From 2003-2008, USAID developed and funded the e-Schools Project in Macedonia to devise and carry-out a strategy for computer deployment and integration among primary and secondary schools in the republic. The e-Schools Project was responsible for distributing 5,950 computers donated by the Chinese government, installing computer labs in all primary and secondary schools, and creating an education portal linking school communities in a virtual working environment. Executed by the Education Development Center in association with the AED, the project also trained 6,620 teachers, 344 teacher trainers and nine master trainers in the innovative use of ICT in primary schools.
Additionally, from 2006-2010 the project contributed to the development of the country’s first educational software, ToolKid, targeting students in grades K-4 and their teachers. Available in Macedonian and Albanian, 100 pilot primary schools employed the localized software. 5779 individuals completed training for the program.
2005- MK Connects (Macedonia Connects) equipped all national primary and secondary schools as well as university and dormitories with broadband Internet access. Additionally, the project paved the way for the continued integration of ICT into the classroom by providing teacher training, creating online resources and training modules, and raising the nation’s awareness of modern technologies. Microsoft also donated 6,000 licenses for software for the project.
From 2006 - 2012, following the success of MK Connects, USAID chose AED to be the prime implementer of Macedonia’s Primary Education Project (PEP). PEP was an initiative targeting all public primary schools in Macedonia with an aim to improve the quality of instruction and increase employment skills in youth. The project was a continuation of a cluster of USAID-funded projects to strengthen education in Macedonia and support decentralization efforts, as Macedonia seeks entrance to the European Union. PEP began in October 2006 and was funded with US$18m. One of the project’s components was ICT in schools, aimed at providing digital content, training teachers and developing maintenance solutions. ICT workshops for all primary school officials, familiarizing them with the process of computerization, were also organized by PEP. These gave educational staff the opportunity the discuss implementations for teaching and learning processes as well as classroom organizations.
In addition, the use of modern technologies in the classroom is envisaged to be increased and ICT will be introduced into the curriculum. PEP equipped primary schools across the country with a range of hardware such as low-cost laptops and electronic microscopes. Since the start of the project, the Ministry of Education and Science (MoES) has been developing a long-term strategy for ICTs in education and making key hardware and software decisions based on input provided by the PEP team. The continued costs of hardware and network maintenance are dealt with by Student Support Technicians Clubs (SSTCs), groups of 7th and 8th grade students, supervised by two teachers, in every primary school performing maintenance, carrying network management and assisting teachers in the day-to-day use of computers. Though AED is no longer independently active, a report on their work with USAID in Macedonia is preserved through the Internet Archive.
2007 - The eSEE Agenda Plus 2007 - 2012 (Electronic South Eastern Europe Initiative) was presented to link the government of Macedonia together with seven other Eastern European countries in 2007. The member countries pledged to, among other things, strengthen innovation and investment in ICT in education, develop digital educational content and services, invest in the ICT infrastructure of their national educational institutions, reflect the increased use of modern technologies in a revised curriculum, and make ICT curricula mandatory on all educational levels.
2010 - USAID launched the E-Accessibility Project, through which Macedonian teachers are trained to use assistive technology so that differently abled students can participate with educational software. This is part of USAID’s effort to provide opportunity for inclusion of disabled students in Macedonian schools.
2011 - The Best Practice Compendium in Implementing the e-SEE Agenda+ 2011 details the development of a project between the Ministry of Education and Science (MOS) and the Ministry of Information Society (MIS) in 2008 called “Computer for Every Child”. This manifested in computers delivered to primary and secondary schools, laptops to teachers, and 43 educational software tools in Albanian and Macedonian. The devices used the Edubuntu operating system, a product of the Ubuntu development community. Using this model of community-maintained and updated software, Best Practice authors applauded the move as “turning students into participants in Information Technology and not simply consumers”. The system also came with language packs in Macedonian, Albanian and English. In September 2009, MIS began broadcasting 40 educational programs on Macedonian television for use in elementary and secondary schools, on topics including Edubuntu, Open Office, math, chemistry, Latin, physics, music, and geography. This programming was offered in Macedonian and Albanian as well as being accessible online at MIS Emissions.
The 2017 - 2019 Strategic Plan for the Ministry of Education and Science lists ways ICT will be incorporated into the national education goals stretching forward through 2019. Among these goals, are development of information technologies to support equitable access to quality inclusive education, modernization of the education system to support the labor market and economic development, and greater use of communication technologies to adapt students to technological skills in the learning process.
An interactive center for professionals working in the field of child abuse and neglect prevention and intervention in Eastern Europe. It was created in 2001, the website was designed to build upon and promote the professional networks established by the Eastern European Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Program.
This industry association represents the interests of European mobile network operators. The group engages in lobbying in areas such as children’s use of mobile phones, privacy, digital inclusion and reducing the digital gender gap. In 2008, the organization formed a mobile alliance against child sexual abuse content.
International Telecommunications Union (ITU) Europe
The ITU is is the UN agency for ICTs. Areas of focus in Europe include improving E-accessibility in Central and Eastern Europe, transitioning Europe to digital broadcasting, and sharing best practices for implementing e-applications.
Internet Governance Forum
The IGF was founded by the UN in 2006 to serve as a discussion platform for internet governance policy issues. It brings together various stakeholders to determine best practices for internet policy. Past areas of focus include cybersecurity, human rights, inclusivity and openness.
INTERPOL is the world’s largest international police organization, with 190 member countries. Its mission is to enable police forces to collaborate globally to fight crime in the Internet age. Three areas of focus are crimes against children (with a focus on internet crimes and travelling sex offenders), cybercrime and human trafficking.
Ministry of Education and Science
The Ministry of Education and Science (MOS) is responsible for all primary, secondary and higher education in the Republic. This includes the planning, organization, financing and development of strategy and operational plans as well the development of curricula and science programs.
MOS Electronic Textbooks Portal
Updated in 2016, the MOS Electronic Textbooks portal hosts course texts for secondary and primary students as well as vocational classes.
Safe & Protected!
The site provides education on Internet safety to children, parents and educators and is aimed at users with varying levels of competence from novice to experienced. It is the result of a collaboration between the Metamorphosis Foundation and the European Union. The content of the site is in both Macedonian and Albanian.
Regional Review of National Activities on Child Online Protection in Europe (2017)International Trade Union
This document contains a questionnaire developed by the ITU (International Telecommunication Union) that was distributed to national governments that are within the scope of the Regional Initiative for Europe on Building Confidence and Security in the use of ICT.
Child Online Protection Campaign - Macedonian Experience (2015)I. Chorbev, V. Dimitrova, S. Janeska-Sarkanjac, G. Madzarov, D. Trajanov
This document reviews the efforts of the Child Online Protection (COP) campaign that was established by the ITU (International Telecommunication Union).
Combatting Child Sexual Abuse (2015)Petra Jeney
The study provides an overview of existing legislation at European Union, Member State and the international level related to online child sexual abuse, as well as the role of law enforcement agencies in combatting child sexual abuse online and other governmental and private sector initiatives.
The impact of internet and new media on the occurrence of violence against children in Europe and Cyprus (2015)Rosella Sala
This document demonstrate that countries lack of expertise on child sexual exploitation and struggle combating this issue by their own. It suggests to establish an international legal framework to prosecute offenders and protect children.
Factors Affecting the Development of ICT Competencies of Teachers in Primary Schools (2014)T. Atanasova-Pachemska, D. Iliev, S. Pachemska, V. Vitanova
This research was conducted to assess the ICT competencies of teachers, factors affecting the development of ICT competence, and strategies to improve development of effectiveness in the future. These conclusions are based off of a survey of 220 teachers from 10 primary schools in Macedonia.
Informatics in Primary and Secondary Schools : Revisions in Macedonian Education (2012)N. Ackovska, M. Jovanov, M. Minova, E. Stankov
This paper presents the state of informatics curriculum in Macedonian primary and secondary schools.
Freedom of Expression on the Internet (2012)Y. Akdeniz
Contains the study of legal provisions and practices related to freedom of expression, the free flow of information and media pluralism on the Internet in OSCE (Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe) participating states.
Best Practice Compendium in Implementing the e-SEE Agenda + 2011 (2011)N. Trbonja
This publication recommends best practices for ICT development in South Eastern Europe. The projects presented in this document exhibit a large range of creative, technical, and management solutions, as well as budget-friendly options, and context sensitive approaches towards ICT development.
Interactive learning in programmed teaching of the subject “Based of nature science” at pedagogical faculties in the Republic of Macedonia (2010)M. Gokik, S. Petrovska, S. Veselinovska, J. Zivanovik
This research focuses on the incorporation of technological tools for Biology curriculum in Macedonian classrooms.
ICT in the Education of the Balkan Countries (2010)Dr. Rossita Penkova, Dr. Violeta Mircheva, Nikolina Tsvetkova, Mirena Legurska
This is a comprehensive document on the situation of the ICT in education in the Balkan countries.
This section contains details of the country’s laws as they relate to sexual offenses, children and the use of the Internet in the commission of criminal activity. Where possible, sentence details have been given, including whether an increased custodial penalty is imposed where the victim is a child.
Computer Crimes are covered by Articles 251 – 251b of the Criminal Code.22 Damaging and gaining unauthorized access to a computer system are penalized with fines or imprisonment for up to five years in the most serious cases. The production and spreading of computer viruses is punishable by a fine or imprisonment for a term from one to up to a maximum of five years if significant damage is caused. Computer fraud is also punishable by fines or imprisonment for terms ranging from one to ten years.
Macedonia has signed, ratified and entered into law the Council of Europe’s Convention on Cybercrime (November 2001).
Article 172, Criminal Code. Defamation. This Article states that anyone who expresses or spreads a lie about another person which is harmful to the victim’s honor or reputation is liable to a fine. If the accusation is of such significance that it causes severe consequences for the life and health of the defamed or a person close to them, an increased penalty of imprisonment for between three months and three years will apply. The Article also states that where the accused can prove that the accusations were true or that they had reason to believe that they were, they will not be sanctioned. Exceptions are outlined in Article 176 for those acting in a professional capacity, such as scientific, journalistic or expressive work, provided it can be proved the act did not significantly damage the reputation and honor of the person in question.
Article 173, Criminal Code. Insult. States that anyone who insults another person will be punished with a fine. Anyone who exposes another person to mockery through an information system because of his/her race, skin color, nationality or ethnic origin, or who exposes to mockery the entire group of people who have such characteristics, will be liable to a fine or imprisonment for up to one year.
Article 186, Criminal Code. Rape. This Article states that anyone who, by the use of force or threat, forces someone to engage in sexual intercourse will be liable to imprisonment for between three and ten years. A minimum penalty of imprisonment for four years will apply if the offense caused bodily injury, death or other severe consequences; if the offense was committed in an especially cruel and degrading manner or if there was more than one perpetrator. The Article also states that where the offender forces the victim into intercourse with the serious threat that he will disclose something about the victim or about a person close to them that would harm their honor and reputation, or which would cause some other grave consequence, an aggravated penalty of imprisonment for six months to five years will apply.
Article 188, Criminal Code. Sexual Assault of a Juvenile under the Age of Fourteen. Imposes a penalty of imprisonment for a minimum of eight years for anyone who commits statutory rape or some other sexual act upon a juvenile under the age of fourteen. This will be increased to a minimum of ten years if the offender is a blood relative in direct line of kinship or a teacher, educator, adoptive parent, guardian, stepfather, stepmother, doctor or other person abusing his position, or if the offense is committed while performing family violence. The same penalty applies to anyone who rapes a juvenile under the age of fourteen by abusing the victim’s mental illness, mental disorder, disability, insufficient mental development, or other condition that renders the victim incapable of resistance. If severe injury, death, or a consequence of equal gravity takes place because of the crime, if the crime was committed in a particularly degrading and cruel way, or there were several perpetrators involved in the crime, offenders will be imprisoned for ten years to life.
Article 189, Criminal Code. Statutory Rape with Misuse of Position. This Article states that a person who, by misuse of their position, rapes, or with the objective of rape intimidates, abuses, or acts to humiliate the dignity of, a person dependent on or subordinate to the perpetrator will be imprisoned for at least five years. The Article adds that a professional or guardian or blood relative entrusted with the care of a juvenile older than fourteen years who misuses this position to commit statutory rape will be imprisoned for at least ten years. For these individuals, the Court will decide a sentence regarding the individual’s prohibition to perform the duty, activity or profession which was misused for the purpose of committing statutory rape, under conditions given in Article 38-b.
Article 190, Criminal Code. Satisfying Sexual Passions in Front of Another. Defines the offense of performing a sexual act in front of another person in a public place. The offense is punishable by imprisonment for up to one year. Anyone who performs a sexual act in front of a child, or who induces a child to perform such an act in front of him or another person, will be liable to imprisonment for three to five years.
Article 191, Criminal Code. Mediating in Conducting Prostitution. This Article states that anyone who recruits, instigates, stimulates or entices another person to prostitution, or anyone who participates in handing over another to someone for performing prostitution, will be punished with imprisonment for between five and ten years. A prison sentence of three to five years will be imposed on anyone who enables another to use sexual services because of profit. The Article also states that anyone who, because of profit, uses force, threat thereof or deceit to induce another person to engage in prostitution will be liable to at least eight years’ imprisonment. Where any of the above crimes have been committed whilst performing family violence an increased penalty of at least ten years’ imprisonment will apply. If the offense was committed by a legal entity, the entity will be subject to a fine.
Article 192, Criminal Code. Procuring and Enabling Sexual Acts. Defines the offense of procuring a juvenile to commit sexual acts, punishable by imprisonment for at least eight years. Anyone who enables the performing of sexual acts with a juvenile is liable to imprisonment for at least five years. If the offense is committed by a legal entity, the penalty will be a fine.
Article 193, Criminal Code. Showing Pornographic Materials to a Child. States that anyone who sells, shows or by public presentation in some other way makes available pictures, videos or other objects with a pornographic content to a juvenile under the age of fourteen, or shows him a pornographic performance, will be liable to imprisonment for a term of between six months to three years. If the offense was committed through public information media, the penalty will be increased to three to five years’ imprisonment. The same penalty applies to anyone who abuses a juvenile in the production of videos, pictures or other objects with a pornographic content or for pornographic presentations, as well as the person who participates in such presentation. The Article also states that anyone who forces a minor to get pornographic photographs taken or to participate in the production of shows or other items of pornographic content will be penalized by imprisonment for at least four years. If the victim is under the age of fourteen, the penalty will be increased to at least eight years’ imprisonment.
Article 193-a, Criminal Code. Production and Distribution of Child Pornography. This Article states that anyone who produces child pornography for the purpose of distribution, or transfers, offers or makes child pornography available in any other manner will be liable to imprisonment for at least five years. Purchasing child pornography for themselves or for other person or owning child pornography is punishable by imprisonment for five to eight years. The Article also states that if the offense has been committed through a computer system or other means of mass communication, the perpetrator will be liable to an aggravated penalty of imprisonment for at least eight years. If the crime was committed by a legal entity, the legal entity shall be subject to a fine.
Article 193-b, Criminal Code. Enticement of a Child under the Age of Fourteen into Statutory Rape or Other Sexual Activities. Imposes a penalty of imprisonment for a term of between one to five years for anyone who, via means of computer-communication, entices a minor under the age of fourteen into statutory rape or other sexual activities, or into the production of child pornography, by scheduling an appointment or in any other manner, and if direct encounter with the minor occurred with such intent.
Article 418-d, Criminal Code. Trafficking in Juveniles. States that anyone who recruits, transports, transfers, buys, sells, harbors or accepts a juvenile for the purpose of exploitation by prostitution or other forms of sexual exploitation, pornography, forced labor or servitude, slavery, forced marriage, forced fertilization, illegal adoption or similar relationship, or illegal transplantation of human organs, will be sentenced to imprisonment for at least eight years. It is irrelevant whether the juvenile consented or not. Where the offender used force, serious threats, delusion, or other forms of coercion, abduction or deception, or where the offender abuses his or her position or conditions of pregnancy, disability or physical or mental incapability of the victim, or by giving or taking money or other benefits in order to get consent from a person who has control over the victim, an increased penalty of imprisonment of at least ten years will apply. A minimum sentence of four years’ imprisonment will be imposed on anyone who takes away or destroys a personal identification card, passport or other identification document that belongs to another person, for the purpose of committing the crime as referred to above. The Article also states that anyone who uses or enables another person to use sexual services or other types of exploitation of a juvenile, for whom he or she knew or was obliged to know that the person is a victim of human trafficking, will be liable to imprisonment for a minimum of eight years. If the offense was committed by an official person while performing his/her duties, the offender will be sentenced to imprisonment for at least ten years. If the crime was committed by a legal entity, the legal entity shall be subject to a fine. Any real estate and the items or transport vehicles used to commit the crime shall be seized.