The Ministry of Education is clearly committed to integrating ICT into the curriculum, which is evident by the sheer amount of guidelines and methodological approaches made available to educators. However, its efforts currently focus mainly on the basic provision and use of modern technologies rather than advanced use and Internet safety lessons.
2004 - Managua hosted the workshop Telecentros Escolares y Educación para Todos, made in collaboration between the World Bank Institute and the Academy for Educational Development. The main objective was to introduce fundamental concepts, technologies, and skills necessary for developing electronic lesson plans and other digital educational resources to promote the inclusion of the ICTs and therefore improve the quality of education.
Nicaragua is currently defining its ICT in Education policy. In 2008, Ministry of Education (MINED) published Regulations for the operation of classrooms with ICT (Spanish) in the country’s public schools. It proposed the encouragement of the use of ICT in public schools, the expansion of students’ access to modern technologies, and the provision of technical assistance to teachers in person or online, whilst also establishing outreach strategies with neighboring schools. In a further publication from 2008 entitled Suggestions for Educational Use of ICT(Spanish), the MINED mainly focused on familiarizing students with the Internet, e-mail, discussion forums and instant messaging.
In July 2010, the ITU, in cooperation with the Institute for Telecommunications and Post (TELCOR) and the Ministry of Education (MINED) launched its ‘Connect a School, Connect a Community’ initiative in Nicaragua. The project aims to provide access to ICT to schools in remote areas of the Republic. By December 2010, five pilot schools had received electricity, 20 computers each and Internet access. Nearly 100 teachers received ICT training, and to date over 900 students and nearly 3,000 people from the local communities benefitted from the initiative.
2009 - Aimed at teachers, the Methodological Suggestions for ICT Literacy for Secondary Students recommend educating pupils in the responsible and ethical use of ICT resources, whilst also assuming a critical attitude to the inappropriate use of modern technologies. The ethical use of the Internet, however, is not specifically mentioned in the document.
The Ministry of Education’s educational portal, Nicaragua Educa, is an excellent resource for teachers, offering lesson plans, guidelines, official legal documents and further classroom resources for all curriculum subjects and age ranges.
Nicaragua benefits from the One Laptop Per Child (OLPC) program, which was first introduced in late 2008, when TELMEX donated 3,000 XO laptops, while the Waveplace Foundation supported the integration of the new hardware and trained 400 teachers.10 In 2009, the Fundación Zamora Terán (ZTF) was established: a non-profit organization dedicated to supporting educational projects in Nicaragua, specifically the OLPC program.11 Following an initial investment of US$1m by ZTF’s creator, the LAFISE BANCENTRO Financial Group, the Royal Danish Embassy donated US$1.5m whilst an additional US$2m was obtained from private donors. This generous funding has enabled ZTF to equip more than 1,000 students with XO laptops and train over 300 teachers to date in their use.
The NGO, Partnership in Opportunities for Employment through Technology in The Americas (POETA) provides training to people with disabilities and to young people, both of whom have high rates of unemployment.12 The aim is that through providing training in the use of ICT, as well as courses on other topics, such as job readiness, combined with POETA’s support to students to find them job placements after they have completed their course, students will find employment. Since 2004, Microsoft and the Trust for the Americas have provided support to this project which has benefitted over 400,000 people across the region through a number of telecenters, including within Nicaragua.
Educational Community of Central America and Dominican Republic (CEDUCAR)
A virtual meeting place for the teaching community, this educational portal links eight Latin American countries and their respective educational systems. It provides up-to-date information, online courses, virtual communities, digital resources, newsletters, digital libraries and other educational materials.
Fundación Zamora Terán
It mission is to improve the quality of life of Nicaragua’s population through education, health initiatives and environmental conservation. ZTF oversees the implementation of the One Laptop Per Child program in Nicaragua.
Instituto Interamericano del Niño, la Niña y Adolescente (INN)
A specialized body of the Organization of American States (OAS) on children and adolescents policy that provides guidance to the different states on how they must assume protection.
INTERPOL is the world’s largest international police organization, with 190 member countries. Its mission is to enable police forces to collaborate globally to fight crime in the Internet age. Three areas of focus are crimes against children (with a focus on internet crimes and travelling sex offenders), cybercrime and human trafficking.
Latin American Network of Educational Portals (La Red Latinoamericana de Portales Educativos – RELPE)
Formed in 2004 by an agreement of the Ministries of Education from sixteen Latin American countries, a network of educational portals, allowing the collaboration and sharing of educational content between the member countries. It also provides for the construction of standards and methodologies of processes to position the network as a benchmark in the region and the world on collaborative management of educational content.
Latin American Network of ICT and Education (Red Iberoamericana de TIC y Educación – RIATE)
This organization promotes bilateral or multilateral cooperation for development through the exchange of information, initiatives and projects that promote the integration of ICT in education in 21 countries.
It is an excellent online resource provided by the Ministry of Education. Teachers can access a wealth of information online, including lesson plans, classroom resources and legal documents.
Nicaraguan Council of Science and Technology
It’s mission is to strengthen the national efforts in the fields of science, technology and innovation, through investment in the academic and productive sectors.
One Laptop per Child (OLPC)
A nonprofit organization launched by Massachusetts Institute of Technology Media Lab, whose aim to empower the world’s poorest children through education by providing a low cost laptops.
2014 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Nicaragua (2015)Bureau of International Labor Affairs
Report on the worst types of child labor in Nicaragua during 2014. It also presents the laws and the government programs aimed to end them.
Protecting Children from Cybercrime (2015)Simone dos Santos Lemos Fernandes, Legal Consultant, Global Forum on Law Justice and Development (GFLJD), Legal Vice Presidency, World Bank
This report studies different Latin American countries’ legislation on the prevention and combat of violence against children on the internet. It also identifies gaps and good practices on the protection of children from cybercrime.
The Semillas Digitales Program: Overview and Theory (2014)Sharon M Ravitch, Mathew Tarditi
The research program Semillas Digitales (Digital Seeds) aims to enrich the education curriculum by providing information on the professional development and technology integration, digital literacy. The goal is to have a long term improvement in education.
The commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children in Latin America (2014)ECPAT International
This report studies the different forms of sexual exploitation of children inLatin America. Furthermore, it highlights the new emerging trends and how Latin america is addressing this phenomena
ICT IN EDUCATION IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN A regional analysis of ICT integration and e-readiness (2012)UNESCO Institute for Statistics
UNESCO Institute for Statistics, based on survey responses from 38 countries reveals the extent to which factors such as education policy, teacher training, and infrastructure drive or hamper the integration of ICTs in schools.
Transformando la Educación en el Mundo (2012)Intel Learning Series
This is a report on the preparation of Nicaragua for the project ‘Connect a School, Connect a Community’ which purpose was to provide schools with access to ICTs.
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Education in Latin America and the Caribbean (2012)Peter Wallet
Report on the situation of the ITCs in Latin America and the importance of providing access and trained teachers to students in rural and remote regions.
Missing Children in Central America: Research of Practices and legislation on Prevention and Recovery (2011)UNICEF and the International Centre for Missing & Exploited Children
This report is about the situation of Central America in 2011 on the matter of trafficking and sexual exploitation. It pays close attention to legislation, some cases and the countries’ actions on this issue.
Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children and the Internet (2011)Inter American Children’s Instirute
This is a report to the Organization of American States on the situation of the member states in the issue of commercial sexual exploitation and the impact of internet in their lives.
Computers in Schools: Why governments Should do their Homework (2011)Inter-American Development Bank
This chapter is a comparison of the Latin American governments include ICT in their educational programs.
Los desafíos de las TIC para el cambio educativo (2009)Roberto Carneiro, Juan Carlos Toscano and Tamara Díaz
This is a collective Inter-American educational program which goals are projected until the year 2021. It analyses the challenges of the new era of education and the importance of incorporating ICT on it.
2005 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Nicaragua (2006)Bureau of International Labor Affairs
Report on the worst types of child labor in Nicaragua during 2005. It also presents the laws and the government programs aimed to end them.
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Nicaragua (2002)Johan Ernberg, Maria Edith Arce
This is a report on a study commissioned by Sida, to provide national authorities and development agencies with information for the development of an ICT policy and planning of related activities.
This section contains details of the country’s laws as they relate to sexual offenses, children and the use of the Internet in the commission of criminal activity. Where possible, sentence details have been given, including whether an increased custodial penalty is imposed where the victim is a child.
The age of consent for sexual activity in Nicaragua is eighteen. The age of consent for marriage is eighteen for women and 21 for men. The legal age of majority is eighteen.
- Article 167, Penal Code. Rape. This Article states that anyone who has sexual intercourse with another person against their will with the use of violence, force or threat will be liable to imprisonment for eight to twelve years.
- Article 168, Penal Code. Rape of a Minor Under the Age of Fourteen. States that anyone who rapes a minor under the age of fourteen will be liable to twelve to fifteen years’ imprisonment.
- Article 169, Penal Code. Aggravated Rape. Imposes an aggravated penalty of twelve to fifteen years’ imprisonment for anyone who commits rape in one of the following circumstances: the offender takes advantage of a position of authority, superiority, dependency or trust; the offense was committed jointly by two or more persons; the victim is particularly vulnerable due to illness or physical or mental disability or the victim suffered serious damage to his/her health. If two or more of the above apply, the maximum penalty will be imposed.
- Article 170, Penal Code. Statutory Rape. This Article states that any adult who, without violence or intimidation, has sexual intercourse with a person fourteen or fifteen will be punished by imprisonment for between two and four years.
- Article 171, Penal Code. Aggravated Statutory Rape. States, among other things, that anyone who commits defilement by taking advantage of a position of authority or dependency over the victim will be liable to an increased penalty of five to ten years’ imprisonment.
- Article 172, Penal Code. Sexual Abuse. Defines the offense as engaging in lewd or lascivious acts, such as intimate touching, with another person against their will, by the use of force, intimidation, threat or similar means. The offense is punishable by imprisonment for five to seven years. Anyone who commits sexual abuse in one of the following circumstances will be liable to an aggravated penalty of seven to twelve years’ imprisonment: the offender takes advantage of a position of authority, superiority, dependency or trust; the offense was committed jointly by two or more persons; the victim is particularly vulnerable due to illness or physical or mental disability or the victim suffered serious damage to his/her health. If the victim is a child or if two or more of the above circumstances apply, the maximum penalty will be imposed. Children under the age of fourteen are considered incapable of consent.
- Article 174, Penal Code. Sexual Harassment. States that anyone who repeatedly abused a position of authority, power or superiority to request or demand, for himself or another person, any sexual act in exchange for promises or preferential treatment, is guilty of sexual harassment and liable to imprisonment for one to three years. Where the victim is under eighteen years of age, an increased penalty of three to five years’ imprisonment will apply.
- Article 175, Penal Code. Sexual Exploitation, Pornography and Sexual Acts with Teenagers for Payment. This Article states that anyone who induces, facilitates, or promotes a minor under the age of sixteen to participate in or witness sexual or erotic acts, even if the victim consents, will be liable to between five and seven years’ imprisonment. Where the minor is aged sixteen or seventeen this will be reduced to between four and six years. The Article also states that anyone who promotes, finances, manufactures, reproduces, publishes, sells, imports, exports, disseminates or distributes by any means, including electronically, child pornography material depicting a minor under the age of eighteen engages in sexual activity, whether real or simulated, will be punished by five to seven years’ imprisonment and between 150 to 500 days’ fine. Possession of such material is punishable with one to two years’ imprisonment. The Article also covers the situation where someone pays an adolescent aged fourteen or over but under eighteen for sexual or erotic acts, which is punishable by imprisonment for five to seven years.
- Article 176, Penal Code. Aggravated Sexual Exploitation, Pornography and Sexual Acts with Teenagers for Payment. Imposes an aggravated penalty of six to eight years’ imprisonment for anyone who commits an offense under Article 175 in one of the following circumstances: the offense was committed for pecuniary gain; the offender is part of a criminal organization for sexual offenses; the offender used deceit, violence, abuse of authority or similar means of intimidation or coercion or the offender abused a position of authority, trust or superiority to commit the crime. If two or more of the above apply, the maximum penalty will be imposed.
- Article 177, Penal Code. Promotion of Tourism for the Purpose of Sexual Exploitation. Defines the offense of promoting Nicaragua as an attractive child sex tourism destination through advertising campaigns, text or image reproduction. The offense is punishable by imprisonment for five to seven years and between 150 to 500 days’ fine.
- Article 178, Penal Code. Procuration. States that anyone who induces, promotes or facilitates sexual exploitation, pornography or prostitution will be liable to four to six years’ imprisonment and between 100 to 300 days’ fine. - - Article 179, Penal Code. Aggravated Procuration. Imposes an increased penalty of six to eight years’ imprisonment and a 300 to 600 days’ fine for anyone who procures a minor under the age of eighteen, or who uses deceit, violence, abuse of authority or similar means of intimidation or coercion. The same applies if the offense was committed for pecuniary gain or the offender abused a position of authority, trust or superiority to commit the crime.
- Article 180, Penal Code. Pimping. States that anyone who uses threats or coercion to induce another person to engage in prostitution will be punished with imprisonment for between three to five years and between 60 to 200 days’ fine. Where the victim is under the age of eighteen the penalty will increase to five to seven years’ imprisonment and between 200 to 400 days’ fine.
- Article 181, Penal Code. Restriction of Mediation and Other Benefits. States that when a sexual offense is committed against children and adolescents, there will be no process of mediation, or any benefit of suspended sentences.
- Article 182, Penal Code. Trafficking in Persons for Slavery, Sexual Exploitation or Adoption. This Article states that anyone who abuses a position of authority or uses threats or deception to offer, promote, facilitate, induce or run the recruitment, transportation, transfer, retention, harboring or receipt of persons for purposes of slavery, sexual exploitation or adoption, even with the consent of the victim, will be punished with imprisonment for seven to ten years. Where the victim is under eighteen or a disabled person, or the act is committed by a person entrusted with the victim’s education, care or custody, an aggravated sentence of ten to twelve years’ imprisonment will apply. The Article also states that anyone who sells, offers, gives, or accepts transfer of a child or adolescent for payment or reward for sexual exploitation, will be sentenced to eight to twelve years’ imprisonment.
- Article 202, Penal Code. Slander. Defines the offense of knowingly falsely accusing another person of the commission of an offense. Slander is punishable with between 120 to 300 days’ fine.
- Article 203, Penal Code. Insult. States that anyone who impairs the dignity of another person to harm the victim’s reputation, honor, or self-esteem, will be liable to between 100 to 200 days’ fine.
Nicaragua signed on February 6, 1990, and ratified on October 5 1990 with no declarations or reservations the Convention on the Rights of Child. Furthermore, acceded, with no declarations or reservations to articles 2 and 3, the Optional Protocol to The Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography.