2001 - The Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research initiated its IT Based Educational System program (Sistemul Educational Informatizat – SEI) designed to support teaching and learning with the help of the latest technology in secondary education. The program has two main components: one focuses on the transition to computer-aided education, and the other concentrates on the educational system using IT support at all levels to increase efficiency and transparency. The program’s initial phases provided at least one IT educational platform, set up IT support in the classroom, and introduced modern technologies directly into the teaching methods.
2005 - The SEI’s fourth phase (2005 - 2008) was introduced to middle schools by providing computers to over 3,000 schools, establishing 42 regional training centers for teachers and supplying hardware to 1,000 schools for the administrative use. During this phase 1,255 multimedia lessons were created and distributed in all IT-labs from middle schools and high schools. In addition, SEI currently provides schools with new multimedia lessons for all age groups on a continuous basis and offers teacher training on a life-long learning basis, with approximately 700 educators receiving training each year.
2007 - The government of Romania signed the eSEE Agenda Plus 2007 - 2012 (Electronic South Eastern Europe Initiative) together with seven other Eastern European countries. The member countries pledge to, among other things, strengthen innovation and investment in ICT in education, develop digital educational content and services, invest in the ICT infrastructure of their national educational institutions, reflect the increased use of modern technologies in a revised curriculum, and make ICT curricula mandatory on all educational levels.
2008 - TEHNE completed developing its elearning.Romania project, which was launched in 2004 to increase the quality and efficiency of computer-aided education. It covered a variety of areas, including guidance in the use of the latest educational software, explanations of national policies and strategies, details about technical equipment and other projects dealing with electronic learning, as well as online courses offering opportunities for training and personal development. With thousands of users, the portal is considered the most important and active educational community in Romania.
Save the Children Romania, the Romanian Centre for Missing and Sexually Exploited Children - FOCUS, and Positive Media launched Sigur.Info, which functions as Romania’s Safer Internet Center under the name. In 2016, the project continued to be implemented under name of Ora De Net (Net Time). The organization develops online safety awareness activities, manages Helpline (ctrl-Ajutor) that helps with problems and harmful content encountered on the Internet, Hotline (esc-Abuz) for reporting illegal content met Romanian web pages.
2010 - The Ministry of Education and Scientific Research and its partner Softwin, a company specialized in eLearning, launched INSAM System, which provides digital tools to improve quality assessment in pre-university system. The system is based on specific digital resources needed to improve evaluative processes and self-assessment of high school students, providing an Evaluation Guide for specific curricular area, progress reports and statistics, discussions forum.
2012 - European Commission launched eTwinning in Romania, a European school community program that bringings together schools and kindergartens from all over Europe cooperating with the electronic media.
2013 - Sigur.Info(Ora De Net) organized European Safer Internet Summer School for National Youth Panels for attendees from Romania, Moldova, Estonia, Cyprus, Lithuania, Slovakia, Hungary, the Netherlands, Bulgaria to provide training on online safety. Held under the title “Internet goes mobile, Where do we go?, the participants received training sessions from representatives of Save the Children, Orange, Kaspersky Lab, and INSAFE European Schoolnet. More than 200 children from Romania become ambassadors for Internet safety.
The Romanian Government has completed implementing the Knowledge Economy project, which was financed by the World Bank in 2006. The KE project aimed to support knowledge-driven activities at the national level and local communities, particularly in knowledge disadvantaged communities. e-Networks were established to ensure access to internet through a number of services and technologies, including computers and Internet services. The project’s education component aimed to introduced ICT in into the education model. 476 primary and secondary schools were linked initially to Internet and were endowed with ICT equipment (2700 computers, printers, audio-video facilities).
2014 - At the Safer Internet Day 2014, Save the Children Romania launched the first school guide for safe and effective use of the Internet. School Guide provides easily understandable resource that teachers can reference when working with children and youth on the topic of safe and effective use of the Internet.
2015 - World Bank has financed Secondary Education Project (ROSE) to address factors preventing Romanian students from successfully transitioning from upper secondary to tertiary education and completing the first year of university, The project will be implemented by the Ministry of Education and Science Research through 2022. One of the components of the project is to establish university-based learning centers containing technical equipment, such as computers, interactive whiteboards, and teaching/learning software to increasing the academic and social support mechanisms available to at-risk students.
2016 - Since 2008, Romania has been observing Safer Internet Day (SID), which is organized and promoted by the national Safer Internet Center Sigur.Info(Ora De Net). This year the organization held a public debate about online safety among the experts in the field, and later followed by a national competition under the theme of “online safety in your school.” Schools and teachers worked on ways to introduce online safety in schools, targeting practice and policies regarding the use of new technologies by children. eSafety Label has been launched in Romania, a free online platform that supports teachers in creating a safe internet environment in schools.
Agency Romania National Research and Education Network Agency (ARNIEC/RoEduNet)
A communications infrastructure of national interest, defined and developed within national education and research system. It manages and develops RoEduNet network that provides data communication services for research and academic institutions at all levels in Romania.
An interactive center for professionals working in the field of child abuse and neglect prevention and intervention in Eastern Europe. It was created in 2001, the website was designed to build upon and promote the professional networks established by the Eastern European Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Program.
CERT-RO (Computer Emergency Response Team Romania)
The team operates as part of the Ministry of Communications and Information Society and has the responsibility for promoting the information security culture within Public Administration organizations. In addition to its other activities, CERT-RO proposes recommendations on means of protecting IT infrastructures against potential security issues and threats and manages security incidents caused by the exploitation of security vulnerabilities.
Countering Organized Criminality Directorate (COCD)
The department, operates within the Ministry of Internal Affairs (MIA), works together with prosecutors specialized in investigating cyber crimes from the Directorate for Investigating Organized Crime and Terrorism of the Romanian Public Prosecutor’s Office. It has partnered in a protocol with the Romanian Centre for Missing and Sexually Abused Children- FOCUS to assist in operation of hotline (safernet.ro), as well as has access to Interpol ICSE database for Countering Computer Crimes Service (CCCS) and the tools developed by US and Canadian LEA to use toward the investigation of Child Pornography Computer (CPC) cases.
Aimed at providing assistance to the victims of Internet fraud, the website provides a reporting mechanism to the general public that alerts authorities of suspected crimes. The site helps to prevent and fight cybercrimes, and aims to increase transparency between citizens and the Romanian government.
The Romanian Center for Missing and Sexually Exploited Children works with the official authorities in solving the cases of disappearance and exploitation of children. This is done via a call center where reports of disappearances are filed and a network of volunteers who distribute flyers of missing children. The organization also provides support to assist the victims and their families via phone or through face-to-face counseling. As part of its work the organization has worked on initiatives to combat child pornography on the Internet.
General Directorate for Child Protection and Social Assistance (GDCPSA)
The department offered specialized services to all children, victims of any kind of violence (including that on the Internet), including Child’s Helpline,a Special Mobile Intervention Team for emergency, Emergency Centres for the children victims of abuse, neglect, exploitation and trafficking, transit centers for the protection and assistance granted to children returned from other countries and/or victims of trafficking, counselling centres.
This industry association represents the interests of European mobile network operators. The group engages in lobbying in areas such as children’s use of mobile phones, privacy, digital inclusion and reducing the digital gender gap. In 2008, the organization formed a mobile alliance against child sexual abuse content.
iEARN - Romania
Created in 1995, the organization works with the Open Society Institute (Soros Foundation), many schools in Dej, Calarasi, Eforie Sud and other cities.
International Telecommunications Union (ITU) Europe
The ITU is is the UN agency for ICTs. Areas of focus in Europe include improving E-accessibility in Central and Eastern Europe, transitioning Europe to digital broadcasting, and sharing best practices for implementing e-applications.
Internet Governance Forum
The IGF was founded by the UN in 2006 to serve as a discussion platform for internet governance policy issues. It brings together various stakeholders to determine best practices for internet policy. Past areas of focus include cybersecurity, human rights, inclusivity and openness.
INTERPOL is the world’s largest international police organization, with 190 member countries. Its mission is to enable police forces to collaborate globally to fight crime in the Internet age. Three areas of focus are crimes against children (with a focus on internet crimes and travelling sex offenders), cybercrime and human trafficking.
A virtual environment for advanced professional development for teachers, integrating Web 2.0 tools and specific features of virtual communities for information and training purposes. The website facilitates the exchange of experience and allows users to develop distance learning projects for socio-professional collaboration.
Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research
The Ministry’s task is to design and execute national educational strategies, determine objectives of the education system as a whole and the learning objectives of the national curriculum. To exercise its powers, MECI relies on experts’ advice from consultative bodies at national level.
Ora De Net (Net Time)
A European program established by Save the Children in Romania to promote Internet safety among children. As a member of international networks Insafe and Inhope, the program managers esc_ABUZ, a hotline where internet users can report illegal content.
A Hotline where internet users can report illegal component. It was developed by the association Save the Children in the project “Sigur.Info” and is run by the Romanian Center for Missing and Exploited Children-FOCUS.
Salvati Copiii - Save the Children Romania
A social institution, whose mission is to guarantee the equality of chances for all children, it underlines the importance of and focuses on the right to free and non-discriminatory education for all children and their protection against any form of violence.
The largest software house in Eastern Europe that develops complex, large and social impact projects in the field of eHealth, eAgriculture, eLearning, eCustoms, eGovernment in both Romania and the countries of Europe, Asia, Africa.
The Romanian Center for Development and Innovation in Education, promotes, supports and monitors the implementation of ICT in education, with special emphasis placed on eLearning and assisted instruction.
Regional Review of National Activities on Child Online Protection in Europe (2017)International Trade Union
This document contains a questionnaire developed by the ITU (International Telecommunication Union) that was distributed to national governments that are within the scope of the Regional Initiative for Europe on Building Confidence and Security in the use of ICT.
Country Case Studies : Regional Review of National Activities on Child Online Protection (2017)Jaroslaw K. Ponder
The Regional Review of National Activities on Child Online Protection was developed in 2016 by the ITU (International Telecommunication Union) in partnership with the Information Technologies Authority of Turkey. This Case study covers the perceptions of online child safety issues, the availability of advice or guidance, the availability of awareness raising and related programs, national focal points, the legal framework/law enforcement resources, and perceptions of the level of co-operation with industry.
A Survey on the Transposition of Directive 2011/93/EU on Combating Sexual Abuse and Sexual Exploitation of Children and Child Pornography (2016)Together Against Sexual Exploitation of Children
The study examines how seven key provisions of Directive 2011/93/EU on the fight against sexual abuse and sexual exploitation of children and child pornography have been adopted by the 27 European Union (EU) Member States bound by the Directive.
How parents of young children manage digital devices at home: the role of income, education and parental style (2015)Livingstone, Sonia, Mascheroni, Giovanna, Dreier, Michael, Chaudron, Stephane, Lagae, Kaat
The report compares strategies of parental mediation on the internet according to levels of parental education and household income. The aim was to inform policy-makers and practitioners on how to approach parental guidance and awareness raising.
Global Research Project: A Global Landscape of Hotlines Combating Child Sexual Abuse Material on the Internet and an Assessment of Shared Challenges (2015)Melissa Stroebe, Stacy Jeleniewski, PhD
This report examines hotlines combating Internet-facilitated Child Sexual Abuse Material.
Combatting Child Sexual Abuse (2015)Petra Jeney
The study provides an overview of existing legislation at European Union, Member State and the international level related to online child sexual abuse, as well as the role of law enforcement agencies in combatting child sexual abuse online and other governmental and private sector initiatives.
The impact of internet and new media on the occurrence of violence against children in Europe and Cyprus (2015)Rosella Sala
This document demonstrate that countries lack of expertise on child sexual exploitation and struggle combating this issue by their own. It suggests to establish an international legal framework to prosecute offenders and protect children.
Final recommendations for policy (2014)O’Neill, B., Staksrud, E
Combining all the EU Kids Online policy guidance into one resource, this report provides more than 30 proposed actions for making the Internet safer for children.
Children’s Online Risks and Opportunities: Comparative Findings from EU Kids Online and Net Children Go Mobile (2014)S. Livingstone, G. Mascheroni, K. Ólafsson, L. Haddon
This study focuses on European children's internet habits, their exposure to risks and parental mediation strategies.
The Meaning of Online Problematic Situations for Children: Results of Qualitative Cross-Cultural Investigation in Nine European Countries (2014)D. Smahel, M.F. Wright
This research, based on interviews, focused on the following: what children perceive as being potentially negative or problematic while using the internet, what risks children are aware of when using the internet, what consequences online negative experiences might have, how children react to negative experiences, what children do to avoid or prevent these problematic experiences, and why children perceive certain situations as negative.
Mapping Safer Internet Policies in the Member States (2014)P. Baudouin, B. Mahieu, T. Dor, B. Good, J. Milayi, S. Nakajima
The purpose of the study was to set up a framework for analysing Better Internet for Children public policies covering EU Member States, and Norway and Iceland.
European Children and Their Carers’ Understanding of Use, Risks and Safety Issues Relating to Convergent Mobile Media (2014)L. Haddon, J. Vincent
This study focuses on children’s experience of mobile media and the mobile internet, with an emphasis on smartphones and tablets, based on a qualitative study of children, their parents, teachers and others working with young people in nine European countries.
Net Children Go Mobile: Final Report (2014)G. Mascheroni, A. Cuman
The paper reports the findings of research in nine countries on children's use of technology, risky behaviors and parental mediation.
Net Children Go Mobile Final Report (2014)Giovanna Mascheroni, Andrea Cuman
Final report on implementation of Net Children Go Mobile project.
Global Alliance Against Child Sexual Abuse Online: Romania (2014)European Commission
Report on Romania's commitment to stop Child Sexula Abuse Online
Children's Use of Online Technologies in Europe (2014)K. Ólafsson, S. Livingstone, L. Haddon
This report reviews recent research on children’s use of internet and mobile technologies identified by the EU Kids Online network.
Policy Influences and Country Clusters: A Comparative Analysis of Internet Safety Policy Implementation (2014)B. O'Neill
The report examines the policy context of internet safety and looks at how countries within each cluster approach implementation.
Country classification: opportunities, risks, harm and parental mediation (2013)Helsper, E.J., Kalmus, V., Hasebrink, U., Sagvari, B., and de Haan, J.
This report explores the range and type of online opportunities and risks experienced by children in each country. The ways in which parents mediate or regulate their children’s internet use is also examined.
Media Literacy in Europe: 12 Good Practices that will Inspire You (2013)Evens Foundation
This document explores 12 cases across Europe of media literacy.
In their own words: what bothers children online? (2013)Livingstone S., Kirwil, L., Ponte C. and Staksrud E., with the EU Kids Online network
The results of a survey of nearly 10,000 children in 25 countries across Europe, this report details what children say upsets them and their friends online
Country Classification: Opportunities, Risks, Harm and Parental Mediation (2013)Helsper, E. J., Kalmus, V., Hasebrink, U., Sagvari, B. and De Haan, J. with members of the EU Kids Online network
With data from 25 of the European countries surveyed in EU Kids Online, the report examines the range and type of online opportunities, risks and harm which children from each country experience, as well as looking at ways in which parents control or mediate their children’s Internet use.
Risks and safety on the internet: Comparing Brazilian and European children (2013)Barbosa, A., O’Neill, B., Ponte, C., Simões, J.A., Jereissati, T.,
This study compares the results of the survey of Brazilian children and their parents/guardians, carried out by the Brazilian Internet Steering Committee. Using the same methodology as the EU Kids Online research, the results from Brazil are compared with those from Europe.
Zero to Eight - Young Children and Their Internet Use (2013)Holloway, D., Green, L., and Livingstone, S. with members of the EU Kids Online network,
This report reviews a number of other studies and provides recommendations as to how younger children can be protected from online risks.
EU Kids Online: National perspectives (2012)Haddon, L., Livingstone, S., EU Kids Online Network
This report summarizes the Internet experiences of children in the 33 participating EU Kids Online countries and includes eight countries which have not appeared in previous reports.
Excessive Internet Use by European Children (2012)D. Smahel, E. Helsper, L. Green, V. Kalmus, L. Blinka, K. Ólafsson
This report presents new findings and further analysis of the EU Kids Online 25-country survey regarding excessive use of the internet by children.
EU Kids Online: National perspectives (2012)Leslie Haddon, Sonia Livingstone and the EU Kids Online network
This report summarizes the Internet experiences of children in the 33 participating EU Kids Online countries and includes eight countries which have not appeared in previous reports
ECPAT Global Monitoring Report: Romania (2012)ECPAT
Report on the status of action against commercial sexual exploitation of children in Romania
EU Kids Online: Excessive Internet Use among European Children (2012)Smahel, D, Helsper, E, Green, L, Kalmus, V, Blinka, L, Ólafsson, K,
This report uses the data from the EU Kids Online study to examine excessive use of the Internet by children in the 25 participating countries.
Best Practice Compendium in Implementing the e-SEE Agenda + 2011 (2011)N. Trbonja
This publication recommends best practices for ICT development in South Eastern Europe. The projects presented in this document exhibit a large range of creative, technical, and management solutions, as well as budget-friendly options, and context sensitive approaches towards ICT development.
Risks and safety on the internet: The perspective of European children. Full Findings (2011)Livingstone, S., Haddon, L., Görzig, A., Ólafsson, K
Building on the original study, EU Kids Online I, this second piece of research includes the findings from research which took place in 25 countries. Children in the 9 – 16 age group were surveyed on their experiences of online use, risk and safety
Key Data on Learning and Innovation through ICT in schools in Europe (2011)Eurydice
The study examines the evolution of ICT infrastructure in schools in terms of networks, hardware and software. It then looks at how ICT is being used in educational processes and incorporated into curricula before focusing on its role in enabling the development of innovative teaching methods. Finally, the crucial part played by ICT in the development of 21st century skills is assessed.
ICT in the Education of the Balkan Countries (2010)Dr. Rossita Penkova, Dr. Violeta Mircheva, Nikolina Tsvetkova, Mirena Legurska
This is a comprehensive document on the situation of the ICT in education in the Balkan countries.
Education on Online Safety in Schools in Europe (2009)Eurydice
The study covers 30 European countries and provides information on whether online safety is taught and how it is taught in schools within the participating countries.
Teenagers’ Actions and Interactions Online in Central and Eastern Europe (2008)Monica Barbovschi and Maria Diaconescu
In this book, the editors present articles on Central and Eastern European teenagers’ online behavior, covering aspects including gender differences, frequency of use, and ties between life lived on and offline.
Towards a safer use of the Internet for children in the EU - a parents' perspective (2008)Eurobarometer
The study covers 27 EU Member States and provides parental responses to a range of questions relating to Internet safety and their perception of risk.
Teenagers’ Actions and Interactions Online in Central and Eastern Europe. Potentials and Empowerment, Risks and Victimization (2007)Monica Barbovschi and Maria Diaconescu
The report provides an insight into various issues related to teenagers’ actions and interactions online in Central and Eastern Europe: potentials for skills development, youth empowerment, as well as risks of online aggressive behaviors and victimization effects of the online environment.
U.S. /European Summit on Missing & Exploited Children (2005)International Centre for Missing & Exploited Children
Participants from different governments, law enforcement, and nongovernmental organizations participated in the U.S. /European Summit on Missing & Exploited Children. They discussed successes and shortcomings of current efforts to address the global problem of missing and exploited children, and adopted a comprehensive Action Plan.
This section contains details of the country’s laws as they relate to sexual offenses, children and the use of the Internet in the commission of criminal activity. Where possible, sentence details have been given, including whether an increased custodial penalty is imposed where the victim is a child.
The age of consent for sexual activity in Romania is fifteen, with the age of majority set at eighteen. The age of consent for marriage is sixteen.
Romania has signed, ratified and entered into law the Council of Europe’s Convention on Cybercrime (November 2001).
- Article 7, Law No.196/2003 on the Prevention and Repression of Pornography. This Article states that anyone creating pornographic websites is obliged to protect them with passwords, and to only allow access to the site after a fee has been paid. The creation and administration of pedophilic sites is prohibited.
- Article 11, Law No.196/2003 on the Prevention and Repression of Pornography. This Article states that the distribution of materials of an obscene nature which depict minors in sexually explicit situations is punishable by imprisonment for between one to five years. The same penalty applies to anyone who possesses such material with a view to distributing it.
- Article 14, Law No.196/2003 on the Prevention and Repression of Pornography. This Article states that claims regarding non-compliance to Article 7 can be made to the National Regulatory Authority for Communications (ANRC). After checking the content of the site, the ANRC will require the ISP to block access to the site. Failure to comply with this request within 48 hours will result in a fine of between 10,000 lei and 50,000 lei.
- Article 18, Law No. 678/2001 on Preventing and Fighting Human Trafficking. This Article states that it is a child pornography offense to exhibit, sell, disseminate, rent, distribute, produce or possess with intent to disseminate, any objects, films, photographs, slides, logos or other visual material that shows sexual conduct or other scenes of a pornographic nature that shows or involves persons under the age of eighteen. The offense is punishable by imprisonment for between three and ten years. The same penalty applies to anyone who imports or delivers the aforementioned material to a carrier or supplier for the purpose of sale or distribution.
- Article 51, Anti-Corruption Law 161/2003, Title III – On Preventing and Fighting Cyber-crime. States that producing child pornography for the purpose of its distribution, offering or making available, distributing or transmitting, procuring for oneself or another, or possessing such material within a computer system or computer data storing device is considered a criminal offense, punishable with imprisonment for between three and twelve years. Attempts to commit any of these crimes are also punishable under this Article. Other computer-related offenses covered by this law include the illegal accessing of a computer system, illegal interception, alteration or deletion of computer data, and unauthorized data transfer. Prison sentences range from imprisonment for between six months to seven years. Hindering of a computer system operation is punishable by imprisonment for three to fifteen years, and the production, sale, import or distribution of passwords or access codes, or any devices to commit one of the aforementioned offenses, are punishable by imprisonment for between one and six years.
- Article 211, Penal Code. Trafficking in Minors. This Article states that it is an offense to recruit, convey, transfer, harbor or receive a minor for the purpose of exploitation. The offense is punishable with imprisonment for between three and ten years. If the offender used coercion, deceit or abuse of authority, or if the minor was kidnapped, an aggravated penalty of five to twelve years’ imprisonment will apply. The same penalty applies if the offender took advantage of the victim’s inability to defend themselves or express their will, or if the offender received money or other benefits in exchange for the victim. Whether or not the victim consented to the trafficking is irrelevant.
- Article 213, Penal Code. Procurement. States that encouraging or forcing another person to engage in prostitution, facilitating or recruiting for prostitution or acquiring benefits from it is punishable by imprisonment for between two and seven years and the prohibition of certain rights. If the offender used coercion, an increased penalty of three to ten years’ imprisonment will apply. Where the victim is a minor, the penalties prescribed above will be increased by half. Attempts to commit any of these crimes are also punishable under this Article.
- Article 218, Penal Code. Rape. Imposes a penalty of imprisonment for three to ten years and the prohibition of certain rights for anyone who commits sexual intercourse, be it vaginal, oral or anal, with another person by coercion or by taking advantage of the victim’s inability to defend themselves or to express volition. An increased punishment of five to twelve years’ imprisonment will apply if: the victim is under the age of sixteen; the offense was committed for the purpose of producing pornographic material; the victim is under the care, protection, education, guard or treatment of the perpetrator; the victim is a family member; the offense resulted in bodily harm, or the offense was committed jointly by two or more persons. Where the victim dies as a result of the offense, the perpetrator will be liable to seven to eighteen years’ imprisonment. Attempted rape is also punishable under this Article.
- Article 219, Penal Code. Sexual Assault. Defines the offense of committing a sexual act, other than rape, with or on another person by coercion or by taking advantage of the victim’s inability to defend themselves or to express volition. The offense is punishable by imprisonment for between two and seven years plus the prohibition of certain rights. The penalty will be increased to between three and ten years’ imprisonment if: the victim is under the age of sixteen; the offense was committed for the purpose of producing pornographic material; the victim is under the care, protection, education, guard or treatment of the perpetrator; the victim is a family member; the offense resulted in bodily harm, or the offense was committed jointly by two or more persons. Where the victim dies as a result of the offense, the perpetrator will be liable to seven to fifteen years’ imprisonment. Attempts to commit any of these crimes are also punishable under this Article.
- Article 220, Penal Code. Sexual Intercourse with a Minor. This Article states that sexual intercourse, of any nature, with a person between the age of thirteen and fifteen is punishable by imprisonment for between one to five years. Where the victim is under the age of thirteen, an increased penalty of between two and seven years’ imprisonment and the prohibition of certain rights will apply. No punishment applies for the crimes above if the age difference between perpetrator and victim does not exceed three years. The Article also states that where the offense is committed by an adult and the victim is aged between thirteen and fifteen, and the offender committed the act by abusing his/her authority or influence over the victim, a penalty of between two and seven years’ imprisonment and the prohibition of certain rights will apply. Where any of the offenses listed previously were committed for the purpose of producing pornographic material, the offender will be liable to a prison term of between three to ten years and the prohibition of certain rights.
- Article 221, Penal Code. Sexual Corruption of Minors. States that obscene acts committed with a minor under the age of thirteen or in their presence are subject to between one to five years’ imprisonment. No penalty will apply if the age difference between the offender and the victim does not exceed three years. If the offence is committed with the aim of producing pornographic materials or by a first degree relative, a brother or a sister, by a legal guardian, or a person having custody of the child, an aggravated penalty of two to seven years’ imprisonment will apply. The Article also states that any adult performing sexual acts in the presence of a minor under the age of thirteen will be liable to imprisonment for a term of between six months to two years or a fine. Anyone who uses a minor under the age of thirteen to assist in acts of exhibitionism or shows or performances featuring sexual acts of any kind is liable to imprisonment for between three months to one year or a fine.
- Article 222, Penal Code. Recruitment of Minors for Sexual Purposes. States that any adult who proposes a meeting, to a minor under the age of thirteen, in order to commit one of the offenses stated in Articles 220 or 221 (including if the proposal was made by means of communication from a distance) commits an offense which is punishable by imprisonment from one month to one year or with a fine.
- Article 374, Penal Code. Child Pornography. This Article states that it is an offense to produce, display, possess for the purpose of distribution, purchase, store, display, promote or make available in any way, child pornography. The offense is punishable by imprisonment for between one to five years. If the offense was committed by using a computer system or other means of electronic communication, an increased punishment of two to seven years’ imprisonment will apply. The Article also states that accessing child pornography through a computer system or other means of electronic communication is also considered an offense and is punishable by imprisonment for between three months to three years or with a fine. Attempts to commit any of these crimes are also punishable under this Article.
- Article 375, Penal Code. Offending Public Morals. States that anyone who, in public, displays or distributes explicit images of sexual activity other than those referred to in Article 374, or commits acts of exhibitionism or other explicit sexual acts, is liable to imprisonment for three months to two years or a fine.
2007 - Romania adopted a new computer system to tackle Internet pornography, because of growing labour migration into Western European countries, the government feared that the children which are left behind will be more likely to be exposed to sexual exploitation.
2009 - Safe the Children Romania established Safernet.ro hotline as a civil contact point, which receives and processes reports referring to materials on the Internet of an illegal or harmful nature for children. The hotline is ran by the Romanian Center for Missing and Exploited Children-FOCUS and in 2010 it became a member of INHOPE in 2010. As of 2014, the hotline received over 4,500 total reports, over 1,000 of which were confirmed as CSAM.
The Crime Victim Compensation and Support Authority in Sweden together with its partners in nine member states of the EU - Belgium, Croatia, Romania, Finland, France, Italy, UK, Portugal, Slovakia launched CURE. The project is devoted to help children victims of all sorts of crimes in the criminal justice systems of the European Union. The project is focused on the legal status of child-victims as well as on raising awareness on best practices aimed to protect the child victim from experiencing hardship in criminal justice system.
2010 - The Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research in cooperation with the Ministry of Interior implemented the MATRA project - ‘Preventing Juvenile Delinquency in the Area of Scholar Facilities in Romania’, which was financed by the Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs in 2008. The project developed ‘Flandbook on the toolkit for school-police cooperation’ and the ‘Guide of promising practices on school safety,’ which contain tips on how to avoid online harassment.
2012 - Along with 54 countries, Romania has joined the Global Alliance against Child Sexual Abuse Online. The Alliance unites Ministers of the Interior and of Justice from each country to fight against Child Sexual Abuse Online, to rescue victims, to develop more effective prosecution, and to reduce the amount of child sexual abuse images available online.
Child Pornography Bureau was created in 2012. INHOPE organized a regional Tracking and Tracing Training in Romania with support from the safernet.ro. Hotline analysts from Germany, Hungary, Slovakia, Italy, Russia and Romania attended the training. The Head of the Romanian Cybercrime Police Unit, who was part of the training, presented Hotline’s cooperation with the Cybercrime Department of the Romanian National Police.
The Romanian National Police, with support from the US Embassy in Bucharest, held the Seventh Conference for Experts in the Field of Prevention And Combating Cybercrime. The Romanian Hotline together with INHOPE participated to the section regarding the “Implications of technological advances upon child abuse” by presenting the national role of Safernet Hotline for Romania and the INHOPE international contribution in combating child sexually abused materials on the Internet.
2014 - The BICE in partnership with Save the Children Romania have launched fight against sexual abuse program against child abuse, which will run until 2017. The aim of the program in Romania is to give children the skills to cope with situations where there is a risk of sexual abuse, to provide children with life skills (self-esteem, conflict resolution, crisis communication, understanding of their rights), and to tackle taboo subjects that are not traditionally taught in school. Over 1,600 children and adults have benefit from activities against sexual abuse in Romania.
Government has approved the National Strategy for the Digital Agenda for Romania - 2020 where improving ICT in education, culture, and health. The Agenda also contains proposals from CERT-R)’ Child Protection Department in the Pillar 3, which include the reduction of harmful content on internet in legislation (definition, procedures for identification, reporting, child protection and sanctions), developing a national campaigns on harmful content on internet, and monitoring the observance of child rights on internet.
2015 -The National Crime Agency’s CEOP Command and National Cyber Crime Unit began working together with Romania in holding a range of workshops to help fight cyber crime, child sexual exploitation and abuse across Central and Eastern Europe. This corporation has been built on commitment between 42 nations, including Romania, to stop online child abusers, provide law enforcement the resources and technical infrastructure needed to identify more victims, track down more criminals, remove more child sexual abuse material from the internet and create strong partnerships with industry to develop technological solutions at the ‘We Protect’ Children Online Summit.