl under seventeen years of age causes grievous bodily harm to the victim, the offender will be punished with imprisonment for between fifteen and 20 years and fine of 30,000 to 40,000 Baht. The offense is punishable by imprisonment for life, or the death penalty may be imposed where it caused the death of the victim.
- Section 277 ter, Penal Code. States that if guns or explosives were used in the commission of sexual intercourse with a girl under seventeen years of age and where grievous bodily harm is caused to the victim, the offender shall be punished by the death sentence or imprisonment for life. If the victim dies as a result of the offense, the death sentence is mandatory.
- Section 279, Penal Code. Defines the crime of committing an indecent act on a child under fifteen years of age, with or without consent. The punishment for this offense is imprisonment for up to ten years, a fine not exceeding 20,000 Baht, or both. If the offender threatens the victim by any means, acts violently, takes advantage of the child being defenseless , or causes the child to mistake him for another person, they will be punished by imprisonment for up to fifteen years, a fine of up to 30,000 Baht, or both.
- Section 280, Penal Code. States that anyone who causes grievous bodily harm to a child under fifteen years of age whilst committing an indecent act on the child, with or without consent, will be punished by imprisonment for between five and 20 years and a fine of 10,000 to 40,000 Baht. The offense is punishable by imprisonment for life or by the death penalty where the death of the victim was caused.
- Section 282, Penal Code. Defines the offense of procuring, seducing or taking away a person for an indecent act in order to gratify the sexual desire of another person with the victim’s consent. The punishment for this offense is imprisonment for between one and ten years and a fine of between 2,000 and 20,000 Baht. Where the victim is between fifteen and eighteen years of age the punishment increases to imprisonment for between three and fifteen years and a fine of between 6,000 and 30,000 Baht. This section also states that the punishment increases to imprisonment for between five and twenty years and a fine of between 10,000 and 40,000 Baht where the victim is less than fifteen years of age. Anyone who provides assistance to the offender in the form of obtaining the victim or supporting the crime is liable to receive the same punishment as the offender.
- Section 283, Penal Code. This section states that anyone who procures, seduces or takes away a person for an indecent act without their consent by using deceitful means, threat, violence, unjust influence or coercion will be liable to imprisonment for between five and 20 years and a fine of between 10,000 and 40,000 Baht. The section also states that if the victim is between fifteen and eighteen years of age, the punishment increases to imprisonment for between seven and 20 years and a fine of between 14,000 and 40,000 Baht, or imprisonment for life. Subsequent convictions under this section render the offender liable to an increased sentence of between seven and 20 years’ imprisonment and a fine of between 20,000 to 40,000 Baht. If the victim is under the age of fifteen, the punishment increases to either life imprisonment, or the death penalty for the most severe cases. Anyone who provides assistance to the offender in the form of obtaining the victim or supporting the crime is liable to receive the same punishment as the offender.
- Section 283 bis, Penal Code. Defines the offense of taking away a person between fifteen and eighteen years’ of age for an indecent act, with their consent. The offense is punishable by imprisonment for a maximum of five years, a fine of up to 10,000 Baht, or both. The offender is liable to an increased sentence of up to seven years’ imprisonment, a fine of up to 14,000 Baht, or both, where the victim is under the age of fifteen.
- Section 285, Penal Code. This section states that if the victim according to Section 277, 277 bis, and277 ter, is a relative of the offender, a pupil under the offender’s care or control, or is under their tutorship, guardianship, or curatorship, the offender is liable to a heavier punishment than that provided in each section, with penalties increasing by one third.
- Section 287, Penal Code. States that whoever makes, produces, possesses, brings, or causes to be brought into the Kingdom, sends, causes to be sent out of the Kingdom, takes away or causes to be taken away, or circulates by any means whatsoever, any document, drawing, print, painting, printed matter, picture, poster, symbol, photograph, cinematograph film, noise tape, picture tape or any other thing which is obscene for the purpose of trade or by trade, for public distribution or exhibition, will be punished by imprisonment of up to three years, a fine of up to 6,000 Baht, or both. The section also states that the same penalty applies to anyone who trades, or takes part or participates in the trade concerning the aforementioned obscene material, or distributes or exhibits to the public, or hires out such material. It is also a crime to assist in the circulation or trading of obscene material and to propagate or spread the news by any means whatsoever that the obscene material be obtained from which person or by what means. The offense is punishable by imprisonment for up to three years, a fine not exceeding 6,000 Baht, or both.
- Section 8, Prostitution Prevention and Suppressions Act. States that anyone committing sexual intercourse or any other act against a person aged between fifteen and eighteen, for sexual gratification of that person or of a third person, with or without his or her consent, in a place of prostitution, will be punished with imprisonment for between one and three years and a fine of between 20,000 and 60,000 Baht. This section also states that if the offense is committed against a child under the age of fifteen, the offender will be punished with imprisonment for between two and six years and a fine of between 40,000 and 120,000 Baht.
- Section 9, Prostitution Prevention and Suppression Act. Defines the offense of procuring, seducing, or trafficking a person to commit the act of prostitution, even with consent, regardless of whether the offense was committed inside or outside the country. Offenders are liable to imprisonment for between one and ten years and a fine of between 20,000 to 200,000 Baht. The section also states that if the victim is between fifteen and eighteen years of age, the offender will be punished by imprisonment for between five and fifteen years and a fine of between 100,000 and 300,000 Baht. If the victim is under fifteen years of age, the punishment increases to between ten and 20 years’ imprisonment and a fine of between 200,000 and 400,000 Baht. If the offense is committed by means of fraud, deceit, threat, violence, the exercise of undue influence or coercion of any kind, the offender is liable to a penalty which is one-third heavier than that usually imposed.
- Section 12, Prostitution Prevention and Suppressions Act. States that it is an offense to detain or confine another person, to commit any other act that deprives the liberty of the other person, assault the other person, or threaten the use of physical force to commit a violent act against the other person, in order to force him or her to perform acts of prostitution. The offense is punishable by imprisonment for between ten and 20 years and a fine of between 200,000 and 400,000 Baht. This section also states that if the offense causes grievous bodily harm to the victim, the sentence will increase to life imprisonment. The death penalty or life imprisonment will be imposed should the victim die.
- Act on Computer Crime (2007). Addresses a variety of computer-related criminal activity in addition to those those specified above.
2000 - ThaiCERT is the Computer Security Incident Response Team (CSIRT) for Thailand and deals with computer security incidents in the Thai Internet community. ThaiCERT was founded in 2000 by National Electronics and Computer Technology Center (NECTEC) under Ministry of Science and Technology, and has an email address for computer incident reports: [email protected]
2003 - Microsoft provided support to the International Centre for Missing and Exploited Children (ICMEC), enabling it to conduct a series of training sessions for law enforcement agencies over five years, including in Thailand. The sessions explained how to conduct successful investigations of computer-facilitated crimes against children.
Additionally, Thailand has a record of using filtering and blocking software to prevent access to inappropriate content, particularly in the form of pornographic and online gambling websites, according to the Open Net Initiative. The government has made attempts to exercise control over online gaming addiction, with Thailand becoming the first country to impose a curfew for online gaming in 2003.
2004/2005 - The Ministry of Culture and the Ministry of Information and Communication Technology jointly developed software called ‘Web-Guard’ to block access by children to inappropriate websites. Twenty-thousand software CDs were delivered to schools nationwide, although follow ups showed that only about 300 computers have actually registered to use the software.
2006 - Thailand ratified the UN Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography (and has also ratified the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child).
Also in 2006, the Prime Minister’s Office established a 24-hour hotline, a website (no longer live), and a radio station to encourage the public to get involved in reporting incidences of pornographic materials.
2007 - Thailand’s Deputy Prime Minister announced efforts to decrease the risks for children online by instating ratings system for computer games and websites, putting restrictions on internet cafes, and protecting children’s personal information on the internet.
2009 - The Thai Royal Police under the Office of the Prime Minister created a [High-tech Police Force(http://www.nationmultimedia.com/2009/03/31/technology/technology_30099267.php) that will enforce computer-crime laws more efficiently, including addressing both computer-as-a-target crime (e.g. information system hacking) and computer-as-an-instrument crime (e.g. such as using a computer to facilitate child victimization).
2011 - The Thai government published its “ICT 2020 Policy Framework”, detailing anticipated programs and growth over the next decade. The policy specified the importance of both youth education and cyber security development as goals in its implementation.
2012 - Thailand became a member of the Global Alliance of Child Sexual Abuse Online under which it commits to meet a number of targets for the prevention and eradication of child sexual abuse online. These include enhancing efforts to identify victims, investigate cases of child sexual abuse online and to identify and prosecute offenders, increase public awareness of the risks posed by children’s online activities, reducing the availability of child pornography online and the revictimization of children.
2016 - Thailand celebrated Safer Internet Day, with events to educate children about risks online.