1993– The Ministry of Education Science and Technology Department initiated the first five year program for the computerization of the education system. ICT’s role in Israeli education has grown since then.
1998– The Ministry of Education began the second phase of the nationwide effort to integrate ICT in schools, focusing on curricular and staff training.
2008– The Ministry of Education issued a call for increased funding for and participation in computer science and robotics programs.
2011– The Ministry of Education released a circular that stated, “the age of students and their conceptual world should be adapted to the goal of imparting correct and intelligent habits of use in the cell phone, in which students should be informed of the correct usage habits. These habits should be assimilated into daily life and applied to the entire educational institution community.” The guidelines included some recommendations for safe use.
2011– The Ministry of Education began to gradually introduce an ICT plan into schools to adapt the educational system to the 21st century.
2013– The revised English-learning curriculum released by the Ministry of Education emphasizes teaching students to assess the reliability of information on the internet and the possible dangers of the internet.
2017– The Aharon Ofri MASHAV (Israel’s Agency for International Development Cooperation) International Educational Training Center held a course for educational professionals to inform them on the use of ICT in schools.
A Home For Every Child (BILY)
Israeli nonprofit that works to prevent child abuse and provide care for children that have experienced abuse or neglect.
European School Network
This group was founded in 2006 to create an exchange network among nine European schools. ESN arranges one-to-one student exchanges for one to eight weeks, and also provides the possibility of teacher exchanges, group exchanges and student seminars.
INTERPOL is the world’s largest international police organization, with 190 member countries. Its mission is to enable police forces to collaborate globally to fight crime in the Internet age. Three areas of focus are crimes against children (with a focus on internet crimes and travelling sex offenders), cybercrime and human trafficking.
Inter-University Computation Center CERT
This organization is a response team set up by IUCC to respond to all cyber issues in higher education.
Israel Internet Association
A non-profit organization that promotes the use of the internet for research, collaboration, and communication.
Israel Ministry for Social Equality
This ministry includes relevant information on the Digital Israel Initiative which looks to diminish the impact of socioeconomic status and to increase access to technology.
Israel Ministry of Education
The Ministry of Education includes resources with information about their guidelines for personal technology use during school activities, the benefits and disadvantages of cell phone use in school, how to “identify addiction” to devices, using smartphones for learning, and the Wandering Program. The Wandering Program, implemented in 14 schools in Tel Aviv, allows students go to an area surrounding their school and use their personal devices to upload the information they find on their chosen topic. The Ministry also has a homepage for resources regarding the state’s initiatives to bring technology to the classroom, including information about information security and cyber protection.
Israel Ministry of Public Safety
This ministry provides crucial information for traditional public security duties but also has information about computer crimes for Israelis, providing useful resources on topics like internet bullying.
Office of the National Anti-Trafficking Coordinator
Resources and information about human trafficking, forced labor, and sexual exploitation in Israel.
A nonprofit organization that provides housing and support for children that have been removed by social welfare services from homes that have been abusive or neglective.
Science and Technology Administration
A division of the Ministry of Education created in 1995 dedicated to training graduates of the education system in science and technology to meet the needs of the workforce and the military.
The Haruv Institute
This organization is a leading organization in for training and facilitating research to help children who face suffering and abuse.
The National Cyber Bureau
Advisory body for the Prime Minister on issues relating to the cyber field. It measures development and establishes guidelines, best practices, and standards for cybersecurity. It also provides educational and training resources.
Inequality in Digital Skills and the Adoption of Online Safety Behaviors (2018)Matias Dodel, Gustavo Mesch
Cybersecurity is a national issue for Israel so the purpose of this study was to identify the determinants of cyber safety behaviour by assessing age, gender, and education.
Comparing Online Opportunities and Risks Among Israeli Children and Youth Hebrew and Arabic Speakers (2014)Ina Blau
This study looks into the relationships between app use, online communication patterns, problematic Internet use, and online self-disclosure among children from Hebrew and Arabic backgrounds.
A Case Study of Israeli Higher-Education Institutes Sharing Scholarly Information with the Community Via Social Networks (2012)Alona Forkosh-Baruch, Amon Hershkovitz
This study looked at which social networking sites are being utilized by members in higher education when doing scholarly work. The study mainly looked at Facebook and Twitter accounts of Israeli universities and/or subdivisions within these institutes.
The Protection of Children Online (2012)Kristina Irion
The report provides key findings and policy recommendations to keep children safe online as a follow up to the 2008 Seoul Ministerial Declaration on the Future of the Internet Economy.
Global Digital Communication: Texting, Social Networking Popular Worldwide (2012)J. Menasce Horowitz, K. Simmons, J. Poushter, C. Barker
The report is a part of the Pew Research Center's Global Attitudes Project, which conducts opinion surveys on subjects ranging from people's assessments of their own lives to their views about the current state of the world and important issues of the day.
Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) Integration by Teacher Educators in Israeli Colleges of Education: the Current State of Affairs, 2008-2009 (2011)Olzan Goldstein, Nitsa Waldman, Bertha Tesler, Alona Forkosh-Baruch, Miri Shonfeld, Nili Mor, Ida Heilweil, Zipi Zelkovitz, Wafa Zidan, Lea Kozminsky
This study looks at the current state of affairs for ICT by Israeli Colleges of Education staff members and how beneficial the technology is. It also expands on their goals and achievements.
ICT Integration in Teacher Education: the Case of Israel (2011)O. Goldstein, M. Shonfeld, N. Waldman, A. Forkosh-Baruch, B. Tesler, Z. Zelkovich, N. Mor, I. Heilweil, L. Kozminsky, W. Zidan
This study looks at the current state of ICT education in Israel, the policy of the Ministry of Education, the scope of ICT implementation by teachers, and pre-service training opportunities for teaching.
ICT Use in Education: Different Uptake and Practice in Hebrew-Speaking and Arabic-Speaking Schools in Israel (2010)R. Nachmias, D. Mioduser, A. Forkosh-Baruch
This study looked at the differences and similarities between Hebrew and Arabic speaking schools in regards to their usage of ICT. Israel's education system has a priority of closing educational gaps between sub-populations.
Sleep patterns, electronic media exposure and daytime sleep-related behaviours among Israeli adolescents (2010)Tamar Shochat, Ofra Flint-Bretler, Orna Tzischinsky
This study aimed to look into the weekday and weekend sleeping patterns of Israeli adolescents and their relationship with television and computers. Some results included increased sleep problems, sleepiness, and fatigue in the daytime.
The Use of Deep and Surface Learning Strategies Among Students Learning English as a Foreign Language in an Internet Environment (2010)Noa Aharony
This study looked at how useful the Internet was when teaching English as a foreign language to Israeli students.
Social Bonds and Internet Pornographic Exposure Among Adolescents (2009)Gustavo S. Mesch
This study looked into the concern between the social and psychological development of children and their exposure to Internet pornography.
Sustainability, Scalability and Transferability of ICT-based Pedagogical Innovations in Israeli Schools (2004)David Mioduser, Rafi Nachmias, Alona Forkosh-Baruch, Dorit Tubin
This study looked at the data collected between 1999-2000 by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development/Center for Educational Research and Innovation. Specifically, it looks at five Israeli schools that have implemented ICT in a way that provoked substantial organizational change.
The Family and the Internet: The Israeli Case (2003)Gustavo. S. Mesch
The aim of this study was to look into the relationship between internet usage by adolescents and their time spent with family. It focused particularly in Israel and looked at the perceived quality of relations between the children and their parents.
Children and Their Changing Media Environment: A European Comparative Study (2001)Sonia Livingstone, Moira Bovill
This book looks into the changing media environment that children face through the means of television, the Internet, and computers and video games and compares the experiences of children around Europe.
This section contains details of the country’s laws as they relate to sexual offenses, children and the use of the Internet in the commission of criminal activity. Where possible, sentence details have been given, including whether an increased custodial penalty is imposed where the victim is a child. The age of majority in Israel is eighteen.
- Basic Law: Human Dignity and Liberty (1992)
- Article 1 states the basic human rights in Israel are based on the recognition of the value of the human being, the sanctity of his life, and his being a free person, and they shall be upheld in the spirit of the principles set forth in the Proclamation of the Establishment of the State of Israel
- Article 1a states the purpose of this Basic Law is to protect human dignity and liberty, in order to stipulate the values of the State of Israel as a Jewish and democratic state, in a Basic Law
- Article 2 states one should not violate the life, body, or dignity of a human being as such.
- Article 3 states the property of a human being shall not be violated.
- Article 4 states every human being is entitled to protection of his life, body and dignity.
- Article 5 states the liberty of a human being shall not be taken or restricted, by means of imprisonment, detention, extradition, or in any other manner.
- Article 7a states every person has a right to privacy and to intimacy in his life.
- Article 7c states no search shall be held on the private premises of a person, upon his body, in his body, or among his private effects.
- Article 7d states the confidentiality of conversation of a person, his writings or his records shall not be violated.
- Computers Law 5755 – 1995 is the main legislation regarding cybercrime. Makes illegal a number of computer crimes including disrupting the proper operation of a computer, performing an action with respect to information to create false output, and using software to damage computer materials.
- Wiretap Act (1979) authorizes authorities to obtain the content of communications such as telephone calls, internet traffic data and email messages for national security purposes or for the purpose of preventing and investigating serious crime. Wiretaps sought for national security purposes are only subject to the prior approval of the Prime Minister or Minister of Defense, and are not subject to judicial review or court approval. Wiretaps sought for preventing and investigating serious crime are subject to court approval, and in exceptional cases, can be sought after the fact.
- Resolution 3611 “Advancing the national capacity in cyberspace” of August 201 established a National Cyber Bureau in the Prime Minister’s Office and outlined the Bureau’s tasks, as well as established regulations for dealing with the Cyber Field.
- Prevention of Sexual Harassment Law 5758-1998 “prohibits sexual harassment in order to defend human dignity, freedom and privacy and in order to promote equality between the sexes.” With respect to the law’s protections for minors, the definition of sexual harassment is extra-stringent should a person exploit a disciplinary, educational, or treatment relationship with a minor or helpless person. The law defines sexual harassment as any one of the following acts: “(1) extortion by threat, within the meaning thereof in Section 428 of the Penal Law 5737-1977 (hereinafter referred to as – the Penal Law), when the act that the person is required to perform is of a sexual nature; (2) indecent acts, within their meaning in Sections 348 and 349 of the Penal Law; (3) repeated propositions of a sexual nature, addressed to a person who has demonstrated to the harasser that he is not interested in the said propositions; (4) repeated references addressed to a person and focused on his sexuality, when that person has demonstrated to the harasser that he is not interested in the said references; (5) an insulting or debasing reference to a person in connection with his gender or sexuality, including his sexual preference; (6) propositions or references as referred to in paragraphs (3) or (4), addressed to one of the persons enumerated in sub-paragraphs (a) to (c) under circumstances specified in those subparagraphs, even if the harassed person has not demonstrated to the harasser that he is not interested in the said propositions or references; (a) toward a minor or helpless person, by exploiting a disciplinary, educational or treatment relationship; (b) toward a patient within the framework of psychological or medical treatment, by exploiting the patient’s dependence on the person treating him; (c) toward an employee within the framework of an employment relationship, and toward a person in service within the framework of such service, by exploitation of authority and discipline in labour relations or in the service. (b) Persecution is any harm stemming from sexual harassment or from a complaint or an action brought because of sexual harassment.”
- Protection of Privacy Law 5741-1981 prohibits any violation of privacy without consent.
- The Penal Law 5737-1977
- Chapter 8, Article 10: Prostitution and Obscenity
- Section 203B Exploitation of minors for prostitution: (a) If an offense was committed under sections 199, 201, 202 or 203 against a minor who has reached age 14, then the person who committed the offense – (1) if for that offense a penalty of five years was set – shall be liable to seven years imprisonment; (2) if for the offense a penalty of seven years was set – shall be liable to ten years imprisonment; (3) if for the offense a penalty of ten years was set – shall be liable to fifteen years imprisonment; (4) if for the offense a penalty of sixteen years was set – shall be liable to twenty years imprisonment; (b) If an offense was committed under sections 199, 201, 202 or 203 against a minor who has not yet reached age 14, or if he reached age 14 and the person who committed the offense is responsible for the minor, then the person who committed the offense shall be liable to double the penalty set, but not more than twenty years. (c) In this section, “responsible for the minor” – as defined in section 368A.
- Section 203C Liability of a minor’s customer: If a person accepts sexual services from a minor, then he is liable to three years imprisonment.
- Section 203D Burden of proof 203D: If a person argues that he did not know the age of the person with whom or in respect of whom an offense under this Article was committed, then he shall bear the burden of proof; this provision shall not apply to an offense under section 214(b3).
- Section 205A Must not publicize or inform of a minor’s prostitution: If person delivers information or publishes any publication about the provision of a service that is an act of prostitution, the person who provides the service being a minor, then he shall be liable to five years imprisonment; for purposes of an offense under this section it does not matter whether the prostitution service is provided in Israel or abroad, whether the information refers to a specific minor, or whether the publication states that the person who provides the service is a minor.
- Section 205B Must not refer to minority in advertisement of prostitution services: If a person publishes anything, stating that a person who provides a prostitution service is a minor, when the person who provides the service is not a minor, then he shall be liable to six months imprisonment.
- Section 205C Must not issue publication on prostitution service by adult: (a) If a person publishes anything on the provision of prostitution services, when the person who provides the service is not a minor, then he shall be liable to six months imprisonment. (b) The provisions of subsection (a) shall not apply to a publication about the provision of prostitution services, if all the following hold true for it: (1) if its sole subject is the provision of prostitution services; (2) It is published separately from any other publication; (3) it is given to any person only at his request; (4) on it is clearly marked that its purpose is to advertise prostitution services. (c) The Minister of Justice may, with approval by the Knesset Constitution, Law and Justice Committee, prescribe provisions for the implementation of this section.
- Section 208 Permitting minor to reside in brothel: If a person permitted a minor between age two and age seventeen, of whom he has custody, to reside in a brothel or to visit it frequently, then he is liable to three years imprisonment.
- Section 214 Obscene publication and display: (a) If a person did one of the following, then he is liable to three years imprisonment: (1) he published an obscene publication or prepared it for publication; (2) he presented, organized or produced an obscene display – (a) in a public place; (b) in a place which is not public – unless it is used for residential purposes or is used by a body of persons, membership in which is restricted to persons aged eighteen and up and is for a continuous period. (b) If a person published an obscene publication and it includes the likeness of a minor, including a representation or a drawing of a minor, then he shall be liable to five years imprisonment. (b1) If a person utilized the body of a minor in order to advertise an obscenity, or used a minor in the presentation of an obscenity, then he shall be liable to seven years imprisonment. (b2) If an offense under subsections (b) or (b1) was committed by a person responsible for a minor, as defined in section 368A, or with the consent of an aforesaid responsible person, then the responsible person shall be liable to ten years imprisonment. (b3) If a person has in his possession an obscene publication that includes the likeness of a minor, then he shall be liable to one year imprisonment; for purposes of this section, “has in his possession” – exclusive of whoever has in his possession incidentally and in good faith. (c) If the Court deals with an offense under this section, committed by a person in the course of his business, then it may also use its powers under sections 16 and 17 of the Licensing of Business Law 5728-1968, but it shall not use its authority under section 17, unless it is satisfied that there is prima facie evidence of the offense, and that the use of its authority is necessary for the public good. (d) An indictment shall only be filed – (1) under subsection (a) – within two years after the day on which the offense was committed, and only by the District Attorney or with his written consent. (2) under subsections (b) and (b3) – by the District Attorney or with his written consent. (d) An indictment under this section shall only be filed within two years after the day on which the offense was committed, and only by the District Attorney or with his written consent.
- Section 214A Offensive publication on billboards: (a) If a person published an offensive publication on billboards, then he is liable to six months imprisonment or to a fine three times the fine said in section 61(a)(1). (b) For purposes of this section – “offensive publication” – one of the following: (1) a nude picture or the picture of intimate parts of the body, of a man or woman; (2) a picture that depicts sexual intercourse or sexual violence, or depicts sexual humiliation or abasement, or presents a human being as an object available for sexual use; (3) a picture of a partially exposed body of a man or woman, which constitutes an offense to moral feelings of the public or of part of it, is destructive of public morals or is injurious to minors or their education; “billboards” – advertising signs placed along roads, advertising signs in public transportation buses or on their outside surfaces or in stations of said buses, and also advertising signs on notice boards under the supervision of a local authority.
- Section 214B Defenses: A person shall not be deemed to have committed an offense under sections 205A to 205C and 214, if provision of the information, the publication or the possession were for a legal purpose, including true and fair reporting on the subject with which this Article deals, on condition that the provision of information, the publication or the possession are not prohibited under any other enactment and were not carried out in order to encourage acts prohibited under this Article.
- Chapter 10, Article 6: Offenses against Minors and Invalids
- Section 361 Leaving a child unattended or in order to abandon it: If a person leaves a child which has not reached age six without appropriate supervision and thereby endangers the child’s life or causes or is liable to cause real injury to his welfare or health, then he is liable to three years imprisonment; if he did so be way of negligence, then he is liable to one year imprisonment; if he did so in order to abandon the child, then he is liable to five years imprisonment.
- Section 361 Abandonment of child: If a person unlawfully abandons or leaves a child which has not reached age two, and if he thereby endangers its life or causes or is liable to threaten its health with permanent injury, then he is liable to five years imprisonment.
- Section 362 Neglect of children and other persons under care: If a parent of a child under age 14 or of a person unable to provide for his own needs (in this and the next section: “person under care”), or if a person obligated by enactment or by agreement to provide for the needs of the person under care in his charge did not supply him with food, clothing, bedding and other essentials to the extent necessary for the maintenance of his well-being and health, then he is liable to three years imprisonment, unless he proves that he took steps, which under the circumstances were reasonable, to secure the means of supplying those essentials, but was unable to supply them.
- Section 363 Abandonment of persons under care: If the parent of a person under care or a person obligated by law or agreement to provide for the needs of a person under care, refused to accept the person under care in his charge from a person not obligated to provide for that person’s needs, or if he left him in the hands of a person who has not agreed to provide his necessities, then he is liable to six months imprisonment; if he abandoned the person under care, then he is liable to three years imprisonment.
- Section 364 Relinquishing minor for consideration: If a person offers or gives consideration for permission to have charge of a minor who has not reached age 14, or if he asks for or receives a consideration for permission to have charge of the minor as aforesaid, then he is liable to three years imprisonment, and it is immaterial whether the consideration was cash or in kind.
- Section 365: Surrender of minor while repudiating rights and obligations: (a) If a parent or guardian of a minor who has not reached age 14 surrenders the minor or permits him to be surrendered to a person who is not his parent or guardian, and if that surrender involves the repudiation of his obligations or rights towards that minor, then he is liable to two years imprisonment. (b) It shall be a good defense against a charge under this section if one of the following is proved: (1) the minor was surrendered for purposes of adoption under the Adoption of Children Law 5720-1960; (2) the minor was surrendered for a determinate period and with the consent of a welfare officer, within the meaning of that term in the Welfare Services Law 5718-1958; (3) the minor’s surrender was to his grandparent, uncle, aunt, brother or sister and it was to the minor’s benefit.
- Section 367 Theft of a Minor: If a person fraudulently or forcibly or by enticement took away or detained a minor who has not reached age 14, or if he received or concealed him, knowing that he was so taken or detained, all in order to deprive the parent, guardian or person who has lawful care or charge of him of the minor’s custody and to take that for himself or for another, then he is liable to seven years imprisonment, and that if he does not prove that he has a bona fide claim to that custody.
- Section 368 Change of a Minor’s Religion: (a) If a person performs a religious conversion ceremony of a minor or performs some other act that leads to the change of a minor’s religion, in violation of the provisions of section 13A of the Capacity and Guardianship Law 5722-1962, then he is liable to six months imprisonment. (b) If a person induces a minor, by addressing him directly, to change his religion, then he is liable to six months imprisonment.
- Chapter 10 Article Six “A”: Injury to Minors and Helpless Persons -Section 368A: Definitions: In this Article – “foster parent” – one of the following: (1) the father or mother of a foster family approved by the Ministry of Welfare; (2) a person responsible for a minor under paragraph (3) of the definition of “guardian of minor or of a helpless person” “guardian of minor or of a helpless person” – each of the following: (1) a parent or the person responsible for the livelihood, health, education or welfare of the minor or of the helpless person, whether by virtue of Law, of a judicial decision or of an explicit or implicit contract, or a person who bears the said responsibility for the minor or helpless person because of a lawful or prohibited act on his part; (2) the relative of the minor or helpless person, who reached age 18 and is not a helpless person and who is one of the following: the spouse of his parent, his grandparent, his offspring, his brother or sister, his brother-in-law or sister-in-law, his uncle or aunt, the spouse of the foster parent and also the parent of the foster parent, the offspring of the foster parent and the spouse of each of these; (3) the person with whom the minor or helpless person who has reached age 18 is or lives permanently, on condition that relations of dependence or authority exist between them. “helpless person” – a person who – because of his age, illness or physical or mental infirmity, mental deficiency or any other cause – cannot provide the needs of his livelihood, health or welfare; “act” includes omission; “welfare officer” – as appointed under law.
- Section 368B: Violence against minor or helpless person: (a) If a person does violence to a minor or to a helpless person and causes him palpable injury, then he is liable to five years imprisonment; if the attacker is responsible for the minor or for the helpless person, then he is liable to seven years imprisonment. (b) If an offense under subsection (a) was committed and if severe injury was caused to the minor or to a helpless person, then the attacker is liable to seven years imprisonment; and if the attacker is responsible for the minor or for the helpless person, then he is liable to nine years imprisonment. (c) For purposes of this section, “injury” – whether physical or mental.
- Section 368C: Abuse of minor or helpless person: If a person commits an act of physical, mental or sexual abuse on a minor or on a helpless person, then he is liable to seven years imprisonment; if the abuser is the person responsible for the minor or for the helpless person, then he is liable to nine years imprisonment.
- 368D Obligation to report: (a) If a person has reasonable grounds for believing that an offense was recently committed against a minor or against a helpless person by the person responsible for him, then he must report that as soon as possible to a welfare officer or to the police; if a person violates this obligation, then he is liable to three months imprisonment. (b) If a physician, nurse, educator, social worker, social welfare employee, policeman, psychologist, criminologist or a person engaged in a paramedical profession, as well as a director or staff member of a home or institution in which minors or persons under care live, has – in consequence of his professional activity or responsibility – reasonable grounds to believe that an offense was committed against a minor or against a helpless person by the person responsible for him, then he is under obligation to report that as soon as possible to a welfare officer or to the police; if a person violates this obligation, then he is liable to six months imprisonment. (c) If the person responsible for a minor or for a helpless person has reasonable grounds to believe that another person responsible for him committed an offense against the minor or the helpless person, he is under obligation to report that as soon as possible to a welfare officer or to the police; if a person violates this obligation, then he is liable to six months imprisonment. (c1) If a person has reasonable grounds for believing that an offense under sections 345 to 347, 348 and 351 was recently committed against a minor or against a helpless person by a relative who has not yet reached age 18, then he must report that as soon as possible to a welfare officer or to the police; if a person violates this obligation, then he is liable to three months imprisonment; in this section, “relative” – within its meaning in paragraph (2) of the definition of “guardian of minor or helpless person” in section 368A. (c2) If a professional mentioned in subsection (b). because of his pursuit of his profession or responsibility, has reasonable grounds for believing that an offense under sections 345 to 347, 348 and 351 was recently committed against a minor or against a helpless person by a relative who has not yet reached age 18, then he must report that as soon as possible to a welfare officer or to the police; if a person violates this obligation, then he is liable to six months imprisonment; (c3) If the person responsible for a minor or for a helpless person has reasonable grounds to believe that an offense under sections 345 to 347, 348 and 351 was recently committed against a minor or against a helpless person by a relative who has not yet reached age 18, then he must report that as soon as possible to a welfare officer or to the police; if a person violates this obligation, then he is liable to six months imprisonment; (d) If an offense under sections 345 to 348, an offense of severe harm under section 368B(b), or an offense of abuse under section 368C was committed against a minor or against a helpless person who lives in a home, institution or other educational or treatment framework, then the director or staff member of the said place is under obligation to report that as soon as possible to a welfare officer or to the police; if a person violates this obligation, then is liable to six months imprisonment. (e) The obligation to report under this section shall not apply to a minor. (f) If a welfare officer received a report under this section, then he shall transmit it to the police together with his recommendation to take action or to refrain from taking action, unless he obtained permission from one of the committees set up by the Minister of Justice for this purpose not to transmit the report to the police; a said committee shall be composed of a representative of the District Attorney – who shall be chairman – of a police officer of the rank of Superintendent or higher, and of the district welfare officer. (g) If the police received information under this section, then it shall transmit it to the welfare officer and shall not take action before it consuls with the welfare officer, unless immediate action which cannot be postponed is necessary; said immediate action does not negate the obligation to transmit information to the welfare officer and to consult him subsequently. (h) In this section, except for subsection (d), “offense” – one of these: (1) an offense of prostitution and obscenity under sections 199, 201, 202, 203, 203B, 203C, 205A and 214(b1); (2) an offense of endangering life and health under section 337; (3) a sex offense under sections 345, 346, 347, 347A, 348 and 351; (4) an offense of abandonment and neglect under sections 361 and 362; (5) an offense of assault or abuse under sections 368B and 368C.
- Section 368E Regulations: The Minister of Justice may, after consultation with the Minister of Labor and Social Welfare and with approval by the Knesset Constitution, Law and Justice Committee, make regulations for the implementation of this Article.
- Assistance to Sex Violence Minor Crime Victims’ Law 5769-2008 protects the right of child victims of a sexual or violence crime to immediate assistance in a crisis center designated by the Minister of Social Affairs and Social Services. Such centers provide an initial treatment in: diagnosis and medical care; providing for the victim’s immediate and essential needs, including food and clothing; setting up a meeting with child investigator, police investigator, social worker or any other agent as needed based on the situation at hand; referring the victim to the Ministry of Justice Legal Aid Administration for legal assistance, appropriate medical, health, and/or psychological care, and referring to an emergency center for long-term treatment.
- Law of Evidence Revision (Protection of Children) 5715-1955 grants that children under 14 may be questioned and investigated in connection with specific offences (which includes, inter alia, sex and violence offences), only by a specialized investigator trained in questioning children and appointed by the Minister of Justice. A testimony, written notes or report edited by the child-investigator during the investigation or afterwards are admissible as evidence in a court of law. However, a defendant cannot be convicted based on such evidence without the presence of other corroborating evidence. Later, during legal proceedings in court, a child under the age of 14 may not testify, and his/her written statement may not be submitted to the court, unless the submission of such testimony or statement is authorized by the child-investigator. If that authorization is granted, the testimony will be given in closed doors in the sole presence of the prosecutor, the defendant, his/her attorney and the child-investigator. Other persons can be present only with the court’s permission.
- Crime Victims’ Rights Law 5761-2001 grants victims of crime a wide range of rights, protecting the interests of victims of crime, including children, through all stages of the legal proceedings, and victims of sexual or violent offences are granted additional rights.
- Youth (Care and Supervision) Law 5720-1960 gives a list of situations in which the publication or the exposure of an identity of a minor is prohibited.
- Youth (Trial, Punishment and Modes of Treatment) Law 5731-1971 assures that the Juvenile Court will hold all proceedings behind closed doors. A 2009 amendment to the law gives priority to rehabilitation rather than punishment to those accused or convicted under age 14. It also prevents the detention of children under the age of 14 without a court order.
2013– The University of Haifa released a study of over 10,000 children that revealed that more than half of them had experienced physical, emotional, or sexual abuse.
2014– The Global Alliance Against Child Sexual Abuse Online released a comprehensive report on child exploitation in Israel. The report included legislation and case-law relevant to sexual offenses against children, educational initiatives taken to prevent online sexual exploitation and promote internet safety, actions that Israel will take to prevent child exploitation, and more.
2015– A report by the UN criticized the way the Israeli government deals with child exploitation and prostitution.
2016– The Ministry of Justice released a report on their progress in battling human trafficking.
2017– A report issued by the Ministry of Social Affairs and Social Services revealed that physical and sexual abuse against minors had increased by 10 percent since the previous year.
2017– Private business people launched a project called Din Ve’Cheshbon, or “Settling the Score” in Hebrew, to encourage victims of sexual assault in the Haredi community to come forward and get financial, professional, and legal assistance to issue suits against their offenders.