The Ministry of Education plans to integrate ICT into the curriculum, but no details are given as to if this includes lessons in Internet safety. More students and teachers receive laptops under the One Laptop Per Child (OLPC) initiative.
2002 - One of the first ICT projects initiated by the Ministry of Education was Huascarán Program, which had the goal of promoting the application of ICTs in rural state schools in Peru. The program provided teachers and principals with guidance on pedagogical aspects and on the application of ICT to their learning activities, whilst also providing them with a classroom equipped with between five and ten computers, depending on the number of students.
2005 - Launched in January, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Media Lab instigated the now-famous project in an attempt to provide a basic laptop to all the poorest children in the world, especially in developing countries. In the largest One Laptop Per Child program to date, Peru has purchased more XO laptops than any other country. Introduced in Peru 2008, the government initially aimed to distribute 40,000 laptops to 550 pilot schools across the country. By summer 2012, the Ministry of Education stated that close to 100,000 laptops had been distributed to students.The country’s usage policy states that students are allowed to take their laptops home.
In 2006, Microsoft released a Language Interface Pack (LIP) in Quechua, the most widely-spoken indigenous language of the Americas. The LIP software (compatible with certain Windows Operating Systems) and Microsoft Office versions, enables menus, instructions and buttons to all display in Quechua. The translation of the Spanish software into Quechua was undertaken by three Peruvian universities, with whom Microsoft partnered, enabling three million Peruvians to access technology in their native language. Children, in particular, were helped to improve their reading comprehension, with the project reaching fourteen schools and in excess of 800 children in the region.
Peru’s National Education Project 2021 (PEN) envisages the promotion of ICT in all curricular areas to optimize learning at all levels of education. Internet Kiosks should be installed in public schools for continued use by students after class, whilst all basic education institution should receive Internet connections.
2008 - The National Curriculum for Basic Education seeks to develop students’ ICT skills within an ethical framework, promoting independent learning for life. Students are to be educated in the areas of information technology as well a digital communication, including the Internet, so they will gain the relevant skills to use various programs for the collection, analysis, interpretation and use of relevant data in an efficient manner. Critical judgment and strategic thinking for selecting sources of information have to be developed.
2009 - The vision of Peru’s e-Government Master Plan from 2009 is the active utilization of ICT and the creation of “a society with principles of equality, inclusion and nondiscrimination”. In terms of the development of human capacities, the government recognizes the need to integrate ICT into the educational curriculum and to establish an e-Learning community. Digital Literacy is envisaged to be included as a course option in national universities.
The country’s National Plan for ICT in Education (2010 - 2020) has the target of connecting all Peruvian public schools to the Internet as well as each other, and making efficient use of ICT in the classroom by 2020. It will utilize ICT as a platform to improve the coverage and quality of educational services, strengthen the workforce in the use of ICT and promote the development of educational content. Furthermore, by 2020, ICT is envisaged to be fully integrated in the curriculum, in addition to the creation of digital libraries, teacher and student networks, as well as virtual campuses and learning platforms. As a result, the Peruvian Educational Portal, PerúEduca, was launched as a decentralized platform where students, teachers, principals, parents and the population at large can access, produce and share multimedia information.
The NGO, Partnership in Opportunities for Employment through Technology in The Americas (POETA) provides training to people with disabilities and to young people, both of whom have high rates of unemployment. The aim is that through providing training in the use of ICT, as well as courses on other topics, such as job readiness, combined with POETA’s support to students to find them job placements after they have completed their course, students will find employment.
2010 - A number of NGOs operate in Peru and Microsoft has donated software to some of them for the benefit of targeted groups with specific needs. The international human rights organization, Paz y Esperanza (Peace and Hope), launched a training program for the girls and young women in its care, many of whom have fled from abuse or violence. The Casa del Buen Trato Hovde is home to around 80 girls who, among other forms of support, receive IT training to further both their education and employment prospects.
2012 - In February, the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) released a highly anticipated paper entitled, Technology and Child Development: Evidence from One Laptop per Child Program, which presented findings from its evaluation of the program in Peru. The research’s findings included an improved student-to-computer ratio, up from 0.12 to 1.18 computers per student. However, despite the scale of the program, the government’s vast investments and its one-to-one implementation, the paper concludes that there is “little solid evidence regarding the effectiveness of this program”. No evidence was found that OLPC increased learning in math or languages, nor did it positively affect classroom attendance. In particular, reading habits did also not improve, despite the laptop being pre-loaded with 200 books, and considering that only 26% of the control group possessed five or more books.
For teachers, the Masters of the XXI Century program subsidizes the purchase of laptops for educators. With support from Intel, 35,000 computers were purchased in the first phase of the project, with the remaining educators envisaged be equipped in the second phase.
The telecommunications provider Movistar launched Aula 365 (Classroom 365) to support student learning in February. The interactive portal, which is currently available in five countries worldwide, offers a fun and safe environment with moderated content that can enhance student learning and is designed to complement education in schools. The ‘learn while you play’ concept enables students to access over 3,000 educational resources, interact securely with peers and gain access to a virtual teacher. Access is available for all customers of Movistar Speedy, free of charge.
2014 - Beyond Access, the National Library of Peru and CEDRO, worked with three pilot libraries in Pucallpa, Trujillo and Yauya to provide trainings on digital literacy and e-government. In these efforts helping to bridge the digital and information gap in Peru, the project Libraries for Development, achieved a 36% increase in library visits during the beginning of 2014.
UNESCO education ICT and policy specialist provided technical assistance in Peru with the “Teaching Development Enhancement Project”, which purpose was to build teaching capacity. The visit sought to strengthen institutional ICT capacities, to provide training for teachers, and to discuss education policies with academics.
Instituto Interamericano del Niño, la Niña y Adolescente (INN)
A specialized body of the Organization of American States (OAS) on children and adolescents policy that provides guidance to the different states on how they must assume protection.
INTERPOL is the world’s largest international police organization, with 190 member countries. Its mission is to enable police forces to collaborate globally to fight crime in the Internet age. Three areas of focus are crimes against children (with a focus on internet crimes and travelling sex offenders), cybercrime and human trafficking.
Latin American Network of Educational Portals (La Red Latinoamericana de Portales Educativos – RELPE)
Formed in 2004 by an agreement of the Ministries of Education from sixteen Latin American countries, a network of educational portals, allowing the collaboration and sharing of educational content between the member countries. It also provides for the construction of standards and methodologies of processes to position the network as a benchmark in the region and the world on collaborative management of educational content.
Latin American Network of ICT and Education (Red Iberoamericana de TIC y Educación – RIATE)
This organization promotes bilateral or multilateral cooperation for development through the exchange of information, initiatives and projects that promote the integration of ICT in education in 21 countries.
One Laptop per Child (OLPC)
A nonprofit organization launched by Massachusetts Institute of Technology Media Lab, whose aim to empower the world’s poorest children through education by providing a low cost laptops.
Peru Educational Portal
Launched by The Ministry of Educationl for students, teachers and parents alike, in 2012. Pupils can get access to articles, animations, images, audio, multimedia presentations, games, interactive lessons and much more, all organized by grade level and subject. Educators can view and download lesson plans as well as upload their own material to share with colleagues.
Peruvian Network against Child Pornography
Aims to eradicate child pornography producers, distributors and consumers, especially those who use the Internet to engage in their offenses. It also fights against trafficking in persons, the commercial sexual exploitation of children and the smuggling of children and teenagers.
Seguros en Internet
Is part of the Peruvian Network against Child Pornography. This website, supported by Telefonica, allows people to report illegal activities. Internet users are able to submit reports anonymously, therefore helping to make the Internet a safer place.
The Interactive Generations Forum
A nonprofit organization which mission is to promote the use of technology to improve people’s lives. It was founded in 2008 by Telefónica, the University of Navarra and the Inter-American Organization (OUI). The Forum seeks to understand the impact of technology on children aged between 6 - 18 in Latin America, to provide educational resources for that age group and to educate through its own programs.
The Network for the Rights of Children and Adolescents to the Safe and Responsible Use of New ICTs - RedNATIC
It comprises a joint group of organizations from across Latin America. Its member organizations assume as shared the principles of the statements contained in the Theoretical Framework for the rights of children and teens to a Safe and Responsible Use of ICT.
Committee on the Rights of the Child considers the report of Peru. (2016)United nations Human Rights Office of the High Comissioner
Fourth and fifth periodic report of Peru on its implementations of the Convention of the Rights of the Child, and the initial report after the implementation of the Optional Protocols to the Convention of the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography, and children in armed conflict.
Protecting Children from Cybercrime (2015)Simone dos Santos Lemos Fernandes, Legal Consultant, Global Forum on Law Justice and Development (GFLJD), Legal Vice Presidency, World Bank
This report studies different Latin American countries’ legislation on the prevention and combat of violence against children on the internet. It also identifies gaps and good practices on the protection of children from cybercrime.
Global Research Project: A Global Landscape of Hotlines Combating Child Sexual Abuse Material on the Internet and an Assessment of Shared Challenges (2015)Melissa Stroebe, Stacy Jeleniewski, PhD
This report examines hotlines combating Internet-facilitated Child Sexual Abuse Material.
Information and Communications Technology and Child Sexual Exploitation. (2015)United nations Human Rights Office of the High Comissioner
Report on the analysis of the legal framework applicable to online child sexual exploitation. It also identifies the different forms of child sexual abuse online and offers some recommendations on how to address this issue.
Más Tecnología, Más Cambio? investigating an Educational Technology Project in Rural Peru (2015)Emeline Therias, Jon Bird, Paul Marshall
This document explains why providing Information and Communication Technologies can help reduce socio-economic and education equalities but it is not enough.
The commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children in Latin America (2014)ECPAT International
This report studies the different forms of sexual exploitation of children inLatin America. Furthermore, it highlights the new emerging trends and how Latin america is addressing this phenomena
Designing Collaborative Teacher Training Curriculum for Using ICTs in Education: Experiences from Peruvian Schools. (2014)Komathi Ale, Paz Olivera
This paper explores the peruvian case of the implementation of an ICT infrastructure in schools, and how this is no the only step that needs to be taken to end the digital divide.
Transforming Peru’s Main Port to the world into a Digital City. (2012)Intel
Study of the city of Callao on the initial results after the implementation of new technologies by Intel in its aim to transform it in a digital city.
Technology and Child Development: Evidence from One Laptop per Child Program (2012)Cristina, J.P., Ibarrarán, P., Cueto, S.; Santiago, A., Severín, E.
This paper presents the impact of the first large-scale randomized evaluation of the OLPC program, using data collected after fifteen months of implementation in 319 primary schools in rural Peru.
Computers in Schools: Why governments Should do their Homework (2011)Inter-American Development Bank
This chapter is a comparison of the Latin American governments include ICT in their educational programs.
Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children and the Internet (2011)Inter American Children’s Instirute
This is a report to the Organization of American States on the situation of the member states in the issue of commercial sexual exploitation and the impact of internet in their lives.
2009 Findings on the worst Forms of Child Labor - Peru (2010)Bureau of International Labor Affairs
Report on the worst types of child labor in Peru during 2009. It also presents the laws and the government programs aimed to end them.
Does ICT Increase Years of Education? Evidence from peru. (2010)Julian P. Cristia, Alejo Czerwonki, Pablo Garofalo
This document presents empirical evidence on the impact on education with the introduction of computers in schools.
Los desafíos de las TIC para el cambio educativo (2009)Roberto Carneiro, Juan Carlos Toscano and Tamara Díaz
This is a collective Inter-American educational program which goals are projected until the year 2021. It analyses the challenges of the new era of education and the importance of incorporating ICT on it.
Digital Divide among Low Income People in Colombia, Mexico and Peru (2008)Luis H. Gutierrez R and Luis F. Gamboa N.
This Research explores the indices of ICT usage in Colombia, Mexico and Peru and its impact in society
Digital Poverty: Concept and measurement, with an application to Peru. (2007)Roxana Barrantes Cáceres
This paper presents general information on digital poverty as consequence of the many people in Latin America and the Caribbean that lack of access to ICTs. In the second section of this document the focus is on Peru.
2005 Findings on the worst Forms of Child Labor - Peru (2006)Bureau of International Labor Affairs
Report on the worst types of child labor in Peru during 2005. It also presents the laws and the government programs aimed to end them.
This section contains details of the country’s laws as they relate to sexual offenses, children and the use of the Internet in the commission of criminal activity. Where possible, sentence details have been given, including whether an increased custodial penalty is imposed where the victim is a child.
The age of consent for sexual activity has been lowered in 2007 from seventeen to fourteen. The age of consent for marriage is eighteen, although minors from the age of sixteen may marry with parental consent, or where they have acquired a professional degree and are financially independent. The age of simple majority is eighteen.
In September 2013, the National Congress of Peru put into effect a controversial law against cybercrime (Law 30096 – Ley de Delitos Informáticos), which amended the existing Penal Code and penalized grooming, illegal personal data traffic, computer fraud, and other computer-related crimes. Whilst the law protects victims of crimes committed online and punishes those who violate rights electronically, it has been argued that it also violates personal privacy as the police are allowed to request personal data, including real names and home addresses, from ISPs without a warrant.28 Amendments to the law were made in March 2014 (Law 30171) mainly in an effort to clarify some of the original text that could lead to restricting the freedom of speech and collaborative online work, of journalists and others.
- Article 154, Penal Code. Violation of Privacy. This Article states that anyone who violates personal or family privacy, whether by watching, listening to, or recording an act, a word, a piece of writing or an image, using technical instruments or processes and other means, shall be punished with imprisonment for no longer than two years. This is aggravated to between one and three years’ imprisonment if the offender knew about the intimacy of the conversation beforehand. Where the offender used any social media, the term of imprisonment will be increased to between two and four years, and a 60 to 180 days’ fine.
- Article 170, Penal Code. Rape. States that anyone who uses force or serious threat to compel a person to have vaginal, anal or oral sexual intercourse, or to perform similar acts by introducing objects or body parts into the vagina, will be guilty of rape and liable to between six and eight years’ imprisonment. The punishment will be increased to between twelve to eighteen years if: the offender was armed; the offense was committed jointly by two or more persons; the offender was in a position of authority over the victim; the offender was knowingly a carrier of a sexually transmitted disease or the offender was a teacher or assistant teacher at the victim’s school.
- Article 173, Penal Code. Rape of a Minor. States that anyone who has vaginal, anal or oral sexual intercourse with a minor, or performs similar acts with a minor by introducing objects or body parts into the vagina, will be punished as follows: life imprisonment if the victim is under the age of ten; 30 to 35 years’ imprisonment where the victim is aged between ten and thirteen, and 25 to 30 years’ imprisonment if the victim is between fourteen and seventeen years of age. Where the offender is in a position of authority over the victim, he/she will be liable to life imprisonment.
- Article 173-A, Penal Code. Rape of a Minor Resulting in Death or Serious Injury. Imposes a penalty of life imprisonment if the rape of a minor causes serious injury to the victim or causes his/her death, and the offender could foresee this outcome but carried on regardless.
- Article 174, Penal Code. Violation of Authority of Person under Surveillance. States that anyone who takes advantage of a situation of dependency, authority or supervision to have sexual intercourse with another person will be punished with imprisonment for seven to ten years.
- Article 175, Penal Code. Seduction. This Article states that anyone who uses deceit to have sexual intercourse (or similar) with a minor aged between fourteen and seventeen will be liable to three to five years’ imprisonment.
- Article 176, Penal Code. Indecent Acts. Defines the offense as to use violence or serious threat to force a person to perform an act upon him or herself or another person that involves improper touching of the intimate parts or general indecent lewdness without intention of engaging in sexual intercourse or similar. The penalty for this offense is imprisonment for a term between three to five years. If the offender was in a position of authority over the victim or was knowingly a carrier of a sexually transmitted disease, or is the victim’s teacher, an aggravated penalty of five to seven years’ imprisonment will apply.
- Article 176-A, Penal Code. Indecent Acts on Children. This Article states that anyone who performs an act on or causes a minor under fourteen years of age to perform an act upon him or herself or another that involves improper touching of the intimate parts or general indecent lewdness, without intention of engaging in sexual intercourse or similar, is guilty of an offense. If the victim is under the age of seven, the penalty will be between seven and ten years’ imprisonment. If the victim is aged between seven and nine, a six to nine years’ prison term will apply, and where the minor is aged ten to thirteen, the penalty will be five to eight years in prison. Where the offender is in position of particular authority or trust over the victim, the punishment ranges from ten to twelve years’ imprisonment.
- Article 177, Penal Code. Rape Followed by Death or Serious Injury. Imposes an aggravated penalty of imprisonment for between 20 and 25 years if, in the cases of Articles 170, 171, 174, 176 and 176-A, the offender caused serious injury to the victim or his/her death, and the offender could foresee this outcome but carried on regardless.
- Article 178, Penal Code. Obligation to Provide Support for Offspring. States that if any of the offenses in this chapter result in pregnancy, the offender is additionally required to provide support for the offspring. Article 179, Penal Code. Favoring Prostitution. Defines the offense as to promote or encourage the prostitution of others, which is punishable by imprisonment for between four and six years. Where the victim is under the age of eighteen, or where the offender used violence, deceit, abuse of authority or any form of intimidation (among other aggravating circumstances), an increased penalty of five to twelve years’ imprisonment will apply.
- Article 179-A, Penal Code. User-Client. States that anyone who has sexual intercourse or similar with a minor aged fourteen to seventeen for any form of payment to the minor will be liable to imprisonment for between four and six years.
- Article 180, Penal Code. Pimping. Imposes a penalty of imprisonment for three to eight years for anyone who profits from the prostitution of another. Where the victim is between fourteen to seventeen, an aggravated sentence of six to ten years’ imprisonment will apply. If the victim is under the age of fourteen, this will be further increased to eight to twelve years in prison.
- Article 181, Penal Code. Procuration. Defines the offense as to seduce or remove a person with the intent that the victim shall have sexual intercourse with another. The offense is punishable with imprisonment for three to six years. An increased penalty of six to twelve years’ imprisonment will apply if the victim is a minor, if the offender uses violence, threats, abuse of authority or other means of coercion, or if he/she acts as a member of a criminal organization.
- Article 181-A, Penal Code. Child Sex Tourism. This Article states that it is an offense to promote, advertise, publicize or facilitate child sex tourism through any means, including prints, brochures, visual material, electronic or online material, etc., for the purpose of commercial sexual exploitation. The penalty for promoting sexual tourism that exploits adolescents aged between fourteen and seventeen years of age is between two and six years’ imprisonment. This will be increased to six to eight years if the victim is under the age of fourteen. In cases of involvement by a public official or a child’s guardian, the penalty is eight to ten years’ imprisonment.
- Article 182, Penal Code. Human Trafficking. Defines the offense as to promote or facilitate human trafficking for the purpose of engaging the victim in prostitution, sexual slavery, pornography or other forms of sexual exploitation. The offense is punishable by imprisonment for between five and ten years.
- Article 182-A, Penal Code. Publication in the Media about Crimes Against Child Sexual Freedom. States that anyone who manages or is responsible for publications to be transmitted through mass media to promote child prostitution, child sex tourism and trafficking in minors under the age of eighteen will be liable to imprisonment for between two and six years.
- Article 183, Penal Code. Obscene Exhibitions and Publications. States that anyone who, in a public place, performs any obscene gestures, exhibitions, or other acts of an obscene nature will be liable to imprisonment for two to four years. This is aggravated to three to six years if the offender incited a minor under the age of eighteen to perform an obscene act or to practice prostitution, amongst other aggravating circumstances.
- Article 183-A, Penal Code. Child Pornography. Penalizes the possession, promotion, production, distribution, exhibition, trade, publication, import and export by any means, including the Internet, of pornographic objects, books, images and auditory media featuring a minor. The production of pornographic live performances involving minors is also penalized. Where the victim is under the age of fourteen, the penalty will be ten to twelve years’ imprisonment and a 60 to 365 days’ fine. If the victim is aged between fourteen and seventeen, the offender will be liable to between six and ten years’ imprisonment and a fine of between 120 and 365 days. Where the offender acts as a member of a criminal organization, or where he/she is in a position of authority over the victim, a prison sentence of twelve to fifteen years will apply.
- Article 183-B, Penal Code.31 Sexual Solicitation of Children and Adolescents. This Article states that anyone who uses the Internet or similar means to contact a child under the age of fourteen, in order to request or obtain pornographic material from the minor, or to perform sexual activities with him/her, will be liable to imprisonment for between four and eight years. Where the victim is aged fourteen or above but under the age of eighteen, and the offender used deceit, the penalty shall be three to six years’ imprisonment.
Internet safety is of concern to Peruvians, with online news sources running pieces on the subject, aimed largely at parents for whom computers may be foreign territory. In January 2009 the Ministry of Women and Social Development launched the campaign, Peru e-Government Master Plan Government Master Plan, aimed at raising awareness among children of the need for safe behavior online. Owners of Internet cafes and kiosks (a main source of Internet access) were given the opportunity to attend sessions to make them aware of their responsibilities. Children attended training sessions in schools in Lima and Callao and were to be surveyed about their Internet usage habits.
In 2015, Peru was welcomed at INHOPE’s Annual General Assembly on June 4th, at EUROPL’s HQ in The Hague, the Netherlands. The event focused on how to combat the online availability of child sexual abuse material, as this worldwide problem lacks of understanding among policymakers and the global public.
Peru, in August 2015, was also part of a series of workshops and webinars, Child Online Protection in Latin America, in which the GSMA and UNICEF work closely with organizations such as the International Center for Missing and Exploited Children (ICMEC), the Internet Watch Foundation (IWF), INHOPE and Interpol, among many others in Latin America. The purpose was to promote guidelines for the correct use of the ICTs and provide practical support for its implementation on a country-by-country basis.