2003 - e-Teacher Project encourages teachers to acquire ICT skills through its online courses. The course offered most comprehensive, with units on web ethics and security, as well as how to integrate various ICTs into classroom teaching, multimedia, databases etc.
2005 - Microsoft’s Unlimited Potential (UP) program has been supporting Pakistan’s Community Technology Learning Centers (CTLCs), a program that was implemented by National Commission for Human Development (NCHD), in the provision of ICT skills training as a tool to empower communities. The global UP initiative focuses on transforming education, improving lifelong learning and enabling jobs and opportunities. Over 3,000 rural underserved women have graduated after successfully completing 4 months quality trainings in 16 districts all over the country,
2006 - The Ministry of of Information Technology established Pakistan’s Universal Service Fund to promote the development of telecommunication services and to make telephone as well as Internet available to greater proportions of the population and facilitate governmental e-services. Projects set up to achieve these goals include the Rural Telecom Project, Broadband for Unserved Urban Areas, Fiber Optic Connectivity to Unserved Tehsils (second administrative division), and ICT for Persons with Disabilities. In terms of penetration of ICT services, the objective is to bring telecom coverage to 85% of the population, with 5% of rural areas covered, 1% broadband penetration and ideally one Community Technology Learning Center (CTLC) for every 5,000 people.
2007 - In collaboration with USAID and Ministry of Information Technology (MIT), the Ministry of Education (now the Ministry of Federal Education and Professional Training) implemented the National Information and Communications Technology Strategy for Education gives a strategic direction for the mainstreaming of ICT in the education system of Pakistan. The 2007 strategy focuses on using ICTs to extend the reach of educational opportunity, to strengthen the quality of teaching and educational management, to enhance student learning, to develop complementary approaches for the use of ICTs in education, to build on current experiences of existing and successful program, and to develop capacity at the federal and provincial department level.
2008 - The Government of Pakistan initiated a broad-based consultative process to revise the national IT policy for the next five years. The policy invested PKR 2.36 billion through Universal Service Fund (USF) for rural telecom and broadband projects in unserved areas of Pakistan. Broadband connections will be provided in 11 districts (38 small towns) of Southern Punjab, in addition to establishing 27 Educational Broadband Centers in high schools, colleges, libraries, and 121 Community Broadband Centers.
To overcome the digital divide between the public and private sector schools, the government launched Punjab IT Labs project, which was one of the first ICT in Education projects in Pakistan. In 2009, the project equipped over 4,286 schools with 3 desktop PCs and 12 virtual desktops. Microsoft has also provided teacher training in an effort to enhance the teaching methodology adopted by teachers. Efforts are ongoing to ensure that internet connectivity is provided in all the schools covered under this initiative. In 2012, the Pinjab Government planned to set up 795 new computer labs.
2009 - Microsoft initiated Refurbished PC Program in Pakistan through its Unlimited Potential initiative, which allows customers to enjoy refurbished PCs at competitive prices. Program aims to close the digital divide in the country by creating new products and programs that help bring social and economic opportunity to the many Pakistanis.
The same year, the World Memon Organization, an international NGO, established Memon Industrial and Technical Institute (MITI), a vocational and technical training institute for the youth (both boys and girls) offering a wide variety of technical, IT, multimedia and home economic course/disciplines. In 2014, Intel Pakistan undersigned in a MoU with MITI to increase the relevance of computer devices as a tool for learning and providing quality basic digital literacy opportunities to underprivileged section of the society through its Intel® Learn Easy Steps program.
2010 - Microsoft launched its campaign on Online Children Safety in Pakistan. The main feature of this program is to create awareness among the parents and teachers of children using internet for the safer use technology. Nearly 2,000 teachers and parents benefitted from the 33 sessions of online safety training in Lahore. Microsoft Pakistan has planned to deliver about 100 training sessions all across the country in collaboration with different NGOs.
The same year, the Ministry of Education launched the Pakistan Girls’ Education Initiative (PGEI) in support with UNICEF, the National Commission for Human Development, the UN Girls Education Initiative (UNGEI) Secretariat and the UK Department for International Development in an effort to address gender disparities in education.
2011 - In collaboration with the British Council, the SIE conducted Connecting Classrooms teacher training to 200 teachers from 91 schools in Karachi. Teachers were trained on how effectively use the Connecting Classrooms Online Community to discuss curriculum development, potential links with other teachers globally, and engage students in online collaborative projects.
2012 - Tech Implement launched Britannica Learning Tools to improve the math learning outcomes of Grade 4 children in Lahore through the provision of free e-learning tools called Smart Math. In addition, the five schools who participated in the project were connected to Internet. The same year, Trojans, Pakistani IT provider, introduced 3D Computer Aided Design (CAD) courses for secondary schools to increase interest in science and technical education among students from the underprivileged areas of Rawalpindi, Pakistan.
Over the last eleven years, the Ministry of Technology has undertaken a number of initiatives to develop a National IT Policy 2012. The policy aims to improve the quality of life of citizens by ensuring availability of accessible, universal, affordable, modern and high quality IT facilities and services within Pakistan. The Ministry of Information Technology set plans to accelerate digital literacy and its integration into the society, built on facilitating access, awareness, security, trust, and fostering research and innovation.
2013 - After a successful implementation of Digital Doors, Alif Laila Book Bus Society (ALBBS) launched a two year Digital Means project, which continued to develop digital education, as well as creating e-learning content based on the Pinjab curriculum for 4th and 5th grade English and Mathematics. In addition, the project also facilitated teachers training on the use of technology. By the end of 2015, an estimate of 1040 students benefited from this project. The same year, Grass Roots Assistance and People Empowerment Society (GRAPES) have set up an English & Computer Literacy Center that provides English and basic computer usage course for a subsidized fee to students and out-of-school youth in the remote area of Ghaddani, Balochistan.
Since 2001, Intel Education has been actively promoting the use of technology in education in Pakistan, addressing the educational challenges of the 21st century. The Intel Teach Program aims to ensure that academic planning includes the use of technology in the classroom and provides mandatory ICT training for all K-12 teachers. As of 2007, approximately 28,000 pre-service faculty and student teachers have been trained in Pakistan. In 2013 Intel introduced its ‘She Will Connect’ program in Pakistan. The initiative aims for young women in developing countries to acquire and to improve their digital literacy skills through training, and online peer network and gender-relevant content.
2014 - ISOC Pakistan Islamabad Chapter conducted a workshop to create awareness among teachers parents and children about cyber risks for children and how we can save ourselves or our kids from cyberbullying and other risks involve in usage on internet. In partnership with Pakistan Institute of ICTs for Development, ISOC Pakistan Islamabad Chapter held a workshop on ICTs for development 50 professionals from Islamabad and adjacent rural areas.
The same year, USAID, Punjab Provincial Director and Intel Pakistan signed a Memorandum of Understanding on the use of technology to support education and women’s economic empowerment in Pakistan. The organizers set plans work on digital curriculum development, content management systems and solutions, and modeling of classroom information technology. As well as provide workforce skills development training and establish computer literacy programs for women’s economic empowerment.
2015 - The Ministry of Information Technology approved Telecommunication Policy 2015, where the ministry plans to provide available universal, affordable and quality telecommunication services through open, competitive and well managed markets. In addition, through Universal Service Fund (USF), it plans to instal broadband communications in the public sector building to enable maximum use of ICT services. Under this policy operators are enabled to deploy Wi Fi hot spots for public use. In case of special projects, narrowband and broadband wireline access to specific institutions such as educational and health care institutions will be installed.
The same year, Khud launched an initiative in Lahore to accelerate the learning of marginalized and underprivileged children through the use of technology. State of the art computer lab has been set up with the funds donated by the Pakistani expatriates from the U.S. and Badamibagi Traders Union. In early 2016, Khud created a partnership with a local NGOs in the other regions of Pakistan to stimulate creative thinking and create more independent learners.
INTERPOL is the world’s largest international police organization, with 190 member countries. Its mission is to enable police forces to collaborate globally to fight crime in the Internet age. Three areas of focus are crimes against children (with a focus on internet crimes and travelling sex offenders), cybercrime and human trafficking.
One Laptop per Child (OLPC)
A nonprofit organization launched by Massachusetts Institute of Technology Media Lab, whose aim to empower the world’s poorest children through education by providing a low cost laptops.
The Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children in South Asia (2014)ECPAT
Developments, progress, challenges and recommended strategies for civil society in India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nepal, Sri Lanka
Global Digital Communication: Texting, Social Networking Popular Worldwide (2012)J. Menasce Horowitz, K. Simmons, J. Poushter, C. Barker
The report is a part of the Pew Research Center's Global Attitudes Project, which conducts opinion surveys on subjects ranging from people's assessments of their own lives to their views about the current state of the world and important issues of the day.
Worldwide Online Bullying Survey. (2012)Microsoft
This survey explored children’s experience of online bullying in 25 countries across the globe.
Small World, Big Responsibility: The UK’s role in the global trade in children (2012)Erika Hall, Phillippa Lei
This report preset information on the different forms of child exploitation. Its purpose is to raise awareness to this global issue.
Worldwide Online Bullying Survey (2012)Microsoft
This survey explored children’s experience of online bullying in 25 countries across the globe.
ICT in Education in Central and West Aisa (2012)Asian Development Bank
Progerss of implementation of ICT in education sector of Central and West Asian countries
ECPAT Global Monitoring Report: Pakistan (2011)ECPAT
Report on the status of action against commercial sexual exploitation of children in Pakistan
Meta-survey on the Use of Technologies in Education in Asia and the Pacific (2003)Glen Farrell, Cédric Wachholz
This study identifies and analyses the different practices in the use of ICTs in education in Asia and the Pacific. it discusses countries’ policies, challenges and successful ICT integration in the region.
This section contains details of the country’s laws as they relate to sexual offenses, children and the use of the Internet in the commission of criminal activity. Where possible, sentence details have been given, including whether an increased custodial penalty is imposed where the victim is a child.
The legal age of majority in Pakistan is eighteen for males and sixteen for females, or earlier if the person has attained puberty. The age for consent for marriage is eighteen for males and sixteen for females. There is no set age of consent for sexual activity, because Islam does not permit sex before marriage. If partners commits Zina (sexual intercourse without being validly married to each other), they are liable to Hadd (punishment ordained by the Holy Qur’an or Sunnah).
- The Protection of Women (Criminal Laws Amendment) Act, 2006 (Act VI of 2006), approved by the National Assembly in November 2006, provides relief and protection for women against misuse and abuse of law and to prevent their exploitation. The Act made a number of amendments to the Penal Code as well as the Offence of Zina (Enforcement of Hudood) Ordinance. Previously, for example, according to the Hudood Ordinance, women who accused men of rape required evidence from four men for a successful conviction: failing that they faced punishment for having sex outside of marriage.20 Under the new Act, rape is an offense under the Penal Code and convictions are based purely on evidence.
- Section 2, Offence of Zina Ordinance. States that an adult is a male who has attained the age of eighteen or a female who has attained the age of sixteen, or who has attained puberty. The Section also defines ‘hadd’ as a punishment ordained by the Holy Qur’an or Sunnah. ‘Muhsan’ means a Muslim male adult who is not insane and has sexual intercourse with a Muslim adult woman who he was married to and is also not insane; this applies to females vice versa.
- Section 4, Offence of Zina Ordinance. This Section states that a man and a woman commit Zina if they willfully have sexual intercourse without being married to each other.
- Section 5, Offence of Zina Ordinance. Zina Liable to Hadd. States that Zina is liable to Hadd if it is committed by an adult male who is not insane with a woman to whom he is not married; this also applies to females vice versa. Anyone liable to Hadd will be stoned to death in a public place if the offender is a Muhsan. If the offender is not a Mushan, the penalty will be 100 lashes in a public place.
- Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Child Protection and Welfare Act, 2010. The act defines child pornography as means taking, permits to be taken, with or without the consent of the child, any photograph, film, video, picture or representation, portrait, or computer generated image or picture, whether made or produced by electronic, mechanical, or other means, of obscene or sexually explicit conduct, where- (i) the production of such visual depiction involves the use of a minor engaging in obscene or sexually explicit conduct; or (ii) such visual depiction is a digital image, computer image, or computer-generated image that is, or is indistinguishable from, that of a minor engaged in obscene or sexually explicit conduct; or (iii) such visual depiction has been created, adapted, or modified to appear that an identifiable minor is engaging in obscene or sexually explicit conduct, preparation, possession or distribution of any data stored on a computer disk or any other modern gadget. Whoever commits an offence of child pornography shall be punished with rigorous imprisonment of either description for a term which may not be less than three years and may extend to seven years and also liable to fine which may not be less than two hundred thousand rupees and may extend to five hundred thousand rupees.
- Section 292, Penal Code. Sale, etc., of Obscene Books, etc. States that anyone who sells, lets to hire, distributes, publicly exhibits or in any manner circulates, or for purposes of sale, hire, distribution, public exhibition or circulation, makes, produces or has in his possession any obscene book, pamphlet, paper, drawing, painting, representation or figure or any other obscene object whatsoever, will be liable to imprisonment with or without hard labor for up to three months, a fine or both. The same penalty applies to anyone who imports, exports or conveys any obscene object for any of the purposes aforementioned, or knowing or having reason to believe that such object will be sold, let to hire, distributed or publicly exhibited or in any manner circulated; anyone who takes part in or receives profits from, any business in the course of which he knows or has reason to believe that any such obscene objects are, for any of the purposes aforesaid, made, produced, purchased, kept, imported, exported, conveyed, publicly exhibited or in any manner put into circulation. The same applies to anyone who advertises or makes known by any means whatsoever that any person he engaged or is ready to engage in any act which is an offense under this Section, or that any such obscene object can be procured from or through any person, or offers or attempts to do any act which is an offense under this Section.
- Section 293, Penal Code. Sale, etc., of Obscene Objects to Young Person. Defines the offense of selling, letting to hire, distributing, exhibiting or circulating to a person under the age of 20 any obscene objects as referred to in Section 292, or offering or attempting to do so. The offense is punishable by imprisonment with or without hard labor for up to six months, a fine or by both.
- Section 328, Penal Code. Exposure and abandonment of child under twelve years by parent or person having care of it. Whoever being the father or mother of a child under the age of twelve years, or having the care of such child, shall expose or leave such child in any place with the intention of wholly abandoning such child, shall be punished with imprisonment’ of either description for- a term which may extend to seven years, or with fine, or with both.
- Section 354, Penal Code. Assault or Criminal Force to Woman with Intent to Outrage her Modesty. States that it is a criminal offense to assault any woman with intent to outrage her modesty. The penalty for this offense is imprisonment with or without hard labor for up to two years, a fine or both.
- Section 364, Penal Code. Kidnapping or Abducting a Person under the Age of Fourteen. This Section states that anyone who kidnaps or abducts a person under the age of fourteen in order to subject the victim to the lust of others, grievous hurt or slavery, or with the intent to murder the victim, will be liable to the death penalty, imprisonment for life or imprisonment with hard labor for between seven to fourteen years.
- Section 366A, Penal Code. Procuration of a Minor Girl. Sets a penalty of imprisonment for up to ten years in addition to a possible fine for anyone who, by any means whatsoever, induces a minor girl under the age of eighteen years to go from any place or to do any act with intent that the victim may be forced or seduced to illicit intercourse with another person.
- Section 369, Penal Code. Kidnapping or abducting child under ten years with intent to steal from its person. Whoever kidnaps or abducts any child under the age of ten years with the intention of taking dishonestly any movable property from the person of such child, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.
- Section 371A, Penal Code. Selling Person for Purpose of Prostitution, etc. States that anyone who sells, lets to hire, or otherwise disposes of any person with intent that such a person shall at any time be employed or used for the purpose of prostitution or illicit intercourse (outside marriage) or for any unlawful and immoral purpose, will be punished with imprisonment for up to 25 years, in addition to a fine.
- Section 371B, Penal Code. Buying Person for Purposes of Prostitution. Defines the offense of buying, hiring or otherwise obtaining possession of any person with intent that such person shall at any time be employed or used for the purpose of prostitution, illicit intercourse or for any unlawful and immoral purpose. The offense is punishable by imprisonment for up to 25 years, in addition to a fine.
- Section 375, Penal Code. Rape. This Section states that a man is guilty of rape if he has sexual intercourse with a woman against her will; without her consent; with her consent if this has been obtained by threatening her with death or hurt; with her consent if this was given by impersonating her husband; with or without her consent if she is under sixteen years of age.
- Section 376, Penal Code. Punishment for Rape. Imposes a penalty of death or imprisonment for between ten to 25 years in addition to a fine for anyone guilty of rape. Where rape is committed jointly by two or more persons, the offenders will be liable to the death penalty or life imprisonment.
- Section 377, Penal Code. Unnatural Offenses. States that anyone who voluntarily has anal sexual intercourse with any man, woman or animal will be liable to life imprisonment, or with imprisonment with or without hard labor for a term of between two to ten years, plus a fine.
- Section 7, Punjab Suppression of Prostitution Ordinance. Punishment for Causing, Encouraging or Abetting Prostitution of a Girl under Sixteen. This Section states that anyone who, having custody, charge or care of any girl under the age of sixteen, causes, encourages or abets the seduction or prostitution of that girl, will be punished with imprisonment with hard labor for up to three years, and a fine of up to 1,000 rupees. If the offender is a male, he will also be liable to whipping.
- Section 8, Suppression of Prostitution Ordinance. Punishment for Procuration. This Section states that anyone who procures, entices, leads away or attempts to do so, any woman or girl for the purposes of prostitution, whether with or without her consent, will be liable to imprisonment for up to three years, and a fine of up to 1,000 rupees. The same penalty applies to anyone who persuades a woman or girl to leave her usual place of abode with intent that the victim may become the inmate of or frequent a brothel. If the offender is a male, he may be punished with whipping in lieu of or in addition to any other punishment provided in this Section.
- Section 9, Suppression of Prostitution Ordinance. Punishment for Importing any Woman or Girl for Prostitution. Imposes a penalty of imprisonment with or without hard labor for up to three years in addition to a fine of up to 1,000 rupees for anyone who brings or attempts to bring into the province any woman or girl with a view to her becoming a prostitute. If the offender is a male, he may be punished with whipping in lieu of or in addition to any other punishment provided in this Section.
- Section 10, Suppression of Prostitution Ordinance. Punishment for Keeping any Woman or Girl for Prostitution. States that anyone who keeps any woman or girl in a brothel, or detains any woman or girl against her will in any place with intent that she may have sexual intercourse with any man other than her lawful husband, will be punished with imprisonment with hard labor for up to three years and a fine of up to 1,000 rupees. If the offender is a male, he will also be liable to whipping.
- Section 2, Prevention and Control of Human Trafficking Ordinance. Definitions. Defines, among other things, a child as being a person under the age of eighteen years, and ‘exploitative entertainment’ as all activities in connection with human sports or sexual practices or sex and related abusive practices.
- Section 3, Prevention and Control of Human Trafficking Ordinance. Punishment for Human Trafficking. States, among other things, that anyone who knowingly purchases, sells, harbors, transports, provides, detains or obtains a child or a woman through coercion, kidnapping or abduction, or by giving or receiving any benefit for trafficking him or her into or out of Pakistan or with intention thereof, for the purpose of exploitative entertainment by any person and has received or expects to receive some benefit in lieu thereof is guilty of an offense and liable to imprisonment for up to ten years in addition to a fine. Where the offense involves kidnapping or abduction or any attempt thereto of the victim, the maximum term of imprisonment will be increased to fourteen years.
The Prevention of Electronic Crimes Ordinance, 2008 covers issues such as unauthorized access to computer systems or data, malicious system damage, electronic fraud and forgery, misuse of electronic systems or devices, misuse of encryption, malicious code, spamming, spoofing, cyber terrorism and unauthorized interception. Of special interest are the following sections:
- Section 13, Prevention of Electronic Crimes Ordinance. Cyber Stalking. This Section states that anyone who, with intent to coerce, intimidate or harass any person, uses a computer, computer network, Internet, network site, e-mail or any other similar means of communication to carry out any of the following acts is guilty of the offense of cyberstalking: to communicate obscene, vulgar, profane, lewd, lascivious , or indecent language, picture or image; to make any suggestion or proposal of an obscene nature; to threaten any illegal or immoral act; to take or distribute pictures or photographs of any person without his consent or knowledge; or to display or distribute information in a manner that substantially increases the risk of harm or violence to any other person. Anyone guilty of the offense of cyberstalking is liable to imprisonment with or without hard labor for up to seven years or with fine not exceeding 300,000 rupees, or both. Where the victim is a minor, an aggravated penalty of imprisonment for up to ten years or a minimum fine of 100,000 rupees, or both, will apply.
- Section 19, Prevention of Electronic Crimes Ordinance. Of Abets, Aids or Attempts to Commit Offense. States that anyone who knowingly and willfully abets or aids the commission of any act preparatory to or in furtherance of the commission of any offense under this Ordinance will be guilty of that offense and liable on conviction to the punishment provided for that offense. The Section also states that anyone who attempts to commit an offense under this Ordinance will be punished for up to one half of the longest term of imprisonment provided for that offense. For aiding or abetting an offense to be committed under this Section, it is immaterial whether the offense has been committed or not.
- Section 20, Prevention of Electronic Crimes Ordinance. Other offences. Whoever commits any offence, other than those expressly provided under this Ordinance, with the help of computer,electronic system, electronic device or any other electronic means shall be punished, in addition to the punishment provided for that offence, with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine not exceeding two hundred thousand rupees. or with both.
Actions of the Convention on the Rights of the Child: Pakistan has acceded, with no declarations or reservations to articles 16, 17(e) and 34 (c), to the Convention on the Rights of the Child and to articles 2 and 3, to the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography.
2006 - With financial support from the European Commission, ECPAT Luxembourg, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Grand Duché of Luxembourg and Group Développement, the three-year IMTIZAJ (Unity is strength) project was launched with the aim of facilitating a global intervention to fight child trafficking, CSEC and child sexual abuse in all regions of Pakistan. The project was coordinated by the NGO, Sanjog, and implemented in collaboration with a number of local civil society organisations. Child centers were established in many cities with an opportunity to benefit from non-formal education, psychological counselling, medical treatment, supplemental food, and income generating activities.
2007 - Under the Prevention of Electronic Crimes Ordinance of 2007, cyber stalking became a criminal offense punishable with imprisonment for up to seven years or a fine. If the victim of the cyber stalking is a minor, the punishment may extend to 10 years.
The same year, the Pakistan Telecommunication Authority (PTA) has issued a code of conduct for internet café owners.The code states that children under 12 years of age are not allowed at the cafés and the owners must ensure that children do not access pornography. Together with Pakistan Paediatrics Association (PPA), the PTA blocked more than 10,000 pornographic websites. Seminars have also been conducted on the issue of exposure of children to pornography for internet service providers, café owners and media in all provincial capital.
2008 - A National Child Protection Policy was drafted to address and prevent violence, abuse and neglect, exploitation and discrimination affecting children and to create a protective environment for all children.
2012 - In partnership with LHRLA, Pakistani children’s rights law firm, Sanjog established Madadgaar Helpline in Quetta. Madadgaar is Pakistan’s first Helpline for children & women suffering from violence, abuse and exploitation. The helpline strives to reduce violence against women & children, as well as provides support to the victims and legal services to needy women and children, helps government in implementation of international and national instruments, and raise public awareness about the various abuses.
2016 - After recent discovery of a major child pornography ring in Pakistan, the Senate passed a bill that criminalises sexual assault against minors, child pornography and trafficking, making it punishable by up to seven years in prison. The amendment to the penal code, which will go into force after being ratified by the president, also raises the age of criminal responsibility from seven to 10 years of age.