In the national curriculum, ICT is a general competence to be developed further in compulsory education (first - ninth grade) as well as a transversal subject. For the ninth and tenth grades, a new subject was added in 2004/2005, which aims to increase the ICT literacy of every student. There are also explicit references to the use of ICT in other curricular areas, such as the use of ICT as a tool in subjects like mathematics, as well as the promotion of interdisciplinary practices and the adoption of e-portfolios.
Even though the Portuguese national curriculum does not currently include compulsory Internet safety lessons, in order to promote the critical and safe use of the Internet by pupils and their parents, as well as the general public, the Knowledge Society Agency (UMIC), the Directorate-General for Innovation and Curricular Development/Team for Networks and Educational Resources (DGIDC/ERTE), and the Foundation for National Scientific Computing (FCCN) together with Microsoft Portugal have submitted a proposal within the framework of the European Safer Internet Plus program. Coordinated by the UMIC, this consortium was created to broaden the strategy initiated by DGIDC/ERTE among schools and in the community, SeguraNet, increases awareness actions and promotes the safe use of the Internet. Schools can register with the site, which allows classes to take part in the initiative’s monthly challenges relating to Internet safety. In addition, SeguraNet runs regular competitions such as the recent ‘Gigabyte Insurance: Navigate your Way Safely!’ and publishes activities for teachers to complete with their students in class.
E-learning portals in Portugal are still developing outside of higher education. However the school portal Portal da Escola, is used as a reference site for Portuguese schools for sharing digital learning resources, e-learning, communication, collaborative work and access to support services. To learn more information about Portal da Escola, visit the following link : https://www.portaldasescolas.pt/portal/server.pt/community/00_inicio/239
The “Panorama e-learning Observatory” emerges from the project “Panorama e-Learning Portugal 2013”, a study promoted by TecMinho in partnership with Quaternaire Portugal within the framework of the POAT-FSE (Operational Program of Technical Assistance European Social Fund), to evaluate e- Learning, contributing to the construction of a model of regulation. The Panorama e-learning observatory aims to promote e-learning in Portugal and flexibility in Lifelong Learning adjusted to quality criteria that can guarantee the transparency of public investment in this sector. Panorama tries to record good innovative practices in Portugal for the use of e-learning, as well as to provide a set of useful tools to promote this type of training. To learn more information about the Panorama e-learning Observatory, visit this link : http://www.panoramaelearning.pt/
Academia de Código Junior is a coding academy that educates Portuguese children between the ages 6-12 in computer programming. Games,videos, exercises, and many other tools are used to assist the code learning process for young children. This project is still in it’s early stages, and only three schools in Lisbon have inserted this into the curriculum as a test for wider expansion. For more information about Academia de Código Junior, visit the following link : http://www.academiadecodigo.org/
Coordinated by the Foundation of Science and Technology, the Portuguese Coalition for Digital Employability has the main objective to bridge the vacancies that will exist in the ICT fields. This project began in 2015, and will continue until 2020 to define mechanisms that will promote the adoption of measures for training young people in ICT, the requalification of the unemployed labor force, the awareness of the unique employability opportunity that exists in this context and the internationalization of the ICT sector. To learn more information about the Portuguese Coalition for Digital Employability, visit the following link : http://www.empregabilidadedigital.pt/en
European School Network
This group was founded in 2006 to create an exchange network among nine European schools. ESN arranges one-to-one student exchanges for one to eight weeks, and also provides the possibility of teacher exchanges, group exchanges and student seminars.
This industry association represents the interests of European mobile network operators. The group engages in lobbying in areas such as children’s use of mobile phones, privacy, digital inclusion and reducing the digital gender gap. In 2008, the organization formed a mobile alliance against child sexual abuse content.
International Telecommunications Union (ITU) Europe
The ITU is is the UN agency for ICTs. Areas of focus in Europe include improving E-accessibility in Central and Eastern Europe, transitioning Europe to digital broadcasting, and sharing best practices for implementing e-applications.
Internet Governance Forum
The IGF was founded by the UN in 2006 to serve as a discussion platform for internet governance policy issues. It brings together various stakeholders to determine best practices for internet policy. Past areas of focus include cybersecurity, human rights, inclusivity and openness.
Internet Segura, the Safer Internet program aims to fight illegal content, minimize the effects of such content on citizens, promote the safe use of the Internet, and raise awareness of the risk associated with the World Wide Web.
INTERPOL is the world’s largest international police organization, with 190 member countries. Its mission is to enable police forces to collaborate globally to fight crime in the Internet age. Three areas of focus are crimes against children (with a focus on internet crimes and travelling sex offenders), cybercrime and human trafficking.
Latin American Network of ICT and Education (Red Iberoamericana de TIC y Educación – RIATE)
This organization promotes bilateral or multilateral cooperation for development through the exchange of information, initiatives and projects that promote the integration of ICT in education in 21 countries.
Linha Alerta is part of a combined project (awareness node and hotline service) called Internet Segura and co-funded until December 2008 by the European Commission under the Safer Internet plus program. The consortium of Internet Segura consists of the following members: UMIC (National Agency for Knowledge Society, Ministry of Education) FCCN (Foundation for National Scientific Computing) and Microsoft Portugal. The hotline service is maintained by FCCN within its security services group Cert.pt.
Miudos Segura Na.Net
Miudos Segura Na.Net (translating as ‘Kids Safe on the Net’) provides relevant information about new Information and Communication Technologies, helping parents and educators to promote the safe and responsible use of Internet by children and young people.
Portal Bullying is a web portal for victims of bullying as well as their parents and teachers. The site deals with all aspects of bullying, at school and online, and offers help as well as information, a forum, chat room, educational strategies to overcome bullying, and articles on the latest developments.
A Survey on the Transposition of Directive 2011/93/EU on Combating Sexual Abuse and Sexual Exploitation of Children and Child Pornography (2016)Together Against Sexual Exploitation of Children
The study examines how seven key provisions of Directive 2011/93/EU on the fight against sexual abuse and sexual exploitation of children and child pornography have been adopted by the 27 European Union (EU) Member States bound by the Directive.
How parents of young children manage digital devices at home: the role of income, education and parental style (2015)Livingstone, Sonia, Mascheroni, Giovanna, Dreier, Michael, Chaudron, Stephane, Lagae, Kaat
The report compares strategies of parental mediation on the internet according to levels of parental education and household income. The aim was to inform policy-makers and practitioners on how to approach parental guidance and awareness raising.
The impact of internet and new media on the occurrence of violence against children in Europe and Cyprus (2015)Rosella Sala
This document demonstrate that countries lack of expertise on child sexual exploitation and struggle combating this issue by their own. It suggests to establish an international legal framework to prosecute offenders and protect children.
Combatting Child Sexual Abuse (2015)Petra Jeney
The study provides an overview of existing legislation at European Union, Member State and the international level related to online child sexual abuse, as well as the role of law enforcement agencies in combatting child sexual abuse online and other governmental and private sector initiatives.
Global Research Project: A Global Landscape of Hotlines Combating Child Sexual Abuse Material on the Internet and an Assessment of Shared Challenges (2015)Melissa Stroebe, Stacy Jeleniewski, PhD
This report examines hotlines combating Internet-facilitated Child Sexual Abuse Material.
Children’s Online Risks and Opportunities: Comparative Findings from EU Kids Online and Net Children Go Mobile (2014)S. Livingstone, G. Mascheroni, K. Ólafsson, L. Haddon
This study focuses on European children's internet habits, their exposure to risks and parental mediation strategies.
Final recommendations for policy (2014)O’Neill, B., Staksrud, E
Combining all the EU Kids Online policy guidance into one resource, this report provides more than 30 proposed actions for making the Internet safer for children.
Children's Use of Online Technologies in Europe (2014)K. Ólafsson, S. Livingstone, L. Haddon
This report reviews recent research on children’s use of internet and mobile technologies identified by the EU Kids Online network.
Policy Influences and Country Clusters: A Comparative Analysis of Internet Safety Policy Implementation (2014)B. O'Neill
The report examines the policy context of internet safety and looks at how countries within each cluster approach implementation.
The Meaning of Online Problematic Situations for Children: Results of Qualitative Cross-Cultural Investigation in Nine European Countries (2014)D. Smahel, M.F. Wright
This research, based on interviews, focused on the following: what children perceive as being potentially negative or problematic while using the internet, what risks children are aware of when using the internet, what consequences online negative experiences might have, how children react to negative experiences, what children do to avoid or prevent these problematic experiences, and why children perceive certain situations as negative.
Mapping Safer Internet Policies in the Member States (2014)P. Baudouin, B. Mahieu, T. Dor, B. Good, J. Milayi, S. Nakajima
The purpose of the study was to set up a framework for analysing Better Internet for Children public policies covering EU Member States, and Norway and Iceland.
European Children and Their Carers’ Understanding of Use, Risks and Safety Issues Relating to Convergent Mobile Media (2014)L. Haddon, J. Vincent
This study focuses on children’s experience of mobile media and the mobile internet, with an emphasis on smartphones and tablets, based on a qualitative study of children, their parents, teachers and others working with young people in nine European countries.
Net Children Go Mobile: Final Report (2014)G. Mascheroni, A. Cuman
The paper reports the findings of research in nine countries on children's use of technology, risky behaviors and parental mediation.
Net Children Go Mobile Final Report (2014)Giovanna Mascheroni, Andrea Cuman
Final report on implementation of Net Children Go Mobile project.
Country classification: opportunities, risks, harm and parental mediation (2013)Helsper, E.J., Kalmus, V., Hasebrink, U., Sagvari, B., and de Haan, J.
This report explores the range and type of online opportunities and risks experienced by children in each country. The ways in which parents mediate or regulate their children’s internet use is also examined.
In their own words: what bothers children online? (2013)Livingstone S., Kirwil, L., Ponte C. and Staksrud E., with the EU Kids Online network
The results of a survey of nearly 10,000 children in 25 countries across Europe, this report details what children say upsets them and their friends online
Overview and Analysis of 1:1 Learning Initiatives in Europe (2013)Intel
Intel 's report on the status of 1:1 Learning Initiative in Europe
Zero to Eight - Young Children and Their Internet Use (2013)Holloway, D., Green, L., and Livingstone, S. with members of the EU Kids Online network,
This report reviews a number of other studies and provides recommendations as to how younger children can be protected from online risks.
Country Classification: Opportunities, Risks, Harm and Parental Mediation (2013)Helsper, E. J., Kalmus, V., Hasebrink, U., Sagvari, B. and De Haan, J. with members of the EU Kids Online network
With data from 25 of the European countries surveyed in EU Kids Online, the report examines the range and type of online opportunities, risks and harm which children from each country experience, as well as looking at ways in which parents control or mediate their children’s Internet use.
Risks and safety on the internet: Comparing Brazilian and European children (2013)Barbosa, A., O’Neill, B., Ponte, C., Simões, J.A., Jereissati, T.,
This study compares the results of the survey of Brazilian children and their parents/guardians, carried out by the Brazilian Internet Steering Committee. Using the same methodology as the EU Kids Online research, the results from Brazil are compared with those from Europe.
EU Kids Online: Excessive Internet Use among European Children (2012)Smahel, D, Helsper, E, Green, L, Kalmus, V, Blinka, L, Ólafsson, K,
This report uses the data from the EU Kids Online study to examine excessive use of the Internet by children in the 25 participating countries.
The Protection of Children Online (2012)Kristina Irion
The report provides key findings and policy recommendations to keep children safe online as a follow up to the 2008 Seoul Ministerial Declaration on the Future of the Internet Economy.
EU Kids Online: National perspectives (2012)Haddon, L., Livingstone, S., EU Kids Online Network
This report summarizes the Internet experiences of children in the 33 participating EU Kids Online countries and includes eight countries which have not appeared in previous reports.
Excessive Internet Use by European Children (2012)D. Smahel, E. Helsper, L. Green, V. Kalmus, L. Blinka, K. Ólafsson
This report presents new findings and further analysis of the EU Kids Online 25-country survey regarding excessive use of the internet by children.
EU Kids Online: National perspectives (2012)Leslie Haddon, Sonia Livingstone and the EU Kids Online network
This report summarizes the Internet experiences of children in the 33 participating EU Kids Online countries and includes eight countries which have not appeared in previous reports
Risks and safety on the internet: The perspective of European children. Full Findings (2011)Livingstone, S., Haddon, L., Görzig, A., Ólafsson, K
Building on the original study, EU Kids Online I, this second piece of research includes the findings from research which took place in 25 countries. Children in the 9 – 16 age group were surveyed on their experiences of online use, risk and safety
Education on Online Safety in Schools in Europe (2009)Eurydice
The study covers 30 European countries and provides information on whether online safety is taught and how it is taught in schools within the participating countries.
EU Kids Online: Final report (2009)Livingstone, S., Haddon, L.
One of the foremost pieces of research into the online habits of children in the European Union is the EU Kids Online research, funded by the European Commission Safer Internet Plus Programme between 2006 and 2009.
Towards a safer use of the Internet for children in the EU - a parents' perspective (2008)Eurobarometer
The study covers 27 EU Member States and provides parental responses to a range of questions relating to Internet safety and their perception of risk.
U.S. /European Summit on Missing & Exploited Children (2005)International Centre for Missing & Exploited Children
Participants from different governments, law enforcement, and nongovernmental organizations participated in the U.S. /European Summit on Missing & Exploited Children. They discussed successes and shortcomings of current efforts to address the global problem of missing and exploited children, and adopted a comprehensive Action Plan.
This section contains details of the country’s laws as they relate to sexual offenses, children and the use of the Internet in the commission of criminal activity. Where possible, sentence details have been given, including whether an increased custodial penalty is imposed where the victim is a child.
The age of consent in Portugal was formally equalized as part of a review of the Penal Code in September 2007. Although the age of consent is set at fourteen, the legality of a sexual act with a minor between fourteen and sixteen is open to legal interpretation since Article 173 of the Penal Code states that is illegal to perform a sexual act with an adolescent between fourteen and sixteen years old ‘by taking advantage of their inexperience’.
Portugal has signed and ratified the Council of Europe’s Convention on Cybercrime (March 2010).
Article 163, Penal Code. Sexual Coercion. States that it is an offense to use force, violence or serious threat to compel another person to commit a sexual act, or to commit such an act on a person that has been made unconscious or unable to resist specifically for that purpose. The offense is punishable by imprisonment for between one and eight years. The article also states that anyone who abuses their authority or a relationship of hierarchical, economical or professional dependency to force another person to commit a sexual act will be punished by imprisonment for up to two years.
Article 164, Penal Code. Rape. This article states that it is an offense to use violence, force, or serious threat, or to make a person unconscious or unable to resist, in order to have vaginal, oral or anal sexual intercourse with the victim or enabling someone else to do so, or to insert body parts or any other objects into the vagina or anus. The offense is punishable by imprisonment for between three and ten years. The article also states that anyone who abuses their authority resulting from kinship, guardianship or trusteeship, or a hierarchical, economical or professional dependency to have vaginal, oral or anal sexual intercourse, or to insert bodily parts or other objects into the vagina or anus, will be punished by imprisonment for up to three years.
Article 165, Penal Code. Sexual Abuse of a Person Incapable of Resistance. Defines the crime of committing a sexual act with a person who is unconscious or unable to resist by abusing their situation or disability. The offender is liable to imprisonment for between six months and eight years. Where the crime included vaginal, oral or anal sexual intercourse or insertion of body parts or any other objects into the vagina or anus, the offender will be punished by imprisonment for between two and ten years.
Article 169, Penal Code. Prostitution. States that it is an offense to promote, encourage or facilitate, professionally or for profit, the prostitution of another person. The offense is punishable with imprisonment for between six months and five years. The article also states that the sentence will increase to imprisonment for between one and eight years in the following cases: where the offender uses violence or serious threat, ruse or deception; where he abuses his position of authority resulting from a family relationship, guardianship or trusteeship, or hierarchical, economical or professional dependency; where he takes advantage of mental incapacity or situation of special vulnerability of victim.
Article 171, Penal Code. Sexual Abuse of Children. Defines the crime of committing a sexual act with a person under fourteen years of age, or enticing the child to commit a sexual act with another person. The offense is punishable by imprisonment for between one and eight years. The article also states that if the act included vaginal, oral or anal intercourse, or insertion of any other objects into the vagina or anus, the offender will be punished by imprisonment for between three and ten years. In addition, it is an offense to sexually harass a child under fourteen years of age, or to influence him/her through pornographic conversation, writings, performances or objects. The punishment for these offenses is imprisonment for up to three years. The article also states that whoever commits any these acts for financial gain will be punished with imprisonment for between six months and five years.
Article 172, Penal Code. Sexual Abuse of Dependent Minors. States that it is an offense to commit a sexual act with a person aged between fourteen and eighteen, or to entice the child to commit a sexual act with another person, if the offender has been entrusted with the victim’s education or health. The offense is punishable with imprisonment for between one and eight years. Sexually harassing a child under fourteen years of age, or influencing the child through pornographic conversation, writings, performances or objects, is punishable with imprisonment for up to one year where the offender is entrusted with the victim’s education or health. The article also states that if such a dependency exists and the offender commits any of the acts described in this article for financial gain, he will be liable to imprisonment for up to three years or a fine.
Article 173, Penal Code. Sexual Acts with Teenagers. This article states that whoever, being older, commits a sexual act with a minor between fourteen and sixteen years of age, or leads the minor on to commit such an act with another person, thereby taking advantage of the minor’s inexperience, will be liable to imprisonment for up to two years or a fine of up to 240 days. Where the crime included vaginal, oral or anal sexual intercourse or insertion of body parts or any other objects into the vagina or anus, the offender will be punished by imprisonment for up to three years or fine of up to 360 days.
Article 174, Penal Code. Incitement to Prostitution of Minors. Defines the crime of submitting payment to perform sexual acts with a minor between fourteen and sixteen years of age by someone older. The offense is punishable with imprisonment for up to two years or a fine of up to 240 days. The article also states that where the crime included vaginal, oral or anal sexual intercourse or insertion of body parts or any other objects into the vagina or anus, the offender will be punished by imprisonment for up to three years or fine of up to 360 days. Intent to commit any of these offenses is also punishable.
Article 175, Penal Code. Prostitution of Minors. States that those who promote, encourage or facilitate the prostitution of minors are liable to imprisonment for between one and five years. An increased penalty of imprisonment for between two and ten years is applicable in the following cases: where the offender used violence or serious threat, ruse or deception; where the offender abused his authority resulting from a family relationship, guardianship or trusteeship, or a hierarchical, economical or professional dependency; where the offender was acting professionally or for profit or where the offender took advantage of the mental incapacity or situation of special vulnerability of the victim.
Article 176, Penal Code. Child Pornography. This section states that it is a crime to use a minor in pornographic performances or seduce them for that purpose. The offense is punishable with imprisonment for between one and five years. The article also states that the same sentence applies to (a) whoever uses a minor in pornographic photographs, movies or other recordings, or seduces them for those activities; (b) whoever produces, distributes, imports, exports, advertises, displays or sells, any such material by any means; (c) whoever acquires or holds such materials with the intention of distributing, importing, exporting, advertising, displaying or transferring it. The article also states that anyone who practices any of the actions described above professionally or with a profit making intention will be punished with imprisonment for a term from one and eight years. A penalty of imprisonment for up to two years will be imposed on anyone who practices the acts described in (b) and (c) above, using pornographic material with a realistic representation of a minor. In addition, anyone who acquires or withholds pornographic pictures, movies or other recordings depicting a minor will be punished with imprisonment for up to one year or with a fine. Intent to commit any of these offenses is also punishable.
Article 177, Penal Code. Aggravation. States that the penalties given in Articles 163 to 165 and 167 to 176 will be increased by one third of their maximum and minimum if the victim: (a) is an relative, adoptive parent or adoptee or (b) is a familial relationship, guardianship or trusteeship or a relationship of hierarchical, economical or professional dependency with the offender, and the crime was practiced with the exploitation of this relationship. The article also states that the penalties foreseen in Articles 163 to 167 and 171 to 174 will be aggravated by one third of their maximum and minimum if the offender has any sexually transmitted disease. The penalties given in Articles 163 to 168 and 171 to 174 will be aggravated by one half of their maximum and minimum if the offenses described therein resulted in pregnancy, severe violation of the physical integrity of the victim, transmission of a life-threatening virus, suicide or death of the victim. This article also states that the penalties given in Articles 163, 164, 168, 174, 175 and the first paragraph of article 176 will be aggravated by one third of their maximum and minimum if the victim is less than sixteen years old. Where the victim is less than fourteen years old, the penalties given in those Articles will be increased by one half of their maximum and minimum.
Article 180, Penal Code. Defamation. This article states that whoever, addressing a third person, imputes a fact or forms an opinion about it to someone, even in the form of suspicion, and this statement is offensive to the victim’s honor or reputation, or repeats such an allegation or opinion, will be punished with imprisonment for up to six months or a fine of up to 240 days. The offense is not punishable where the allegation was made to execute legal interest, or where the offender can prove that the accusation is true, or where he had serious grounds to believe it to be true.
Article 181, Penal Code. Libel. States that anyone who insults another person, attributing facts, even in the form of suspicion, offensive to the victim’s honor or reputation, shall be punished with imprisonment for up to three months or a fine of up to 120 days.
Article 182, Penal Code. States that defamation and slander is also punishable if committed in writing, through gestures, pictures or any other medium.
Article 183, Penal Code. Advertising and Slander. This section states that in the case of crimes defined in Articles 180, 181 and 182, where the offense is committed by means or in circumstances which facilitate their dissemination, or, with regard to the attribution of facts, where the offender knew they were lies, the penalties will be increased by a third. The section also states that where the crime is committed through social communication media, the offender will be punished with imprisonment for up to two years or a fine of not less than 120 days.