2007 - The Italian Ministry of Education launched a National Plan for Digital Schools (Piano Nazionale Scuola Digitale) to bring Information Communication Technology (ICT) to schools and use technology to innovate Italian education, create to new teaching practices, new models of school organisation, and new products and tools to support quality teaching. The national plan includes four initiatives: Piano LIM (La Lavagna Interattiva Multimediale), a fund to equip classrooms with interactive whiteboards, and [email protected] 2.0, [email protected] 2.0, Editoria digitale scolastica, the three test bed projects in which pilot schools, selected through open competitions, experiment ICT solutions. These initiatives have two objectives: showcase the power of educational technology and make it even more desirable; pilot new schooling models for the Italian education system.
2008 - The Ministry of Education, University and Research launched Piano LIM initiative by equipping classrooms with personal computers and interactive whiteboards (IWBs), and funding teacher training in the pedagogical use of interactive whiteboards. Before the beginning of the plan, the number of IWBs in Italian schools was approximately 4,000. Over the four school-years 2008-2012, 35,1143 interactive whiteboards have been provided and 64,456 teachers have been trained.
2009 - The [email protected] 2.0 initiative, an educational project for the testing of advanced teaching methods, was launched in 156 classes of lower secondary schools and later in classes of primary and upper secondary schools. The goal of this initiative is to pilot IT-rich learning environments that radically innovate on the traditional organisation of teaching and learning. In 2012, the 14 schools benefited from [email protected] 2.0, an initiative similar to [email protected] 2.0, but it was not restricted to a single class.
2010 - Joint initiative between Ministry for Simplification and Public Administration and the Ministry of Education, University and Research launched InnovaScuola, a collaborative platform with a goal to provide a portal and collaboration environment for users to share experiences and resources. The portal offers access to a digital library of educational content, social tools for collaborative development among teachers and students, and an area of study on the use of digital technologies in teaching.
2011 - European Schoolnet in collaboration with Liberty Global, Microsoft, Telefonica and Kaspersky Lab, as well as Ministries of Education from Austria, Belgium-Flanders, Estonia, Italy, Portugal and Spain launched the eSafety Label initiative. The goal of the initiative is to help schools respond to data protection and privacy issues to sexting, cyberbullying and misuse of mobile phones in class faced through the integration of online technology both as a teaching/learning and management tool in schools.
2012 - The Italian Council of Ministers approved Crescita 2.0 (Growth 2.0), which was proposed by the Minister of Economic Development, Infrastructure and Transport. The law is the body of rules comprising the second Growth Decree that aims to make Italy a place where innovation is the driving force behind sustainable growth and one of the key factors of its industrial competitiveness. It contains a large set of measures to promote the digital delivery to public services and to support digital innovation in the private sector. Two of these measures concern ICT policies for schools: i) the mandatory adoption of e-books or books in mixed format as textbooks starting 2014-15 school-year; ii) the creation of “digital school centres” in isolated villages.
Editoria Digitale Scolastica (Digital Publishing School) was launched in 20 schools, with the assistance from CONSIP, highly equipped classes act as test centers for the development of native digital textbooks. Each school is a test center for a different textbook.The goal of this initiative is to create a product that is designed to mainstream for subjects in different school and capable of addressing a significant portion of the curriculum. From school-year 2012-2013, teachers have been training by INDIRE with the new DIDATEC training. DIDATEC supports teachers in integrating ICT in education. The aim of the DIDATEC training is to strengthen ICT skills among teachers to improve the quality of teaching and learning.
Better Internet for Kids launched Net Children Go Mobile project which aims to provide comparable data on children and mobile internet in Denmark, Italy, Romania and the UK, through a survey and a qualitative research. The Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore (UCSC), the only university in Italy that operates on a national scale, is assisting with the research.
2014 - Telecom Italia (TIM) launched EducaTI project when it signed protocol of understanding with MIUR to support the digitization of Italian schools. The project consist of many initiatives: promoting the structural introduction into schools of coding, the “digital tutor”, an educational tour dedicated to 15,000 primary school teachers with the objective of enabling them to acquire the skills necessary for becoming mentors in the use of the new digital teaching tools and expanding awareness of the opportunities and risks of social networks; the competition “You Teach”, aimed at stimulating the creativity of students, and the crowdfunding platform “WithYouWeDo” which enables the online community to finance innovative teaching projects in the field of education and digital culture.
2015 - European Schoolnet launched MENTEP (Mentoring Technology-Enhanced Pedagogy) that will run through 2018. INDIRE was chosen to implement the program in Italy. MENTEP addresses the need in EU policies for teachers to be able to innovate education using ICT, by developing a reliable tool for teachers to self-assess progress in technology-enhanced teaching (TET) competences and testing the tool’s effectiveness using rigorous counterfactual protocols. The MIUR signed Memorandum of Understanding with Microsoft, Casio, and A-Tono to support the promotion and development of digital culture in the school.
2016 - The MIUR and CISCO signed Memorandum of Understanding to promote activities to support innovation of learning environments. Cisco has agreed to work with MIUR to strengthen strengthen education sector initiatives through activities related to research, multimedia and active and creative use of new technologies in schools. Another Memorandum of Understanding was signed between the MIUR and Fastweb, one of the leading telecommunication operators in Italy, and Anteprima, communication agency, to support innovation projects under the National Plan for Digital School. Anteprima agreed to provide free access to its Eppela crowdfunding platform funded by Fastweb, which is one of the most important Italian reward based crowdfunding platforms for creators and startups. Italy observed Safer Internet Day, where Italy Safer Internet Center organized an initiative to involve young people to address security issues on the Internet, with the aim of providing training, information and promote exchanges between the various stakeholders involved in the phenomenon.
Sponsored by the MOIGE this site aims to educate children, parents and teachers on internet safety and demonstrates how to avoid potential exposure to child pornography, grooming and fraud. The site has sections for parents, children and teachers, as well as the option to consult with an online expert.
The organization that protects children from prostitution, sex tourism and child pornography.
European School Network
This group was founded in 2006 to create an exchange network among nine European schools. ESN arranges one-to-one student exchanges for one to eight weeks, and also provides the possibility of teacher exchanges, group exchanges and student seminars.
The website provides tip how to stay safe online and leads campaign against the cyberbulling.
This industry association represents the interests of European mobile network operators. The group engages in lobbying in areas such as children’s use of mobile phones, privacy, digital inclusion and reducing the digital gender gap. In 2008, the organization formed a mobile alliance against child sexual abuse content.
An international non-profit organization that leads a national drive for training trainers, professional development of teachers/ educators and curriculum development (for ICTs in secondary education) thus preparing the country for true education in the 21st century.
Innocence En Danger
This international NGO brings together activists, Internet specialists, policy makers and the media to raise awareness of the sexual exploitation of children online, and support child victims and their families.
International Telecommunications Union (ITU) Europe
The ITU is is the UN agency for ICTs. Areas of focus in Europe include improving E-accessibility in Central and Eastern Europe, transitioning Europe to digital broadcasting, and sharing best practices for implementing e-applications.
Internet Governance Forum
The IGF was founded by the UN in 2006 to serve as a discussion platform for internet governance policy issues. It brings together various stakeholders to determine best practices for internet policy. Past areas of focus include cybersecurity, human rights, inclusivity and openness.
INTERPOL is the world’s largest international police organization, with 190 member countries. Its mission is to enable police forces to collaborate globally to fight crime in the Internet age. Three areas of focus are crimes against children (with a focus on internet crimes and travelling sex offenders), cybercrime and human trafficking.
Italian Safer Internet Centre (SIC)
Provides e-safety tips, advice and resources to help children and young people stay safe on the internet. The center was co-funded by the European Commission’s Safer Internet Programme and is one of the 31 Safer Internet Centers of the Insafe network.
The organization’s mission is to fight online child pornography and abuse. Their website provides information on initiatives and offers a hotline for reporting abuse, as well as providing tips and expert advice.
Ministry of Education, University and Research (MIUR)
The Ministry is responsible for all stages of public education in the country.
National Center for the Fight against Child Pornography on the Internet (CNCPO)
The center was established by the Law 38 of 6 February 2006 for Combating Child Pornography online and exploitation of minors for sexual purposes. The center is set up within the Postal and Communication Police Service of the Ministry of the Interior.
National Institute for Documentation, Innovation and Educational Research (INDIRE)
The oldest institution of the Ministry of Education, University and Research , the Institute accompanies evolution of the Italian school system by investing in education and innovation and supporting the processes of improvement of the school since 1925.
One Laptop per Child (OLPC)
A nonprofit organization launched by Massachusetts Institute of Technology Media Lab, whose aim to empower the world’s poorest children through education by providing a low cost laptops.
Save the Children Italia
The organization has been working in protecting migrant minors present in Italy or at risk of exploitation, and children and adolescents who are exposed to problems arising by use unfair and illegal to new technologies, or even, in the national school system. Currently, the organization manages projects in child participation, child discrimination, child abuse and maltreatment, separated children, children on the move, child trafficking, child poverty.
Telecom Italia (TIM)
The company provides Internet safety advice aimed at children, parents and teachers. Information on online safety is tailored according to age groups and separate pages provide guidance for adults.
Telefono Arcobaleno (Surf Watch)
Established in 1996, Telefono Arcobaleno is an independent organization committed to the battle against the abuse and sexual exploitation of children. The organization carries out activities in over 100 countries around the world, defending the rights of children. The site also enables users to report online child abuse and exploitation.
Terre des Hommes Netherlands
This NGO focuses on stopping child sexual exploitation, child labor, child abuse and child trafficking in Asia, East Africa and Europe.
Virtual Global Taskforce (VGT)
This international partnership was formed in 2003 by law enforcement agencies, NGOs and industry leaders. It aims to protect children from online sexual abuse, with the objectives of making the Internet safer, locating and helping at-risk children and holding perpetrators to account.
A Survey on the Transposition of Directive 2011/93/EU on Combating Sexual Abuse and Sexual Exploitation of Children and Child Pornography (2016)Together Against Sexual Exploitation of Children
The study examines how seven key provisions of Directive 2011/93/EU on the fight against sexual abuse and sexual exploitation of children and child pornography have been adopted by the 27 European Union (EU) Member States bound by the Directive.
Young Children (0-8) and Digital Technology: A Qualitative Exploratory Study Across Seven Countries (2015)S. Chaudron
This report presents a pilot qualitative study designed and implemented in collaboration with a selected group of academic partners in different European countries that aims at pioneering in Europe the exploration of children younger than 8 years old and their families` experiences with new technologies.
The impact of internet and new media on the occurrence of violence against children in Europe and Cyprus (2015)Rosella Sala
This document demonstrate that countries lack of expertise on child sexual exploitation and struggle combating this issue by their own. It suggests to establish an international legal framework to prosecute offenders and protect children.
How parents of young children manage digital devices at home: the role of income, education and parental style (2015)Livingstone, Sonia, Mascheroni, Giovanna, Dreier, Michael, Chaudron, Stephane, Lagae, Kaat
The report compares strategies of parental mediation on the internet according to levels of parental education and household income. The aim was to inform policy-makers and practitioners on how to approach parental guidance and awareness raising.
Combatting Child Sexual Abuse (2015)Petra Jeney
The study provides an overview of existing legislation at European Union, Member State and the international level related to online child sexual abuse, as well as the role of law enforcement agencies in combatting child sexual abuse online and other governmental and private sector initiatives.
Global Research Project: A Global Landscape of Hotlines Combating Child Sexual Abuse Material on the Internet and an Assessment of Shared Challenges (2015)Melissa Stroebe, Stacy Jeleniewski, PhD
This report examines hotlines combating Internet-facilitated Child Sexual Abuse Material.
Children’s Rights in the Digital Age (2014)A. Third, D. Bellerose, U. Dawkins, E. Keltie, K. Pihl
This study found unequal access to digital media among youth from 16 countries, among other key findings on children's digital usage.
European Children and Their Carers’ Understanding of Use, Risks and Safety Issues Relating to Convergent Mobile Media (2014)L. Haddon, J. Vincent
This study focuses on children’s experience of mobile media and the mobile internet, with an emphasis on smartphones and tablets, based on a qualitative study of children, their parents, teachers and others working with young people in nine European countries.
Net Children Go Mobile: Final Report (2014)G. Mascheroni, A. Cuman
The paper reports the findings of research in nine countries on children's use of technology, risky behaviors and parental mediation.
Net Children Go Mobile Final Report (2014)Giovanna Mascheroni, Andrea Cuman
Final report on implementation of Net Children Go Mobile project.
Global Alliance against Child Sexual Abuse Online: Italy (2014)European Comission
Report on Italy's commitment to stop Child Sexula Abuse Online
Children's Use of Online Technologies in Europe (2014)K. Ólafsson, S. Livingstone, L. Haddon
This report reviews recent research on children’s use of internet and mobile technologies identified by the EU Kids Online network.
Policy Influences and Country Clusters: A Comparative Analysis of Internet Safety Policy Implementation (2014)B. O'Neill
The report examines the policy context of internet safety and looks at how countries within each cluster approach implementation.
Children’s Online Risks and Opportunities: Comparative Findings from EU Kids Online and Net Children Go Mobile (2014)S. Livingstone, G. Mascheroni, K. Ólafsson, L. Haddon
This study focuses on European children's internet habits, their exposure to risks and parental mediation strategies.
The Meaning of Online Problematic Situations for Children: Results of Qualitative Cross-Cultural Investigation in Nine European Countries (2014)D. Smahel, M.F. Wright
This research, based on interviews, focused on the following: what children perceive as being potentially negative or problematic while using the internet, what risks children are aware of when using the internet, what consequences online negative experiences might have, how children react to negative experiences, what children do to avoid or prevent these problematic experiences, and why children perceive certain situations as negative.
Final recommendations for policy (2014)O’Neill, B., Staksrud, E
Combining all the EU Kids Online policy guidance into one resource, this report provides more than 30 proposed actions for making the Internet safer for children.
Country classification: opportunities, risks, harm and parental mediation (2013)Helsper, E.J., Kalmus, V., Hasebrink, U., Sagvari, B., and de Haan, J.
This report explores the range and type of online opportunities and risks experienced by children in each country. The ways in which parents mediate or regulate their children’s internet use is also examined.
Review of the Italian Strategy for Digital Schools (2013)Francesco Avvisati, Sara Hennessy, Robert B. Kozma, Stéphan Vincent-Lancrin
Status report on Italy's National Plan for Digital Schools, which was launched in 2007.
Media Literacy in Europe: 12 Good Practices that will Inspire You (2013)Evens Foundation
This document explores 12 cases across Europe of media literacy.
Overview and Analysis of 1:1 Learning Initiatives in Europe (2013)Intel
Intel 's report on the status of 1:1 Learning Initiative in Europe
Zero to Eight - Young Children and Their Internet Use (2013)Holloway, D., Green, L., and Livingstone, S. with members of the EU Kids Online network,
This report reviews a number of other studies and provides recommendations as to how younger children can be protected from online risks.
Risks and safety on the internet: Comparing Brazilian and European children (2013)Barbosa, A., O’Neill, B., Ponte, C., Simões, J.A., Jereissati, T.,
This study compares the results of the survey of Brazilian children and their parents/guardians, carried out by the Brazilian Internet Steering Committee. Using the same methodology as the EU Kids Online research, the results from Brazil are compared with those from Europe.
Country Classification: Opportunities, Risks, Harm and Parental Mediation (2013)Helsper, E. J., Kalmus, V., Hasebrink, U., Sagvari, B. and De Haan, J. with members of the EU Kids Online network
With data from 25 of the European countries surveyed in EU Kids Online, the report examines the range and type of online opportunities, risks and harm which children from each country experience, as well as looking at ways in which parents control or mediate their children’s Internet use.
In their own words: what bothers children online? (2013)Livingstone S., Kirwil, L., Ponte C. and Staksrud E., with the EU Kids Online network
The results of a survey of nearly 10,000 children in 25 countries across Europe, this report details what children say upsets them and their friends online
Worldwide Online Bullying Survey (2012)Microsoft
This survey explored children’s experience of online bullying in 25 countries across the globe.
EU Kids Online: Excessive Internet Use among European Children (2012)Smahel, D, Helsper, E, Green, L, Kalmus, V, Blinka, L, Ólafsson, K,
This report uses the data from the EU Kids Online study to examine excessive use of the Internet by children in the 25 participating countries.
EU Kids Online: National perspectives (2012)Haddon, L., Livingstone, S., EU Kids Online Network
This report summarizes the Internet experiences of children in the 33 participating EU Kids Online countries and includes eight countries which have not appeared in previous reports.
Excessive Internet Use by European Children (2012)D. Smahel, E. Helsper, L. Green, V. Kalmus, L. Blinka, K. Ólafsson
This report presents new findings and further analysis of the EU Kids Online 25-country survey regarding excessive use of the internet by children.
EU Kids Online: National perspectives (2012)Leslie Haddon, Sonia Livingstone and the EU Kids Online network
This report summarizes the Internet experiences of children in the 33 participating EU Kids Online countries and includes eight countries which have not appeared in previous reports
Worldwide Online Bullying Survey. (2012)Microsoft
This survey explored children’s experience of online bullying in 25 countries across the globe.
The Protection of Children Online (2012)Kristina Irion
The report provides key findings and policy recommendations to keep children safe online as a follow up to the 2008 Seoul Ministerial Declaration on the Future of the Internet Economy.
Online Behavior Related to Child Sexual Abuse (2011)M. Ainsaar, L. Lööf
This report provides a review of studies, with a specific focus on sexually abusive online experiences and offline sexual abuse that have started with an online contact or where the contacts between the perpetrator and the young person have relied heavily on information and communication technologies.
ECPAT Global Monitoring Report: Italy (2011)ECPAT
Report on the status of action against commercial sexual exploitation of children in Italy.
Risks and safety on the internet: The perspective of European children. Full Findings (2011)Livingstone, S., Haddon, L., Görzig, A., Ólafsson, K
Building on the original study, EU Kids Online I, this second piece of research includes the findings from research which took place in 25 countries. Children in the 9 – 16 age group were surveyed on their experiences of online use, risk and safety
Good practice in children’s privacy protection in Lithuania and Italy (2010)European Commission
Report on good practices reguarding children protection online in Lithuania and Italy
2010 Norton Online Family Report (2010)Norton by Symantec
The report reveals how children are spending more time online and have had more negative online experiences than parents realize. It highlights different approaches taken by families globally and uncovers the emotional impact of children’s negative online experiences.
Education on Online Safety in Schools in Europe (2009)Eurydice
The study covers 30 European countries and provides information on whether online safety is taught and how it is taught in schools within the participating countries.
EU Kids Online: Final report (2009)Livingstone, S., Haddon, L.
One of the foremost pieces of research into the online habits of children in the European Union is the EU Kids Online research, funded by the European Commission Safer Internet Plus Programme between 2006 and 2009.
Towards a safer use of the Internet for children in the EU - a parents' perspective (2008)Eurobarometer
The study covers 27 EU Member States and provides parental responses to a range of questions relating to Internet safety and their perception of risk.
Child Trafficking in Europe, A broad vision to put children first (2008)Unicef Innocenti Research Centre
This Innocenti report was developed with assistance of many experts. The report's key findings addresses child trafficking patterns and flow, which is occuring all over Europe; discusses positive developments; lists challenges; lists international standards and national legislations to combat child trafficking; discusses policy responses; and finally shares different approaches to combat this epidemic.
U.S. /European Summit on Missing & Exploited Children (2005)International Centre for Missing & Exploited Children
Participants from different governments, law enforcement, and nongovernmental organizations participated in the U.S. /European Summit on Missing & Exploited Children. They discussed successes and shortcomings of current efforts to address the global problem of missing and exploited children, and adopted a comprehensive Action Plan.
Children and Their Changing Media Environment: A European Comparative Study (2001)Sonia Livingstone, Moira Bovill
This book looks into the changing media environment that children face through the means of television, the Internet, and computers and video games and compares the experiences of children around Europe.
This section contains details of the country’s laws as they relate to sexual offenses, children and the use of the Internet in the commission of criminal activity. Where possible, sentence details have been given, including whether an increased custodial penalty is imposed where the victim is a child.
The age of sexual consent in Italy is fourteen although an exception in section 609c of the Penal Code allows those aged thirteen to engage in sexual intercourse if their partner is no more than three years older than them. If one of the participants is in a position of authority on the other, the age of consent rises to sixteen.
Italy has signed, ratified and entered into law the Council of Europe’s Convention on Cybercrime (November 2001).
- Article 600 bis, Penal Code. Child Prostitution. States that anyone who recruits or induces a person under the age of eighteen into prostitution is liable to a term of imprisonment of between six to twelve years and a fine of €15,493 to €154,937. This section also states that the same penalty applies to anyone who promotes, uses, manages, organizes or controls the prostitution of a person under the age of eighteen, or otherwise draws financial gain from it. Unless the act constitutes another serious crime, anyone who performs sexual acts with a child aged between fourteen and eighteen, in exchange for monetary compensation or other benefits, is liable to imprisonment for between six months and three years and a minimum fine of €5,164.
- Article 600 ter, Penal Code. Child Pornography. Defines the crime of using minors under eighteen years of age for the purpose of producing pornographic material or to participate in pornographic performances. The penalty is imprisonment between six to twelve years and a fine of €25,822 to €258,228. The same penalty applies to anyone selling child pornography. This section also states that anyone who distributes, discloses, disseminates or advertises pornographic material with a minor by any means (including electronically) or distributes or disseminates news or information aimed at the enticement or sexual exploitation of children under eighteen years of age, will be punished with imprisonment for between one and five years and a fine of €2,582 to €51,645. Where significant quantities of material are found, the penalty increases by up to two thirds. Anyone who does not fall under any of the definitions given previously but who offers or gives pornographic material to others (even without monetary gain) which has been produced by the sexual exploitation of minors will face imprisonment of up to three years, a fine of between €1,549 to €5,164, or both.
- Article 600c, Penal Code. Possession of Pornographic Material. States that anyone who (outside the cases provided for in Article 600 ter) knowingly obtains or possesses pornography depicting children under the age of eighteen will face imprisonment of up to three years and a minimum fine of €1,549. Where significant quantities of material are found, the penalty increases by up to two thirds.
- Article 600 bis quarter, Penal Code. Virtual Pornography. This section states that the provisions of Articles 600 – 600b and 600c apply even where images are virtual (electronically created or altered) images depicting minors under the age of eighteen although the penalty is reduced by a third. The images must appear to be real even though they have been manipulated or altered to produce that effect.
- Article 600d, Penal Code. Tourism Initiatives for the Exploitation of Child Prostitution. This section states that anyone who organizes or funds the advertising of services which promote the exploitation of child prostitution through tourism is liable to imprisonment for between six and twelve years and a fine of between €15,493 and €154,937.
- Article 600 sexies, Penal Code. Aggravating & Mitigating Circumstances. This section states that where crimes are committed under certain sections of the following Articles, the penalty is increased by half if the victim is under the age of fourteen: 600 bis, 600 ter, 600d, 600, 601 and 602. Penalties are also increased where the acts were committed by a relative or person in a position of authority over the victim. For the acts outlined in Articles 600 bis and 600 ter, the penalties are increased if the acts were committed with the use of threats or violence. Article 600-7, Penal Code. Confiscation and Additional Penalties. States that upon conviction for offenses designated in Article 600 and 600-bis, confiscation of the property that was used or intended to be used to commit the crime will always be ordered and that offenders face a lifetime ban from positions which involve working with children or in places predominantly frequented by children.
- Article 601, Penal Code. Child Trafficking. States that anyone who engages in the trafficking or transfer of persons under eighteen years of age for the purposes of prostitution will be punished by imprisonment for between eight and 20 years. The penalty is increased by a third if the crime is committed against a person under the age of eighteen or where the offense is committed to facilitate prostitution.
- Article 609 bis, Penal Code. Sexual Violence. States that it is an offense to use violence or threats to compel another person into performing sexual acts. This offense is punishable by imprisonment for between five and ten years. The section also states that the same punishment applies to anyone who abuses the victim’s condition of physical or mental incapacity at the time of the offense, or who deceives the victim by pretending to be someone else. Where the offense involves a minor the sentence increases by up to two thirds.
- Article 609 ter, Penal Code. Aggravating Circumstances. The use of violence and threats to compel another person into performing sexual acts carries an increased penalty of imprisonment for between six and twelve years if one of the following applies: where the victim is under fourteen years of age; where the offender used weapons, alcohol, narcotic drugs or other substances that could seriously damage the health of the victim; where the offender pretends to be a public official or clerk of a public office; where the victim suffered injuries from the commission of the offense or where the victim is under sixteen years of age and the offender is a relative, adoptive parent or guardian. A heavier penalty of imprisonment for between seven and fourteen years applies if the crime is committed against a person who is under ten years of age.
- Article 609c, Penal Code. Sexual Acts with a Minor. Defines the offense of committing sexual acts with a minor under fourteen years of age. The section also states that it is an offense to commit sexual acts with a person under sixteen years of age if the offender is a relative, parent, guardian, or is entrusted with the upbringing, education or care of the victim. The offense is punishable by imprisonment for between five and ten years. This section allows for an offender not to be punished if the victim is over thirteen years of age and the offender is less than three years older than them. In less serious cases the penalty may be reduced by two thirds. A heavier penalty of imprisonment for between seven to fourteen years shall apply if the crime is committed against a person who is under ten years of age.
- Article 609d, Penal Code. Corruption of Minors. States that it is an offense to perform sexual acts in the presence of a minor under fourteen years of age. The penalty is between six months’ and three years’ imprisonment.
- Article 609g, Penal Code. Sexual Abuse by a Group. Defines the offense of sexual abuse by a group of several persons as defined in Article 609 bis. Any member of the group faces imprisonment for between six and twelve years. Heavier penalties as stated in Article 609 ter apply for aggravated sexual abuse. This section also states that anyone who played a minor part in the preparation or execution of the offense faces a reduced penalty.
- Article 7, Personal Data Protection Code. Right to Access Personal Data and Other Rights of the Data Protection Code. States, among other things, that a data subject has the right to obtain the erasure, anonymization or blocking of data that has been processed unlawfully. Failure to comply with this obligation incurs a penalty of between €6,000 to €36,000
- Article 161, Personal Data Protection Code. Providing No or Inadequate Information to Data Subjects. In certain cases, the Penal Code can apply: Article 615 bis of the Penal Code specifies the crime of the unauthorized gathering of data, disclosure and diffusion of images pertaining to someone’s private life, taken in private places such as houses. The penalty for a breach of this section is imprisonment for between six months and four years.
- Article 594,Penal Code. States that it is an offense to deliberately offend someone’s honor, which is punished by up to six months’ imprisonment or a maximum fine of €500. This also applies if the crime is committed via telegraph or telephone communications, or writing or drawings. If the offense refers to the attribution of a determined fact and is committed in the presence of other people, the penalty increases to up to one year’s imprisonment or a fine of up to €1,000.
- Article 17, Law no. 38/2006. Italian legislation punishes all offences related to prostitution and child pornography with imprisonment, even when committed abroad.
2001 - Save the Children Italy has been operating Stop-It Hotline where internet users can report online child sexual abuse material. The hotline, member of INHOPE since 2003, works closely with law enforcement agencies, the internet industry, government/policy makers, social service organizations, school/community groups and civilians to ensure effective measures are taken to prevent online child sexual abuse, to identify child victims and to guarantee that proper support is provided to them. In 2013, Stop-It provided over 3,600 reports to the law enforcement agency.
2006 - In an attempt to combat and prevent crimes against children committed via the Internet, in 2006 the State Police founded the Centro Nazionale per il contrasto della pedopornografia sulla rete Internet (CNCPO) translating to the National Center for Combating Child Pornography on the Internet. The Center is part of the Postal and Communications Police Service of the Department of Public Safety. The Center’s primary objective is to protect children on the Internet, which is achieved through monitoring the services of search portals for illegal images and videos of child abuse. As a result of the monitoring, a “[Black List](http://www.poliziadistato.it/articolo/381-Siti_pedo_pornografici_in_arrivo_la_lista_nera/” of websites which are potentially harmful to children has been created and is regularly updated.
Law no. 30/2006 (Provisions Concerning the Fight Against the Sexual Exploitation of Children and Child Pornography Also Via Internet) has led to the creation the Observatory for the Fight against Paedophilia and Child Pornography, set up within the Italian Prime Minister’s Office and now under the Department of Equal Opportunities. Members of the Observatory for the Fight against Paedophilia and Child Pornography have been nominated in 2011 and include three representatives from State Police, Carabinieri Police and Finance Police, and three representatives of NGOs working on child sexual abuse and exploitation (including ECPAT Italy). The main tasks of this institution are to monitor the activities carried out in this field by every Public Administration and to analyze this problem in order to develop strategies aimed at preventing and fighting sexual abuse and exploitation of children as well as supporting victims.
2007 - The Ministry of Communications with support from the private sector and associations working on children’s issues drafted a single media and minors code which would ensure protection of children in the use of different media, including Internet, mobile phones, TV and videogames.
2008 - Italy reaffirmed its commitments at the World Congress III against the Sexual Exploitation of Children and Adolescents, in November 2008 in Brazil. The World Congress III renewed global commitment and galvanized international resolve to combat sexual exploitation of children and adolescents. In total, more than 3,000 people took part in the three-day gathering, including representatives from government, the private sector and civil society as well as 300 children and adolescents from around the world. Save the Children Italy with the contribution of the European Commission launched EASY4 awareness campaign. The project aims to educate young children in safe and responsible use of the internet and mobile technology and supports the fight against online child abuse images and promotes
2009 - Italian Ministry of Interior signed Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with Telefono Azzurro to manage 116.000, a hotline for missing children. Since 1986,Telefono Azzurro has been managing helpline for children and adolescents in need, and in 2003, it was appointed to manage the 114 Childhood Emergency Hotline. The hotline works with INHOPE to provide protection for children from sexual exploitation through awareness raising activities, such as developing safety laboratories in high schools and running an online awareness campaign. As of 2014, Telefono Azzurro has received and forwarded 16,844 total reports regarding potential Child Sexual Abuse Material.
ChildOnEurope’s finished conducting research on the implementation of national data collection and monitoring systems on Data Collection and Monitoring Systems on Child Abuse in Europe.The Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe adopted guidelines on integrated national strategies for the protection of children from violence, the European guidelines for the development of national strategies for the protection of children from violence.
2012 - The Italian Government passed Law 172/2012, which ratified Article 4 that defines pornography as any representation, by whatever means, of a child under eighteen years of age involved in explicit sexual activities, real or simulated, or any representation of the sexual organs of a less than eighteen years for sexual purposes. Advisory Board of the Safer Internet Center drafted a policy paper, Strategic Agenda for the Promotion of Children’s Rights on the Internet, within the framework of the Safer Internet Programme funded by the European Commission.
Along with 54 countries, Italy has joined the Global Alliance against Child Sexual Abuse Online. The Alliance unites Ministers of the Interior and of Justice from each country to fight against Child Sexual Abuse Online, to rescue victims, to develop more effective prosecution, and to reduce the amount of child sexual abuse images available online.
2013 - The Italian Government developed a specific method to identify and support children who have been sexually exploited for the production of child pornography images. The Project was financed by the European Commission under the “Prevention and Fight Against Crime 2007-2013” Programme with the aim of increasing knowledge and skills of professionals working on the fight against child pornography and the protection of victims, through the development of a multidisciplinary intervention model to standardize the operational procedures necessary to identify and provide assistance to the victim depicted in child pornography material. The partners of the Project were: the Observatory for the Fight against the Paedophilia and Child Pornography, Save the Children, Postal and Communication Police and the Italian Coordination of Public and Private Services against Child Abuse (CISMAI).
2015 - Telecom Italia (TIM) in coordination with Family Online Safety Institute (FOSI) hosted “Global Trends in Online Safety: Creating a National Framework,” an international conference on the prevention of risks for children online. The meeting was organised in order to bring important experts on online safety for children and adolescents together to discuss the important efforts made in Italy to create a national digital strategy.