2002 - Since its establishment, Computers for Schools Kenya (CFSK),a non-government organization, has distributed and installed over 300,000 computers in 10,000 public secondary and primary schools, Technical Institutes, Teacher Training Colleges, Medical Training Centres and Universities throughout the country.
2006 - An access to ICT facilities for education purposes was classed as one of the major challenges in Kenya.To solve this issues, the government adopted a National ICT Policy, which states that the government will encourage the use of ICT in schools, colleges, universities and other educational institutions in order to improve the quality of teaching and learning. In June, the Ministry of Education introduced the National ICT Strategy for Education and Training, which outlines how ICTs will be adopted and utilized to improve access, quality and equity in the delivery of education services in Kenya.
2007 - New Partnership for Africa Development (NEPAD) completed 6 Kenyan e-Schools since the launch of NEPAD E-School Initiative in 2003. The program aims to assist Government of Kenya to transform 50 per cent of its secondary schools into NEPAD e-Schools by 2015 and all primary and secondary schools within a further ten years of this date. In total more than 600 000 schools across Africa will enjoy the benefits of ICT and connectivity to the Internet upon completion of the project.
2009 - One Global Economy (OGE), who helps low income communities use technology to achieve their goals, launched Kenya Beehive. A national-level portal that offers information on health, jobs, education, governance, environment, and internet safety in both Swahili and English.
2010 - The East African Community (EAC) has partnered with One Laptop per Child (OLPC), a nonprofit organization launched by Massachusetts Institute of Technology Media Lab, to provides laptops to children in Tanzania, Rwanda, Kenya, Uganda, and Burundi. The undeveloped physical infrastructure of the most schools makes it harder for OLPC to fulfill its agreement with the Kenyan Government. It has been reported only 2,037 of the 20,368 schools that are to receive laptops are connected to the electrical grid. Ericsson, Earth Institute at Columbia University, and Millennium Promise have launched the ‘Connect to Learn’ initiative to address some of the challenges relating to secondary education access and quality, particularly among the girls, by providing scholarships and bringing ICT to schools in remote, resource-poor parts around the world, including Kenya, over mobile broadband.
2011 - Through their Badiliko project, the British Council and Microsoft are working together to introduce ICT to children across Africa. The project aims give teachers, students and the wider community access to ICT, as well as professional development training for teachers. Currently, the project has trained over 20 000 educators and set up 14 digital hubs in Kenya, providing ICT access to roughly 70 schools and community centers.
2012 - As part of the Clinton Global Initiative (CGI), OGE supported the development of 10 Community Knowledge Centers (CKCs) in Kenya where it has trainined in digital literacy and business management over 1000 of student and teachers. Currently, OGE, together with CGI partners, Cisco, Appleseeds Academy, Inveneo and UN Habitat, launched two new CKCs in the Kibera Slums in conjunction with the Kenya government initiative to transition residents out of poverty.
2013 - To fulfill Microsoft’s 4Afrika initiative, Microsoft had signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the Kenyan Ministry of Information and Communications, Indigo and Adaptrum, it aims to bring wireless broadband access to rural locations including local schools in Kenya. The ICT Authority has implemented a Digital Literacy Programme to integrating the use of digital technologies in learning. 150 public primary schools have been selected to unveil the program in 2016.
2014 - Through the Hope for Children initiative, Samsung Electronics has launched the Solar Powered Internet Schools (SPIS) in Kenya, Samsung hopes to reach 2.5 million learners across the continent in five years.
2015 - Communications Authority of Kenya (CA) has launched a campaign on Child Online Protection to raise awareness of the types of crime that children are exposed to in cyberspace and highlights the role that parents, guardians and teachers need to play to protect children. Google Kenya partnered with Code-IP to design a Child Online Protection Kenya campaign, which launched Kenya Web Rangers, a child online safety mentorship program. It plans to expand the program into 160 more schools during 2016. ICT Authority signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) with Microsoft, promising to distribute 1.2 million affordable devices to local primary and secondary schools by 2016.
2016 - Airtel has launched Free Internet for Schools Program by connecting 250,000 students to free internet in 23 Kenya schools across the country. The program intends to reach 1 million students in all counties by the end of 2016. Kenya is hosting the 3rd International Conference of the African Virtual University under the theme of “Integrating Mobile Learning to Open Up Access to Quality Education and Training Opportunities in Africa.”
Africa Child Online Protection Education & Awareness Center (ACOPEA)
The center focuses on education and awareness across Africa and the provision of mechanisms to report abuse and protect the rights of citizens in cyberspace.
ANPPCAN is a non-profit organization that operates as a national resource center on child abuse and neglect and children’s rights. They provide information and technical expertise on child protection and child rights issues, carry out research on emerging children’s issues and lobby governments, donors, other NGOs and communities on behalf of children. Headquartered in Kenya, the organization has 26 regional offices around Africa.
Nonprofit organization that operates as a national resource center on child abuse and neglect and children’s rights. They provide information and technical expertise on child protection and child rights issues, carry out research on emerging children’s issues and lobby governments, donors, other NGOs and communities on behalf of children
NGO that works in the child protection sector. It has a 24 hour toll-free telephone and web based hotline for children to report cases of abuse.
Communication Authority of Kenya
The authority is responsible for facilitating the development of the Information and Communications sectors including; broadcasting, multimedia, telecommunications, electronic commerce, postal and courier services.
Computer Schools for Kenya
African nonprofit that provides computer equipment and maintenance to schools in deprived areas. Also provides training to teachers and educators on how to use ICT equipment and software.
End Child Prostitution in Kenya (ECPIK) is a coalition of organizations working together to protect children from commercial sexual exploitation in Kenya.
Global e-Schools and Communities Initiative (GeSCI)
Part of the UN ICT task-force, focused on ICT education across Africa and the developing world. Provides technical and research assistance to e-learning programs.
State corporation under the Minister of Information and Technology. Designed to manage all ICT functions in Kenya.
A non-profit organization that works with schools in Kenya, collaborates with the Ministry of Education and other NGOs to link up students in schools, youth organizations and through local community centers.
INTERPOL is the world’s largest international police organization, with 190 member countries. Its mission is to enable police forces to collaborate globally to fight crime in the Internet age. Three areas of focus are crimes against children (with a focus on internet crimes and travelling sex offenders), cybercrime and human trafficking.
ISPCAN: International Society for the Prevetntion of Child Abuse and Neglect
The International Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect, multidisciplinary international organization that brings together a worldwide cross-section of committed professionals to work toward the prevention and treatment of child abuse, neglect and exploitation globally.
ITU Development Sector, Africa
ITU-D fosters international cooperation and solidarity in the delivery of technical assistance and in the creation, development and improvement of telecommunication and ICT equipment and networks in developing countries.
Kenya Primary Schools Head Teachers Association
Chief teachers association in Kenya has many missions but among them innovation is prominent.
Ministry of Education
The Ministry is responsible for primary and secondary education in Kenya. A primary goal is to promote a ‘Science and Technology Culture’
Ministry of Information, Communicattions, and Technology
The Ministry runs the ICT authority as well as fights instances of cybercrime in Kenya.
National Council for Children's Services
A semi-autonomous government agency, established under Children Act, 2001, which examines general supervision and control over the planning, financing and coordination of child rights and welfare activities.
One Global Economy (OGE)
The organization helps to increase access to ICT content and training for low income communities, and build capacity of organizations to fully utilize ICT to realize their strategic goals.
One Laptop per Child (OLPC)
A nonprofit organization launched by Massachusetts Institute of Technology Media Lab, whose aim to empower the world’s poorest children through education by providing a low cost laptops.
Non-profit that champions children’s rights, health, education, economic empowerment, and gender equality.
Terre des Hommes Netherlands
This NGO focuses on stopping child sexual exploitation, child labor, child abuse and child trafficking in Asia, East Africa and Europe.
Advocacy non-profit dedicated to promoting and protecting the rights of children in Kenya.
Wahato Watch Network
Child focused non-profit promoting awareness for Child Online Protection in the major cities of Kenya.
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Education in Sub-Saharan Africa (2015)Peter Wallet
This document presents the current status of the Information and communication technologies in Education in the Sub-Saharan region.
National Plan of Action for Children in Kenya 2015 - 2022 (2015)National Council for Children Services
Goals and expected outcomes for progressive realizaiton of children's rights in Kenya
Reducing violence against children, with special focus on sexual exploitation of children and child sex tourism. (2014)The Netherlands, Defence for Children and ECPAT
This is a program by the Netherlands, Defence for Children and ECPAT, which objective is to reduce violence against children, with special attention to child sexual exploitation and child sex tourism.
Children’s Rights in the Digital Age (2014)A. Third, D. Bellerose, U. Dawkins, E. Keltie, K. Pihl
This study found unequal access to digital media among youth from 16 countries, among other key findings on children's digital usage.
Don't Look Away (2013)ECPAT
Assessment on sexual exploitation of children related to tourism and reporting mechanisms in Gambia, Kenya, Madagascar, Senegal and South Africa
Small World, Big Responsibility: The UK’s role in the global trade in children (2012)Erika Hall, Phillippa Lei
This report preset information on the different forms of child exploitation. Its purpose is to raise awareness to this global issue.
Global Digital Communication: Texting, Social Networking Popular Worldwide (2012)J. Menasce Horowitz, K. Simmons, J. Poushter, C. Barker
The report is a part of the Pew Research Center's Global Attitudes Project, which conducts opinion surveys on subjects ranging from people's assessments of their own lives to their views about the current state of the world and important issues of the day.
Combating Child Sex Tourism: Question and Answers (2008)ECPAT
This is a general information document on Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children. It also gives an overview of the global situation.
Global Monitoring Report Kenya (2007)ECPAT
Report on status of action against commercial sexual exploitation of children in Kenya
This section contains details of the country’s laws as they relate to sexual offenses, children and the use of the Internet in the commission of criminal activity. Where possible, sentence details have been given, including whether an increased custodial penalty is imposed where the victim is a child.
According to the Children’s Act of Kenya, a child is a person under the age of eighteen years. This definition is adopted in the Sexual Offenses Act, 2006 (revised as of 2009).
- Section 3, Sexual Offenses Act. Rape. States that anyone intentionally and unlawfully committing a sexual act which includes penetration without consent is guilty of the offense of rape. The same applies where the consent is obtained by force, threat or intimidation of any kind. The offender is liable to imprisonment for a minimum of ten years up to life imprisonment.
- Section 43, Sexual Offenses Act. Intentional and Unlawful Acts. Defines the term of intentional and unlawful acts, which applies to acts committed in any coercive circumstance, under false pretences or by fraudulent means, or in respect of a person who is incapable of appreciating the nature of an act which causes the offense. The latter includes a child. The offender is liable for imprisonment of no less than five years.
- Section 4, Sexual Offenses Act. Attempted Rape. This section states that attempted rape is an offense and the offender is liable to a minimum of five years’ imprisonment, with life imprisonment available for the most serious cases.
- Section 5, Sexual Offenses Act. Sexual Assault. States that anyone who unlawfully penetrates the genital organs of a person with any part of another person’s body or the victim’s body, or with an object controlled by another person or the victim is guilty of sexual assault. The same applies to anyone who manipulates his/her body or another person’s body in order to penetrate the genitals organs of the victim, or cause the victim’s genitals to penetrate someone else’s. The offense is punishable by imprisonment for between ten years and life.
- Section 6, Sexual Offenses Act. Compelled or Induced Indecent Acts. Defines the offense of compelling, inducing or causing another person to engage in an indecent act with the offender, a third person, or an object, including any part of the body of an animal, in circumstances where the victim would otherwise not have committed or allowed the indecent act, or is incapable of appreciating the nature of the indecent act. The offense is punishable by imprisonment for a minimum of five years.
- Section 7, Sexual Offenses Act. Acts which Cause Penetration or Indecent Acts Committed within the View of a Family Member, Child or Person with Mental Disabilities. This section states that anyone who intentionally commits rape or an indecent act within the view of a family member, a child or a person with mental disabilities is guilty of an offense and is liable to imprisonment for a minimum of ten years.
- Section 8, Sexual Offenses Act. Defilement. Defines the crime of committing an act which causes penetration with a child. Where the child is under the age of eleven, the offender will be sentenced to imprisonment for life. If the child is aged between twelve and fifteen, the offender will be liable to imprisonment for a minimum of twenty years. Where the child is aged between sixteen and eighteen, the offender will be punished by imprisonment for a minimum of fifteen years. Where the offender is below the age of eighteen, the court may sentence the accused person in accordance with the provisions of the Borstal Institutions Act and the Children’s Act.
- Section 9, Sexual Offenses Act. Attempted Defilement. Defines the offense of attempting to commit an act which would cause penetration with a child. The offense is punishable by imprisonment for a minimum of ten years. Where the offender is below the age of eighteen, the court may sentence the accused person in accordance with the provisions of the Borstal Institutions Act and the Children’s Act.
- Section 10, Sexual Offenses Act. Gang Rape. States that anyone who commits the offense of rape or defilement together with one or more persons, or anyone who is in the company of others who commit such an offense is guilty of an offense termed gang rape and is liable to imprisonment for a minimum of fifteen years with a maximum sentence of life imprisonment.
- Section 11, Sexual Offenses Act. Indecent Act with Child. This section states that it is a crime to commit an indecent act with a child. The offense is punishable by imprisonment for at least ten years. Where the offender is below the age of eighteen, the court may sentence the accused person in accordance with the provisions of the Borstal Institutions Act and the Children’s Act.
- Section 12, Sexual Offenses Act. Promotion of Sexual Offenses with a Child. Defines the offense of manufacturing or distributing any article that promotes or is intended to promote a sexual offense with a child. It is also illegal to supply or display to a child any article which is intended to be used in the performance of a sexual act with the intention of encouraging or enabling that child to perform such a sexual act. Upon conviction, the offender is liable to imprisonment for a minimum of five years, and where the offender is a juristic person, to a fine of not less than 500,000 shillings. (Note: ‘juristic person’ means an entity other than a natural person created by law and recognized as a legal entity having distinct identity, legal personality, duties and rights, such as a company or trust.)
- Section 13, Sexual Offenses Act. Child Trafficking. Defines the offense of child trafficking, which is described as knowingly or intentionally making or organizing any travel arrangements for or on behalf of a child, with the intention of facilitating the commission of any sexual offense against that child, irrespective of whether the offense is committed. Child trafficking also includes supplying, recruiting, transporting, transferring, harboring or receiving a child for purposes of the commission of any sexual offense with such child or any other person. The offense is punishable by imprisonment for a minimum of ten years, and where the offender is a juristic person, by a fine of not less than 2,000,000 shillings.
- Section 14, Sexual Offenses Act. Child Sex Tourism. States that anyone who makes or organizes any travel arrangements for or on behalf of any other person with the intention of facilitating the commission of any sexual offense against a child, irrespective of whether that offense is committed, is liable to imprisonment for no less than ten years, and where the accused person is a juristic person to a fine of not less than 2,000,000 shillings. The same sentence applies to anyone who prints or publishes, in any manner, information that is intended to promote or facilitate conduct that would constitute a sexual offense against a child, and anyone who introduces, organizes or facilitates contact with another person under the auspices of promoting tourism, in any manner, in order to promote such conduct.
- Section 15, Sexual Offenses Act. Child Prostitution. This section states that anyone who knowingly permits a child to remain in any premises, for the purposes of causing the child to be sexually abused, or to participate in any form of sexual activity, obscene or indecent exhibition or show, is guilty of benefiting from child prostitution. The same applies to anyone who: acts as a procurer of a child for the purposes of sexual intercourse, sexual abuse, indecent exhibition or show; induces a person to be a client of a child for sexual intercourse, sexual abuse, indecent exhibition or show, by means of print or other media, oral advertisements or other similar means; takes advantage of his influence over, or his relationship to a child, to procure the child for sexual intercourse, sexual abuse, indecent exhibition or show; threatens or uses violence towards a child to procure the child to such acts; intentionally or knowingly owns, leases, rents, manages, occupies or has control of any movable or immovable property used for purposes of the commission of such acts; gives money, goods, other benefits or any other form of inducement to a child or his parents with intent to procure the child for sexual intercourse, sexual abuse, indecent exhibition or show. Upon conviction, the offender is liable to imprisonment for a minimum of ten years.
- Section 16, Sexual Offenses Act. Child Pornography. Defines the offense of child pornography as being: displaying, showing, exposing or exhibiting obscene images, words or sounds by means of print, audio-visual or any other media to a child with the intention of encouraging or enabling a child to engage in sexual acts. It also includes: selling, letting to hire, distributing, publicly exhibiting or circulating, or, for purposes of sale, hiring, distributing, making, producing or possessing any obscene book, pamphlet, paper, drawing, painting, art, representation or figure or any other obscene object whatsoever which depicts the image of any child; importing, exporting or conveying any obscene object for such purposes; taking part in or receiving profits from any business that makes, produces, purchases, keeps, imports, exports, conveys, publicly exhibits or circulates such material; advertising or making known by any means whatsoever that any person is engaged or is ready to engage in any act which is an offense under this section, or that any such obscene object can be produced from or through any person; or offering or attempting to do any act which is an offense under this section. The offense is punishable by imprisonment for a minimum of six years or by a fine of not less than 500,000 shillings or both. Further convictions under this section render the offender liable to an increased sentence of imprisonment for no less than seven years without the option of a fine.
- Section 17, Sexual Offenses Act. Exploitation of Prostitution. States that anyone who causes or incites another person to become a prostitute, controls any of the activities of another person’s prostitution, and does so for some form of gain for him or herself or a third person, is guilty of an offense and liable to imprisonment for a minimum of five years or to a fine of 500,000 shillings, or both.
- Section 23, Sexual Offenses Act. Sexual Harassment. States that anyone who, being in a position of authority or holding a public office, persistently makes sexual advances or requests which are unwelcome, is guilty of the offense of sexual harassment and is liable to imprisonment for a minimum of three years or to a fine of not less than 100,000 shillings, or to both. For conviction, it is necessary to prove that the submission or rejection by the victim is intended to be used as basis of employment or of a decision relevant to the career of the victim, or that such advances or requests interfere with the victim’s work or educational performance, creating an offensive working or learning environment for the victim or denying a service to to a member of the public from a public servant.
- Section 157, Penal Code. Conspiracy to Defile. This section states that anyone who conspires with another to induce a woman or girl, by false pretence or other fraudulent means, to permit a man to commit a sexual act with her, or conspires to induce a man or boy to permit anyone to have sexual connection with him, is guilty of a felony and liable to imprisonment for three years.
- Section 162, Penal Code. Unnatural Offenses. States that anyone who has anal intercourse with a person or animal, or permits a male to have such intercourse with him/her is guilty of a felony and liable to imprisonment for fourteen years. The offender is liable to an increased sentence of 21 years imprisonment where the crime was committed without the victim’s consent, or where the consent was obtained by force, means of threat or intimidation, fear of bodily harm or means of false representations as to the nature of the act.
- Section 163, Penal Code. Attempt to Commit Unnatural Offenses. This section states that anyone who attempts to have anal intercourse with a person is guilty of a felony and liable to imprisonment for seven years.
- Section 174, Penal Code. Child Stealing. Defines the offense of forcibly or fraudulently taking or enticing away or detaining a child under the age of fourteen years, with the intent to deprive the parent or guardian of the possession of the child. It is also an offense to receive or harbor a child that has been stolen. This felony is punishable by imprisonment for seven years.
- The Children Act, 2001. Provides rights and welfare all children in Kenya and defines a child as “any human being less than 18 years of age.
- Cybercrime and Computer Related Crimes Bill, 2014. The Bill prohibits unauthorized access, use or interference with a computer; protects the integrity of computer systems and the confidentiality, integrity and availability of data; prevents abuse of computer systems; facilitates the gathering and use of electronic evidence; and connected purposes.
- The Sexual Offences Act, 2006 (SOA). Provides strong legal protection for victims of sexual violence (rape, defilement, child trafficking, child prostitution, child pornography, and other related issues).
2011- To widen its reach and appeal to children in Kenya, Childline Kenya expanded their 24 hour- toll free National Child Helpline 116 counseling services to online chatrooms, as well as developed an outreach educational programmes to raise awareness of child abuse and children’s rights.
2012 - Plan International and The Cradle partnered up to conduct a survey on child online safety in Kenya. A non-profit organization Watoto Watch Network based in Nairobi was established to educate children on the internet safety.
2013 - National Plan of Action against Sexual Exploitation of Children was adopted, which focuses on prevention, protection, recovery and reintegration, coordination and cooperation, child participation as well as monitoring and evaluation. Kenyan Government hosted African Internet Governance Forum, which was attended by the government officials, representatives from private sector, civil society, regional and international organisations totalling coming from 29 countries. Among many recommendation that have been discussed at the Forum, participants agreed to establish an effective mechanisms to protect children from spam, hacking, and cybercrime.
2014 - Kenya presented a report at the Africa Child Online Protection (ACOP) Summit in Kampala, Uganda on the Kenyan experience of striving towards a safer cyberspace for children. Cybercrime and Computer Related Crimes Bill was drafted addressing crimes such as child pornography and cyberstalking. Safaricom, Kenya’s largest telecommunications provider, released the Guardian app that can set parental control to children’s smartphones. A four-day Interpol ‘cybercrime investigation’ course took place in Rwanda. All Interpol Zone V countries, including Kenya, participated in the training, which covered various cyber crime investigation areas like social media investigation and how to preserve and report online data.
2015 - The Communication Authority of Kenya launched a Child Protection Online campaign called Be the Cop, the program works with parents and educators to teach children and students about the threats online and how to self-report them.
2016 - Kenya celebrated Safer Internet Day, where it promoted a safer use of online technology and mobile devices among children and young adults and addressed emerging online issues