2002 - The Federal Government together with the cantons launched the public-private partnership ‘Schools on the Net’. The project came to an end in September 2007, but throughout its duration it contributed significantly to the further education of teachers in the field of ICT integration, namely through providing 55 training courses nationwide, tailored specifically to teachers’ needs. The ICT infrastructure improved greatly and Swiss schools now are connected through a national educational portal, educanet2.
2006 - The Digital School Library Project, launched by the Swiss Institute for Educational and Cultural Media and mandated by the Swiss Conference of Cantonal Ministers of Education (CDIP), is aimed at creating an interactive database, bringing together educational resources in an interdisciplinary manner. The project is part of the area of “electronic resources for teaching and learning” and has three themes: the dissemination and exchange of information; developing a framework for implementing electronic resources in teaching and learning; establishing partnerships with content providers.
2006 - The online safety organization, security4kids, was formed. It brought together partners from the public sector, law enforcement, education, child protection and industry partners such as Microsoft and Symantec. Schools could book trained staff to come to them to give an Internet safety workshop. The security4kids representatives dressed as secret agents whose job it is to protect the Internet, and aimed to engage children in the session.
2007 - CDIP (Swiss Conference of Cantonal Ministers of Education) updated its strategy for the integration of ICT in schools. The strategy is to Integrate ICT into teaching at all levels to use as a tool and a resource for all subjects to ensure digital literacy. ICT must be incorporated in the curriculum at all school levels and the schools must use eContent to help build students knowledge of technology. This strategy was put forth to strengthen education and collaboration between networks and the international community.
2008 - Swisscom’s ‘Internet for Schools’ project evolved as part of the ‘Internet for Schools’ public-private partnership, providing all primary and secondary schools (levels I and II) with free broadband Internet access. In addition, the company also offers a range of educational programs aimed at pupils of all ages as well as teachers.
2009-2011 - Students from ages 11-12 at Projektschule Goldau were given an Apple iPhone 3G for them to use in and out of school as a part of their personal learning environment.13 The project is being supervised and evaluated by the Institut für Medien und Schule and is sponsored by Swisscom, Switzerland’s leading telecoms provider, so does not entail any extra costs for the school, pupils or parents.
2011 - The canton of Zurich set up a website dedicated solely to ICT in education, edu-ict. For each stage of education users can find expert articles and good-practice examples. Topics cover all areas of ICT in the classroom, from copyright issues to online safety for primary students. edu-ict also regularly organizes workshops and conferences: , for example, teachers and other educational staff participated in a conference about the efficient use of digital media in the classroom. In November 2011 a conference entitled ‘School, Health and Cyberspace’ featuring twelve different workshops is scheduled, focusing on the potential threats associated with digital media.
2012 - Switzerland entered into force Treaty 185, originally put forth in Budapest in 2001 to fight against cybercrime. Countries, European and non-European, who enter this treaty deem it important to pursue online criminals and also find it important to figure out ways to prevent such crimes from happening.
2014 - When accessing the educanet website, Internet safety is shown as a prominently displayed link on the home page. The link takes teachers to a specially prepared guide on Internet safety within a school environment, dealing with issues such as acceptable use, data protection, and game based learning.
2016 - The Digital Switzerland strategy was created and outlines the guidelines for state action and shows where and how government, business, science, civil society and politics must work together.The initiative improves digital learning and enhances students’ learning.
2016 - The Act on Co-operation in Education (BiZG) creates the necessary prerequisites for a coherent Swiss-wide policy for the formation of the educational offer in digital change.
Child Protection Switzerland
The foundation aims to protect children from neglect, exploitation and other forms of violence. Its objective is spiritual, mental, physical and sexual integrity and to preserve the dignity of children by enforcing their rights, individual development and social inclusion.
Cybercrime Coordination Unit (CYCOS)
CYCOS is the central point in Switzerland for individuals to report suspected illegal Internet content. After an initial examination of the report and safeguarding of the data, the report is forwarded to the respective national or foreign law enforcement agencies. CYCOS also searches actively for criminal subject matter on the Internet and is responsible for in-depth analysis of cybercrime.
This industry association represents the interests of European mobile network operators. The group engages in lobbying in areas such as children’s use of mobile phones, privacy, digital inclusion and reducing the digital gender gap. In 2008, the organization formed a mobile alliance against child sexual abuse content.
Innocence En Danger
This international NGO brings together activists, Internet specialists, policy makers and the media to raise awareness of the sexual exploitation of children online, and support child victims and their families.
International Telecommunications Union (ITU) Europe
The ITU is is the UN agency for ICTs. Areas of focus in Europe include improving E-accessibility in Central and Eastern Europe, transitioning Europe to digital broadcasting, and sharing best practices for implementing e-applications.
This advert-free website provides an online guide for children, teachers and parents with helpful tips and hints on how to stay safe whilst surfing the Internet.
Internet Governance Forum
The IGF was founded by the UN in 2006 to serve as a discussion platform for internet governance policy issues. It brings together various stakeholders to determine best practices for internet policy. Past areas of focus include cybersecurity, human rights, inclusivity and openness.
INTERPOL is the world’s largest international police organization, with 190 member countries. Its mission is to enable police forces to collaborate globally to fight crime in the Internet age. Three areas of focus are crimes against children (with a focus on internet crimes and travelling sex offenders), cybercrime and human trafficking.
Initiated in January 2011 by the Swiss Council for the Protection of Individual Privacy in conjunction with the Federal Data Protection and Information Commissioner (FDPIC), the campaign ‘NetLa – My data belongs to me’ aims to educate children aged between five and fourteen about the importance of privacy and the protection of their privacy rights.
Reporting and Analysis Centre for Information Assurance (MELANI)
MELANI works with partners who are active in the area of computer security and the Internet and protection of critical national infrastructures. The website offers information on online risks, situation reports and an online form to report incidents.
The city of Zurich has several computer stations across the capital. These are used by students (in schools) or adolescents (e.g. at work or in public buildings). The campaign “Schau genau!” is the city’s attempt, in collaboration with Zurich police, to demonstrate a responsible approach and to make users aware of the potential dangers of new media, especially children and young people.
Virtual Global Taskforce (VGT)
This international partnership was formed in 2003 by law enforcement agencies, NGOs and industry leaders. It aims to protect children from online sexual abuse, with the objectives of making the Internet safer, locating and helping at-risk children and holding perpetrators to account.
Committee on the Rights of the Child Reviews 12 countries’ Child Rights Records (2015)OHCHR
This report reviews 12 States’ actions based on the obligations to the Convention of the Rights of the Child and its optional protocols
How parents of young children manage digital devices at home: the role of income, education and parental style (2015)Livingstone, Sonia, Mascheroni, Giovanna, Dreier, Michael, Chaudron, Stephane, Lagae, Kaat
The report compares strategies of parental mediation on the internet according to levels of parental education and household income. The aim was to inform policy-makers and practitioners on how to approach parental guidance and awareness raising.
Combatting Child Sexual Abuse (2015)Petra Jeney
The study provides an overview of existing legislation at European Union, Member State and the international level related to online child sexual abuse, as well as the role of law enforcement agencies in combatting child sexual abuse online and other governmental and private sector initiatives.
Children's Use of Online Technologies in Europe (2014)K. Ólafsson, S. Livingstone, L. Haddon
This report reviews recent research on children’s use of internet and mobile technologies identified by the EU Kids Online network.
Final recommendations for policy (2014)O’Neill, B., Staksrud, E
Combining all the EU Kids Online policy guidance into one resource, this report provides more than 30 proposed actions for making the Internet safer for children.
Country classification: opportunities, risks, harm and parental mediation (2013)Helsper, E.J., Kalmus, V., Hasebrink, U., Sagvari, B., and de Haan, J.
This report explores the range and type of online opportunities and risks experienced by children in each country. The ways in which parents mediate or regulate their children’s internet use is also examined.
EU Kids Online: Schweiz (2013)Martin Hermida
Exposes the common experiences that occur due to online risks, how many families/children have been affected by these risks, and tips to help parents ensure a safe online environment for families.
Zero to Eight - Young Children and Their Internet Use (2013)Holloway, D., Green, L., and Livingstone, S. with members of the EU Kids Online network,
This report reviews a number of other studies and provides recommendations as to how younger children can be protected from online risks.
Risks and safety on the internet: Comparing Brazilian and European children (2013)Barbosa, A., O’Neill, B., Ponte, C., Simões, J.A., Jereissati, T.,
This study compares the results of the survey of Brazilian children and their parents/guardians, carried out by the Brazilian Internet Steering Committee. Using the same methodology as the EU Kids Online research, the results from Brazil are compared with those from Europe.
National strategy for Switzerland’s protection against cyber risks (2012)
This cyber safety plan aims to analyze the early recognition of cyber threats and dangers, increased resilience of critical infrastructure, and the effective reduction of cyber risks, in particular of cyber crime, cyber espionage and cyber sabotage.
EU Kids Online: National perspectives (2012)Leslie Haddon, Sonia Livingstone and the EU Kids Online network
This report summarizes the Internet experiences of children in the 33 participating EU Kids Online countries and includes eight countries which have not appeared in previous reports
EU Kids Online: National perspectives (2012)Haddon, L., Livingstone, S., EU Kids Online Network
This report summarizes the Internet experiences of children in the 33 participating EU Kids Online countries and includes eight countries which have not appeared in previous reports.
The Protection of Children Online (2012)Kristina Irion
The report provides key findings and policy recommendations to keep children safe online as a follow up to the 2008 Seoul Ministerial Declaration on the Future of the Internet Economy.
Case study: Switzerland The role of ICT in teacher training – Analysing Research on the role of ICT in teacher training (2010)Christian A. Gertsch
This case study examines research on the roles ICT has in the classrooms for teachers. This includes the use of standard software/technologies, use of current information search tools, and knowledge of online digital teaching methods.
Bullying in School and Cyberspace: Associations with Depressive Symptoms in Swiss and Australian Adolescents (2010)S. Perren, D. Cross, J. Dooley, T. Shaw
The study found that cyber-victimisation emerged as an additional risk factor for depressive symptoms in adolescents involved in bullying.
Child Trafficking in Europe, A broad vision to put children first (2008)Unicef Innocenti Research Centre
This Innocenti report was developed with assistance of many experts. The report's key findings addresses child trafficking patterns and flow, which is occuring all over Europe; discusses positive developments; lists challenges; lists international standards and national legislations to combat child trafficking; discusses policy responses; and finally shares different approaches to combat this epidemic.
Educational Research and Development in Switzerland Country Background Report (2006)Stefan Denzler-Schircks
This report reviews and documents the application, organization, and management of the progressive development of education systems in Switzerland.
U.S. /European Summit on Missing & Exploited Children (2005)International Centre for Missing & Exploited Children
Participants from different governments, law enforcement, and nongovernmental organizations participated in the U.S. /European Summit on Missing & Exploited Children. They discussed successes and shortcomings of current efforts to address the global problem of missing and exploited children, and adopted a comprehensive Action Plan.
Children and Their Changing Media Environment: A European Comparative Study (2001)Sonia Livingstone, Moira Bovill
This book looks into the changing media environment that children face through the means of television, the Internet, and computers and video games and compares the experiences of children around Europe.
This section contains details of the country’s laws as they relate to sexual offenses, children and the use of the Internet in the commission of criminal activity. Where possible, sentence details have been given, including whether an increased custodial penalty is imposed where the victim is a child. The age of simple majority in Switzerland is eighteen, the age of consent for marriage is also eighteen, and the age of consent for sexual activity is sixteen. Even though there is no specific law for crimes committed on the Internet, the Swiss Penal Code covers a range of offenses that can be committed either in the real world or online.
A ‘Tagessatz is a fine calculated on the daily rate of income. One Tagessatz is equal to one’s daily income.
Article 143 bis, Penal Code. Unauthorized Hacking into a Data Processing System. States that it is unlawful to hack into someone else’s secured data processing system without permission, without the intention for personal enrichment. The offense will be prosecuted upon request and the offender is liable to imprisonment for up to three years.
Article 173, Penal Code. Defamation. States that it is an offense to accuse someone of dishonorable actions or other facts that can damage the victim’s reputation. This offense, or spreading such accusations, will be punished upon request with a fine of up to 180 Tagessätzen. The penalty will be waived if the offender can prove that the accusations are true or that he had serious reason to believe so. Where the offender withdraws his accusation as untrue, the penalty can be decreased or waived.
Article 174, Penal Code. Libel. This article states that anyone who accuses someone of dishonorable actions or other facts that can damage the victim’s reputation will be punished, upon request, with imprisonment of up to three years, or a fine. Where the offender’s main objective was to undermine the victim’s reputation by such actions, the penalty will be up to three years’ imprisonment, or a fine of no less than 30 Tagessätze. The article also states that where the offender withdraws his accusations in front of the judge as untrue, the penalty can be decreased.
Article 177, Penal Code. Verbal Abuse. States that whoever attacks a person’s honor through word, writings, images, gestures or actions will be punished, upon request, with a fine of up to 90 Tagessätze. Where the victim gave the offender reason to verbally abuse him, the judge can refrain from prosecution. Where the verbal abuse was returned by the abused immediately, the judge can refrain from prosecuting either party.
Article 179 septies, Penal Code. Abuse of a Telecommunication System. States that it is a crime to maliciously abuse a telecommunication system for harassment or to cause disturbance. The offense will be prosecuted upon request.
Article 180, Penal Code. Menace. This article states that it is an offense to terrify someone by using threat and menace. The offense is punishable upon request and the offender is liable to imprisonment of up to three years.
Article 181 Penal Code. Coercion. Defines the crime of forcing someone to do, refrain from or endure something by using violence, threat or any other means which limit the victim’s freedom of action. The penalty for this offense is up to three years’ imprisonment.
Article 182, Penal Code. Human Trafficking. It is an offense to supply or engage in the trafficking of human beings for the purpose of sexual exploitation, labor, or to remove any organs. This is punishable with a custodial sentence and monetary fine. It also states that it is illegal to even solicit humans for these purposes and will be treated equivalently.
Article 187, Penal Code. Sexual Acts with Children. Defines the crime of committing a sexual act with a child under sixteen years of age, seducing a child to commit or inducing a child to participate in such an act. The punishment for this offense is imprisonment for up to five years, or a fine. The act is not punishable if the age difference between offender and victim is less than three years. The article also states that where the offender is less than twenty years of age and special circumstances apply, or where the victim is married to the offender or in a civil partnership with him, the authorities may waive the criminal proceedings or penalty, or refrain from bringing the perpetrator to trial. Where the offender wrongly assumed that his victim was sixteen years of age at the time of the assault, and could have avoided the error by taking adequate precautions, the punishment is imprisonment for a maximum of three years, or a fine.
Article 188, Penal Code. Sexual Acts with a Dependent. This section states that it is an offense if any person commits a sexual act by exploiting a relationship with a minor over the age of 16 who is in a dependent relationship due to education, car, or employment or any other form of dependency. Any person who encourages a minor to commit a sexual act by exploiting a dependent relationship. It also states that it is an offense to endanger the development of a minor with sexual acts with a dependent. The penalty is prison for up to three years or monetary penalty.
Article 189, Penal Code. Violation of Sexual Freedom and Honor. Sexual Coercion. This section states that it is an offense to force a person into participating in a sexual act, by using threats, violence, or mental pressure, or by incapacitating her ability to resist. The offender is liable to imprisonment for up to ten years, or a fine. Where the offender acts with cruelty, especially if he uses a dangerous weapon or other dangerous objects, the minimum term of imprisonment will be three years.
Article 190, Penal Code. Rape. States that whoever coerces a female person into participating in a sexual act by using threats, violence, or mental pressure, or by incapacitating her ability to resist, will be punished by imprisonment for between one and ten years. The article also states that where the offender acts with cruelty, especially if he uses a dangerous weapon or other dangerous objects, the minimum term of imprisonment will be three years.
Article 193, Penal Code. Abuse of Distress. Defines the crime of committing a sexual act with a person by taking advantage of the victim’s distress, or by abusing a work relationship or other dependency. The offense is punishable by imprisonment for up to three years, or a fine.
Article 194, Penal Code. Exhibitionism. This article states that it is a crime to commit an exhibitionistic act. Upon request, the offense is punishable by a fine of up to 180 Tagessätzen. Where the offender undergoes medical treatment, the authorities can cease the proceedings. They will be resumed if the offender stops the treatment.
Article 195, Penal Code. Exploitation of Sexual Activity and Promotion of Prostitution. States that anyone who leads a minor into prostitution will be punished with imprisonment for up to ten years, or a fine. The same sentence applies to anyone who exploits a relationship of dependency or a pecuniary advantage in order to lead a person into prostitution. It also applies to anyone who impairs the freedom of action of a person working as a prostitute by supervising her activities as a prostitute or by determining where, when and for how long she prostitutes herself or anyone who keeps a person in prostitution.
Article 197, Penal Code. Pornography. States that it is an offense to display, offer, make available or disseminate via radio or television, pornographic writings, audio and video recordings, images or other pornographic material or performances to a person under sixteen years of age. The offense is punishable by imprisonment for up to three years, or a fine. The article also states that anyone who manufactures, imports, stores, circulates, promotes, presents, offers, displays or makes available pornographic material featuring sexual acts with children or (among other definitions) acts of violence, will be punished with imprisonment for up to three years, or a fine. It is also an offense to obtain such material via electronic or any other means. . The offense is punishable with imprisonment for up to one year, or a fine. The offending material will be confiscated.
Article 198, Penal Code. Sexual Harassment. Defines the crime of committing a sexual act in front of someone who was not expecting it and thereby causing offense. The article also states that it is an offense to sexually harass someone physically through words. The crimes are punishable upon request only.
Article 200, Penal Code. Joint Commission of an Offense. States that wherever any of the offenses above are jointly committed by more than one person, the judge can increase the sentence, but may not exceed the maximum penalty by more than half.