UNESCO Bangkok launched the SchoolNet project in July 2003 to assist educators in integrating ICT into the everyday teaching and learning process in the Asia-Pacific region. SchoolNet promotes the efficient use of ICT in education through connecting schools to the Internet and thus creating a network of schools, which will encourage students and teachers alike to share resources and information and build connections among schools and individuals. Some 24 schools from Cambodia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, Lao PDR, Burma and Vietnam participated in the project, which concluded in 2006. The aims of SchoolNet were to demonstrate how ICT can be used to improve the quality of education and prepare students for life in a knowledge-based society, as well as to develop learning materials that support the implementation of ICT in learning and teaching.
With the support from Malaysia, the Smart School pilot project was introduced at three primary and high schools in Yangon, Burma’s largest city and former capital, between 2002 - 2003, along with two schools in Laos. In December 2005, the Malaysian Prime Minister announced that a further US$ 500,000 would be invested in the project for Cambodia, Laos, Burma and Vietnam from then until 2008. Part of the Malaysian Technical Cooperation Programme (MTCP), the Smart School project aimed to equip schools with computer labs, as well as train educators on how to use ICT teaching methods in the classroom and to develop creative lesson plans.
Burma is part of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), together with Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam. Within the framework of the ASEAN ICT Masterplan 2015, as part of the innovation thrust, as a member country, Myanmar aimed to ensure that every child has access to broadband Internet at school and to nurture innovation and creativity. To help bridge the digital divide, ASEAN envisages cooperation between ICT and education sectors to provide Internet access, whilst also promoting early ICT education by including it in the curricula. Furthermore, teachers will receive training to encourage the integration of ICT in everyday teaching and learning, alongside an ICT exchange program for educators and students. ASEAN also promotes replication of the ASEAN Cyberkids Camp, culminated from the successful Malaysian Maxis Cyberkids Camp (part of the Maxis Cyberkids Program), across ASEAN to bridge the digital divide. The ASEAN Cyberkids Camp was first held in November 2008, reaching a total of 120 children aged between ten to fourteen and their teachers from nine countries across ASEAN.
Myanmar’s 30-Year Long Term Basic Education Plan, entitled ‘Building a Modern Developed Nation through Education’, consists of ten programs, each to be implemented in six five-year tactical mid-term plans. One of the programs focuses on providing facilities for e-education and ICT, particularly for at risk populations, in the interest of inclusive education. The Myanmar Education Research Bureau stated that the following ICT in non-formal education objectives were included in the national plan: to increase education opportunities through the use of ICT in schools and community learning centers (CLCs); to increase the production of audiovisual and multimedia teaching materials for schools and CLCs; and to retrain instructors for effective use of ICT.
In 2015, at least 155 teachers participated in a four-day basic ICT training organized by UNESCO and the Department of Basic Education under the teacher professional development component of the “Empowering Women and Girls through Mobile Technology in Myanmar” project. Following the training, UNESCO and the Department of Basic Education are providing ongoing support to teachers on ICT use to increase their application of skills learned in the classroom.
In 2016, the ICT for Education Project in Myanmar, as part of the Connect To Learn initiative launched by Ericsson, the UK Department of International Development (DFID) and other project partners including UNESCO, is working towards bringing Internet connectivity, ICT equipment, teacher professional development training, and mobile learning content to rural/semi-urban schools in developing Myanmar.
Australia-Asia Program to Combat Trafficking in Persons (AAPTIP)
The program provides support to law enforcement and prosecutors regarding the trafficking of persons, specifically children, in Southeast Asia. The program has outlined a plan for addressing trafficking in Myanmar. AAPTIP works on both regional and national levels, but notes that Myanmar does not have independent NGOs focusing on trafficking.
Child Rights Coalition Asia
CRC is a network of children’s rights and human rights organizations in Asia, which brings the child rights perspectives and agenda to regional and international advocacy.
e-National Task Force
The Task Force has chaired by the Ministry for Science and Technology since 2000. The Task Force is made up of leaders of relevant ministries, computer professionals, and business representatives and is responsible for enacting ICT-related law/policy, coordinating the implementation of provisions in the e-ASEAN framework, and building the country’s ICT infrastructure.
INTERPOL is the world’s largest international police organization, with 190 member countries. Its mission is to enable police forces to collaborate globally to fight crime in the Internet age. Three areas of focus are crimes against children (with a focus on internet crimes and travelling sex offenders), cybercrime and human trafficking.
Ministry of Communications and Information Technology
The recognized agency tasked with implementing cybersecurity strategies and policies.
Myanmar Computer Emergency Response Team
The e-National Task Force of Burma formed the team in 2004 to combat cybercrime. In addition to handling incidents reported by the public, mmCERT also runs awareness raising campaigns focusing on online security and offers support to technical advisories.
Myanmar ICT for Development Organization (MIDO)
The organization publishes reports and conducts ICT trainings for people across all regions in Myanmar. Other efforts include protecting rights of ICT users by sharing knowledge on digital security and privacy, as well as working to develop laws/policies that safeguard ICT users.
Terre des Hommes Netherlands
This NGO focuses on stopping child sexual exploitation, child labor, child abuse and child trafficking in Asia, East Africa and Europe.
INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT) IN EDUCATION IN ASIA (2014)UNESCO,UNESCO Institute of Statistics
A comparative analysis of ICT integration and e-readiness in schools across Asia
Trafficking in Persons Reports (2008)Embassy of the U.S.
The following provides the U.S. government's TIP reports for Myanmar.
Meta-survey on the Use of Technologies in Education in Asia and the Pacific (2003)Glen Farrell, Cédric Wachholz
This study identifies and analyses the different practices in the use of ICTs in education in Asia and the Pacific. it discusses countries’ policies, challenges and successful ICT integration in the region.
This section contains details of the country’s laws as they relate to sexual offenses, children and the use of the Internet in the commission of criminal activity. Where possible, sentence details have been given, including whether an increased custodial penalty is imposed where the victim is a child.
There is no clear legal definition regarding the age of simple majority, age of consent, or age of consent for marriage across all laws. The Penal Code repeatedly refers to a minor as someone under the age of 18 years, and Section 375 of the Penal Code states that it is an offense to have sexual intercourse with a girl under the age of fourteen, regardless of whether she gives consent. In the Child Law and Anti-Human Trafficking Law, a child is defined as someone under the age of 16 and a youth as someone over the age of 16 but under the age of 18.
- Section 292, Penal Code. States that anyone who sells, lets to hire, distributes, publicly exhibits or in any manner circulates, or for purposes of sale, hire, distribution, public exhibition or circulation, makes, produces or has in his possession any obscene book, pamphlet, paper, drawing, painting, representation, figure or any obscene object whatsoever, will be liable to imprisonment with or without hard labor for up to three years, a fine, or both. The same penalty applies to anyone who imports, exports or conveys any obscene object for any of the purposes aforementioned, or knowing or having reason to believe that such article will be sold, let to hire, distributed or publicly exhibited or in any manner circulated; anyone who takes part in or receives profits from, any business in the course of which he knows or has reason to believe that any such obscene objects are, for any of the purposes aforesaid, made, produced, purchased, kept, imported, exported, conveyed, publicly exhibited or in any manner put into circulation. The same applies to anyone who advertises or makes known by any means whatsoever that any person he engaged or is ready to engage in any act which is an offense under this section, or that any such obscene object can be procured from or through any person, or offers or attempts to do any act which is an offense under this section.
- Section 293, Penal Code. Defines the offense of selling, letting to hire, distributing, exhibiting or circulating to a person under the age of 20 any obscene object as referred to in Section 292, or offering or attempting to do so. The offense is punishable by imprisonment with or without hard labor for up to six months, a fine or both.
- Section 294, Penal Code. Defines the offense of, to the annoyance of others, doing any obscene act in a public place or singing, reciting or uttering any obscene song, ballad or words, in or near a public place. The offense is punishable with imprisonment with or without hard labor for up to three months, a fine or both.
- Section 366, Penal Code. This section states that anyone who kidnaps or abducts a woman with intent that she may be compelled to marry another person against her will, or in order that she may be forced or seduced to illicit intercourse, will be punished with imprisonment with or without hard labor for up to ten years and a fine. The section also states that it is an offense use abuse or any other means of compulsion to induce a woman to go from any place with intent that she may be forced or seduced to illicit intercourse; the same penalty as prescribed above will apply.
- Section 366A, Penal Code. Imposes a penalty of imprisonment for up to ten years in addition to a fine for anyone who, by any means whatsoever, induces a minor girl under the age of eighteen years to go from any place or to do any act with intent that she may be forced or seduced to illicit intercourse with another person.
- Section 366B, Penal Code. States that it is an offense to import into the Union of Burma any girl under the age of 21 with intent that she may be forced or seduced to illicit intercourse with another person. The offender will be liable to imprisonment for up to ten years and a fine.
- Section 367, Penal Code. Defines the offense of kidnapping or abducting any person with intent that the victim may be subjected to grievous hurt, slavery or the unnatural lust of another person. The offense is punishable with imprisonment with or without hard labor for up to ten years and a fine.
- Section 372, Penal Code. States that anyone who sells, lets to hire, or otherwise disposes of any person under the age of eighteen years with intent that the victim shall at any time be employed or used for the purpose of prostitution or illicit intercourse or for any unlawful and immoral purpose, will be punished with imprisonment with or without hard labor for up to ten years, in addition to a fine.
- Section 373, Penal Code. Defines the offense of buying, hiring or otherwise obtaining possession of any person under the age of eighteen years with intent that such person shall at any age be employed or used for the purpose of prostitution, illicit intercourse or for any unlawful and immoral purpose. The offense is punishable by imprisonment with or without hard labor for up to ten years and a fine.
- Section 375, Penal Code. States that a man is guilty of rape if he has sexual intercourse with a woman against her will; without her consent; with her consent if this has been obtained by threatening her with death or hurt; with her consent if this was given by impersonating her husband; or with or without her consent if she is under fourteen years of age.
- Section 376, Penal Code. Imposes a penalty of transportation for life or imprisonment with or without hard labor for up to ten years in addition to a fine for anyone guilty of rape, unless the victim is the offender’s own wife and is not under twelve years of age, in which case the penalty will be imprisonment with or without hard labor for up to two years, a fine or both.
- Section 377, Penal Code. States that anyone who voluntarily has anal sexual intercourse with any man, woman or animal will be liable to deportation for life, or to imprisonment with or without hard labor for up to ten years and a fine.
- Section 499, Penal Code. This section states that anyone who, by words either spoken or intended to be read, or by signs, or by visible representations, makes or publishes any imputation concerning any person, intending to harm, or knowing or having reason to believe that such imputation will harm, the reputation of such person, is said to defame that person.
- Section 500, Penal Code. Imposes a penalty of imprisonment for up to two years, a fine or both for anyone guilty of defamation.
- Section 503, Penal Code. Defines criminal intimidation as threatening another person with injury to his person, reputation or property, or to the person or reputation of anyone in whom that person is interested, with intent to cause alarm to that person, or to cause that person to do any act which he is not legally bound to do, or to omit to do any act which that person is legally entitled to do, as the means of avoiding the execution of such threat.
- Section 506, Penal Code. Imposes a penalty of imprisonment with or without hard labor for up to two years, a fine or both for anyone guilty of criminal intimidation. An aggravated penalty of up to seven years’ imprisonment, a fine or both if the threat is to cause death or grievous hurt; to cause the destruction of any property by fire; to cause an offense punishable with death or with imprisonment for up to seven years; or to impute lack of chastity to a woman.
- Section 507, Penal Code. States that anyone who commits criminal intimidation by anonymous communication, or anyone who takes precaution to conceal the name or abode of the person threatening, will be liable to imprisonment for up to two years in addition to the fine provided in Section 506.
- Section 509, Penal Code. States that it is a criminal offense to, with intent to insult the modesty of any woman, utter any word, make any sound or gesture, or exhibit any object, intending that this will be heard or seen by such woman, or to intrude upon the privacy of a woman. The offense is punishable with imprisonment for up to one year, a fine or both.
- Section 2, Child Law. Defines a child as a person under the age of sixteen and a youth as someone who has attained the age of 16 but is not yet 18.
- Section 65, Child Law. States, among other things, that it is an offense to employ or permit a child to perform work which is harmful to the child’s moral character. The offense is punishable by imprisonment for up to six months, a fine of up to Kyats 1,000, or both.
- Section 66, Child Law. States, among other things, that anyone who uses a child in pornographic cinema, video, television or photography is guilty of an offense and liable to imprisonment for up to two years, a fine of up to Kyats 10,000, or to both.
- Anti-Human Trafficking Law. Details the crimes considered under trafficking of persons, with increased penalties and specific policies tailored toward handling case of child trafficking.
- E-transaction Law of 2004. Prescribes a penalty of between seven to fifteen years’ imprisonment and a fine for anyone who commits the act of “receiving or sending and distributing any information relating to secrets of the security of the State or prevalence of law and order or community peace and tranquillity or national solidarity or national economy or national culture”. Also, the Law somewhat vaguely addresses crimes such as hacking and misrepresenting one’s identity online to communicate with someone against their will, punishable by a penalty of up to five years imprisonment, a fine, or both.
2005 - Myanmar enacted an Anti-trafficking Law to address the prevalence of trafficking in the country. Along with detailing the nature of the crime and prescribing penalties, the Law also addressed the handling of cases involving children, such as stipulating different court procedures where applicable and establishing centers for victim care.
2013 - Ongoing - Myanmar committed to increase efforts to address human trafficking, particularly of minors. The Myanmar Police Force (MPF) and government seeks to increase international collaboration to address the problem of trafficking to, from, and between other Southeast Asian countries. For example, the MPF engages in bilateral meetings with the Thai Department of Special Investigation to address cross-border trafficking.