2007- The Montenegrin government signed the eSEE Agenda Plus 2007 - 2012 (Electronic South Eastern Europe Initiative) together with seven other Eastern European countries in October, 2007.The member countries pledge to, among other things, strengthen innovation and investment in ICT in education, develop digital educational content and services, invest in the ICT infrastructure of their national educational institutions, reflect the increased use of modern technologies in a revised curriculum, and make ICT curricula mandatory on all educational levels.
2009- The government of Montenegro released the Strategy for Information Society Development 2009 - 2013. It pledges to invest in the ICT infrastructure in educational institutions and to equip classrooms with computers and Internet access. In addition, the national curriculum and school programs will be amended to reflect minimum standards for ICT knowledge, to integrate ICT in the education process and to increase information literacy. Further strategic priorities include the acquisition of e-learning material and software, ICT training for teachers, participation of Montenegro in international ICT projects and educational networks, and increasing the ratio of students to computer to 8:1 by 2013, to name but a few.
2012- A second Strategy for Information Society Development was released in 2012 covering 2012 to 2016. The strategy outlines how to achieve the goals of Digital Montenegro! Included were provisions about eEducation to improve learning performance via the use of ICT and improve ICT capacity in students and teachers. In terms of content and the integration of ICT in the curriculum, optional subjects relating to ICT will be introduced in both primary and secondary schools, whilst a portal for teacher training will allow educators to participate in training courses via video conference.
2013- As part of the E.U. ascension negotiations the Montenegrin delegation presented a comprehensive report on protecting minors in the digital world. The report detailed relevant laws, education programs for safe internet use, and how Montenegro is fighting online sexual exploitation.
Center of Information Systems of the University of Montenegro
ICT programs at the main university in Montenegro seeks to promote digital literacy in higher education and around the nation.
This industry association represents the interests of European mobile network operators. The group engages in lobbying in areas such as children’s use of mobile phones, privacy, digital inclusion and reducing the digital gender gap. In 2008, the organization formed a mobile alliance against child sexual abuse content.
International Telecommunications Union (ITU) Europe
The ITU is is the UN agency for ICTs. Areas of focus in Europe include improving E-accessibility in Central and Eastern Europe, transitioning Europe to digital broadcasting, and sharing best practices for implementing e-applications.
Internet Governance Forum
The IGF was founded by the UN in 2006 to serve as a discussion platform for internet governance policy issues. It brings together various stakeholders to determine best practices for internet policy. Past areas of focus include cybersecurity, human rights, inclusivity and openness.
INTERPOL is the world’s largest international police organization, with 190 member countries. Its mission is to enable police forces to collaborate globally to fight crime in the Internet age. Three areas of focus are crimes against children (with a focus on internet crimes and travelling sex offenders), cybercrime and human trafficking.
Ministry for Information Society and Telecommunications
Seeks to promote digital literacy for all Montenegrins and modernize economy with stronger training in information technology sectors.
Ministry for Minority and Human Rights
Seeks to ensure equality, safety, and human rights for all Montenegrins regardless of ethnicity, gender, or religion.
Ministry of Education and Sports
The MES aims to provide quality pre-university education for all and to achieve current European standards in university education, and has media literacy programs.
Ministry of Labor and Social Welfare
Wrote the National Plan for Children which seeks to address the problems facing Montenegro’s children like child labor, homelessness, begging, statelessness, and even sexual exploitation.
Montenegrin Research and Education Network
A collection of groups supporting the networking services and facilities aims to promote usage of modern telecommunication technologies in education and research in Montenegro.
Combatting Child Sexual Abuse (2015)Petra Jeney
The study provides an overview of existing legislation at European Union, Member State and the international level related to online child sexual abuse, as well as the role of law enforcement agencies in combatting child sexual abuse online and other governmental and private sector initiatives.
The impact of internet and new media on the occurrence of violence against children in Europe and Cyprus (2015)Rosella Sala
This document demonstrate that countries lack of expertise on child sexual exploitation and struggle combating this issue by their own. It suggests to establish an international legal framework to prosecute offenders and protect children.
Child Protection on Internet-Issues Government of Montenegro Report (2013)ITU
Report on the internet usage among the children in Montenegro.
Internet Child Exploitation Regional Report (2013)Save the Children
Analysis on the policies and practices applied in the system of prevention and protection of children from exploitation via ICT in Montenegro
Best Practice Compendium in Implementing the e-SEE Agenda + 2011 (2011)N. Trbonja
This publication recommends best practices for ICT development in South Eastern Europe. The projects presented in this document exhibit a large range of creative, technical, and management solutions, as well as budget-friendly options, and context sensitive approaches towards ICT development.
ICT in the Education of the Balkan Countries (2010)Dr. Rossita Penkova, Dr. Violeta Mircheva, Nikolina Tsvetkova, Mirena Legurska
This is a comprehensive document on the situation of the ICT in education in the Balkan countries.
This section contains details of the country’s laws as they relate to sexual offenses, children and the use of the Internet in the commission of criminal activity. Where possible, sentence details have been given, including whether an increased custodial penalty is imposed where the victim is a child.
The age of consent for sexual activity in Montenegro is fourteen. The age of majority and the age of consent for marriage is eighteen.
Montenegro has signed, but not ratified the Council of Europe’s Convention on Cybercrime (November 2001) as well as the Additional Protocol concerning the criminalisation of acts of a racist or xenophobic nature committed through computer systems (January 2003). In May 2009, the Montenegrin Government published their initial report on the implementation of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Sale of Children, child prostitution and child pornography, covering the period 2006 – 2008.
Chapter 28 of the Criminal Code, Criminal Acts against Safety of Computer Data, makes provisions for offenses related to damaging computer data and programs, computer sabotage, producing and disseminating viruses, computer fraud, unauthorized use of computers and networks, as well as preventing access to a public computer network.
- Article 142, Criminal Code. Definitions. Defines a child as a person under the age of fourteen and a juvenile as a person who has reached the age of fourteen but not eighteen.
- Article 195, Criminal Code. Insult. This Article states that anyone who insults another person will be liable to a fine of between €1,200 and €4,000. If the insult is committed through the media or similar means, the offender will be liable to an increased fine of between €3,000 and €10,000. If the insulted person returned the insult, the court may punish or free both sides or only one side from punishment.
- Article 196, Criminal Code. Defamation. Imposes a fine of between €3,000 to €10,000 for anyone who speaks or transmits untrue information about someone that may harm the victim’s honor and reputation. If the act is committed through the media or similar means, the fine will increase to between €5,000 and €14,000. The minimum fine is €8,000 if the defamation has caused or could have caused significant harm to the victim.
- Article 197, Criminal Code. Spreading Information About Private and Family Life. Defines the offense of spreading or transmitting information about personal or family life of another person and thereby potentially harming the victim’s honor or reputation. The offender will be liable to a fine of between €3,000 to €10,000. If the act is committed through the media or similar means, the fine will increase to €5,000 to €14,000. The minimum fine is €8,000 if the defamation has caused or could have caused significant harm to the victim.
- Article 204, Criminal Code. Rape. This Article states that anyone who forces another person to engage in sexual intercourse or an equivalent act by using coercion or threat will be liable to imprisonment for two to ten years. Where the offense was committed under threat of doing something that would damage the victim’s honor or reputation, or by serious threat of some other severe evil, a penalty of one to eight years’ imprisonment will apply. The Article also states that if the victim is a child or the victim dies, the penalty will increase to between five to eighteen years’ imprisonment. A prison sentence for between three to fifteen years will apply if the victim was a juvenile; the victim suffered severe bodily injury; if there was more than one perpetrator and the act is committed in a particularly humiliating manner, or if the victim falls pregnant.
- Article 206, Criminal Code. Sexual Intercourse with a Child. Imposes a penalty of imprisonment for between one and ten years for anyone who performs sexual intercourse or an equivalent act with a child. Where the act caused severe bodily injury, resulted in pregnancy or if there was more than one victim, an increased penalty of between two and twelve years’ imprisonment will apply. If the victim dies, the offender will be liable to between five and eighteen years’ imprisonment. The Article also states that no punishment will apply if there is no large difference between the accused and the victim in respect to their mental and physical development.
- Article 208, Criminal Code. Prohibited Sexual Acts. States that anyone who performs a sexual act other than intercourse or an act similar to intercourse on another person on the conditions referred to in Article 204 or 206 is liable to imprisonment for up to two years, or to a fine. Where the act is performed on a child, causes severe bodily injury, is performed by more than one offender or in an extremely cruel or humiliating manner, an increased punishment of between two to ten years’ imprisonment will apply. If the victim dies, a prison sentence of between three and fifteen years will apply.
- Article 209, Criminal Code. Pimping and Enabling to Have Sexual Intercourse. Defines the offense of procuring a minor for sexual intercourse or another sexual act, which is punishable by imprisonment for a term of between three months to five years. The Article also states that anyone who provides for performing debauchery or some other sexual act to a minor will be punished by imprisonment for up to three years.
- Article 210, Criminal Code. Mediation in Prostitution. States that anyone who leads or incites another person to prostitution or participates in the transferring of some person to another for the purpose of prostitution will be punished by a fine or imprisonment for up to one year. The same penalty applies to anyone who, by means of public communication or other similar means, promotes or advertises prostitution. Where the victim is a minor, the penalty will increase to between one and ten years’ imprisonment.
- Article 211, Criminal Code. Displaying Pornographic Material. This Article states that it is an offense to sell or display to a child or by public display text, pictures, audio-visual or other objects of pornographic content or display a pornographic show. The offense is punishable by a fine or by imprisonment for up to six months. The Article also states that anyone who uses a child to produce pornographic pictures, audio-visual or other objects of a pornographic nature or for a pornographic show will be liable to imprisonment for a term between six months to five years. Anyone who sells, shows, publicly exhibits or in electronic or some other way makes available the resulting pornographic pictures, audio-visual or other objects will be punished by a maximum sentence of up to two years’ imprisonment.
- 2006- As part of an Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) program in 2006 tourism operators in Montenegro signed onto the Code of Conduct for the Protection of Children from Sexual Exploitation in Travel and Tourism. The project is a public-private partnership designed to prevent the sexual exploitation of minors in travel and tourism around Europe.
- 2008-Present- Telenor Montenegro partnered with Montenegrin Interpol in 2008 to fight cyber-crimes. In 2009, Telenor used filters to prevent access to child pornography sites. Since 2012, Telenor has been running project “Connecting generations” to educate children on safe internet use and reducing cyberbullying.
- 2012- In December, Montenegro partnered with 48 other countries to participate in the founding of the Global Alliance against Child Sexual Abuse Online to eliminate legal gaps, improve the INTERPOL database, and increase cross-border participation in the fight against online child sexual abuse. The Global Alliance against Child Sexual Abuse Online released a report that has outlined goals for Montenegro regarding victim identification, investigating perpetrators of child sexual abuse online, and enhancing public awareness. Montenegro has already made progress on some goals and the Global Alliance against Sexual Abuse Online has advised the government on further actions.
- 2013-2017- The National Plan of Action for Children (2013-2017) outlines how Montenegro will tackle issues like access to social services and protection from crimes including commercial sexual exploitation. The Roma and other minority communities in Montenegro and other Balkan states face the highest dangers of child labor, commercial sexual exploitation, and human trafficking. To addresses the issues facing these communities the Strategy for the Improvement of the Position of Roma and Egyptians was released by the Ministry for Human and Minority Rights in 2012. Included are the Roma Education Initiative, Project Support to Full Process of Social Inclusion, cultural adaptation programs, and tracking and registration software the- last of which are key provisions in preventing child sexual exploitation.
- 2014- Montenegro is a key source, destination, and transit point for all forms of human trafficking, including commercial child sexual exploitation, often acting as a point of transit and source from Eastern Europe into Western Europe. Ethnic minorities, such as Roma and Egyptians, and de-facto stateless individuals from neighboring Balkan countries are often at a much higher risk of trafficking, begging, and commercial sex-work. A U.S. State Department report detailed the extent of human trafficking in Montenegro. The U.S. Department of Labor released a report on the extent of child labor in Montenegro.
- 2015- Montenegro partnered with the UN and leading technology firms to celebrate “Safer Internet Day.” Along with UNICEF, the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), and Child Online Protection Montenegro and other member states are implementing new standards for child online safety.
- The Child Online Protection guidelines are a collaboration between ITU and UNICEF and have guidelines for children, guidelines for parents and educators, guidelines for industry, and guidelines for policymakers in Montenegro and beyond.
- The International Center for Exploited and Missing Children recommends that Montenegro adopts a clearer definition of child pornography and that ISPs report the addresses of suspected child pornographers.
- Montenegro has been given candidate status by the European Union and accession to the E.U. and joining NATO are key policy priorities for Montenegro. As part of on-going institutional reforms, commissions and specialized police units have been created focusing on combating trafficking in human beings, cybercrime, and high-level organized crime. These reforms have yielded limited prosecutions and indictments. The E.U. commission recommends that Montenegro take a more proactive approach to human trafficking working with asylum centers to increase outreach and to tackle crimes related to human trafficking.