2003 – UNESCO reported that students in Indonesian schools are introduced to ICT in the primary stage of their education, but that access varies and is decided by individual schools. As of this year, ICT subjects were taught four hours a week in schools, and schools were encouraged to upload their ICT curriculum on the Internet. It was intended that, by understanding ICT, students would become information literate.
2004 – The Ministry of Education created TVE, a television station dedicated to broadcasting educational content. The content is accessible to schools by cable or analogue signal, enabling the greatest reach possible even where schools do not have access to the Internet. Registered users of the station’s website can access additional content online. A similar program operates an educational radio station, targeting children aged between four and twelve, as well as their teachers. The radio station’s programming deals primarily with the teaching of English, music and cultural issues.
2005 – The Ministry of National Education’s Strategic Plan, which ran through 2009, stated increasing ICT literacy to 80 percent, among both students and teachers, as one of its goals. Increasing the number of lessons which include the use of ICT, including the use of the Internet, is one of the ways that it aims to achieve this. Its Program Management Education Services team was tasked with creating a network system which would link all schools, the Ministry of Education, local education offices and other educational establishments. The network was to comprise both Internet and intranet access and, in addition to digitizing records and financial information, aimed to increase the amount of educational resources which would be available to teachers.
2008 – The Faculty of Computer Science, Universitas Indonesia developed Indonesia’s e-Learning portal. The portal, called Esfindo, was built to support the quality of learning in high schools.
2009 – The Indonesian Government announced a 100 Day Work Plan, an initiative aimed at introducing a range of improvements to all areas of society, and involving various government departments.
2010 – The Ministry of Education released its strategic plan for 2010-2014. The plan is available only in Indonesian.
2011 – A shortage of computers in schools prompted Microsoft Indonesia to partner with Yayasan Cinta Anak Bangsa (YCAB) to form Rumah Belajar Microsoft, a technology education program that provides computing resources to children who have no other avenue to learn about ICT. To ensure a safe space for students to learn, a Community Technology Learning Center (CTC) was opened at the Seasons City Mall in Jakarta. The center runs computer education classes, on a three-month course, providing tuition on Office programs such as Word, Excel, and PowerPoint at varying levels from basic to intermediate. The aim of the courses is to provide children from lower-income families with valuable technological skills, increasing their ability to compete for better jobs in the future and increase their overall earning potential.
2013 – The Indonesian government is rolling out its new 2013 educational curriculum plan to grades 1, 4, 7, and 10 with the plan to gradually implement it in other grades by 2020. The curriculum will be computer based with its own website for guidance. Computer classes are not required anymore, instead giving math and science, and religion classes more time.
2015 – The Ministry of Education and Culture published its 2015-2019 strategic plan. The plan is available only in Indonesian.
Also in 2015, the Ministry of Education and Culture announced that it will replace physical textbooks with tablets and ebooks in the coming years, with the goals of improving education for students in remote areas and cutting costs in mind. The devices will be pre-loaded with electronic textbooks and learning applications, and will have internet access provided by PT Telkom. The program is designed to begin in remote areas of the country and later extend throughout Indonesia.
The same year, the Ministry of Education and Culture introduced a Smart School initiative, which aims to incorporate ICT into the pedagogy. This includes the Virtual Lab, an online content platform, which makes a variety of PDFs, images and multimedia material available to students and teachers. As of 2015, about 75 percent of Indonesian schools had an internet connection.
2017 – President Jokowi said in a statement August 8th that the vocational education system in Indonesia should have a wider range of majors including e-sports, logistics, retail, and animation. E-sports as a major has already been implemented in universities across South Korea. Jokowi and Education Minister Muhadjir Effendy are discussing changing the school curriculum, previously changed in 2013.
2017 – Ruangguru, a complete electronic learning platform and app that covers compulsory education for grades 6 through 12 is released in September. It partners directly with local governments through the Learning Management System and they are work with 32 provincial governments and 326 municipalities and districts. The platform includes subscriptions to videos, private tutoring, on-demand tutoring, and online practice exams.
Also in 2017, the Minister of Industry Airlangga Hartarto approved the use of a “link and match” program that prepares students at vocational high schools (SMK) training for the human resources industry. Airlangga hopes to improve the curriculum with foreign language learning, statistics, and coding.
2018 – In a report titled “Indonesia Digital Education and E-Learning Market Outlook to 2018 – Rising Trend of Blended to Drive the Future Growth,” there has been proof of an increase in e-learning and accessibility in classrooms especially in K-12 online learning. According to an Indonesian news source, there has been an increase in online corporate training including online test taking, online tutorials, and livestreaming rooms.
2018 also brought the official formation of the National Consultative Education and Culture (RNPK) forum at the Education and Training Center of the Ministry of Education and Culture (Pusdiklat Kemendikbud). President Widodo reinforced the importance of digital education and communications between the central government and local governments.
Child Rights Coalition Asia
CRC is a network of children’s rights and human rights organizations in Asia, which brings the child rights perspectives and agenda to regional and international advocacy.
EAC-UNESCO Asia Pacific Regional Bureau for Education Strengthening Education Systems for Out of School Children
This project in partnership with UNESCO and EAC aims to improve the education system for Out of School Children, or OOSC, and give them a better start in life.
The Indonesian chapter of ECPAT is part of a network of national organizations fighting commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC), which includes sex trafficking of children, child prostitution, child pornography, child sex tourism, and child marriages.
The Institute for Policy Research and Advocacy is a human rights organization founded in 1993 in order to develop, promote, and protect civil and political rights of Indonesians. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights is its model and it achieves this through policy advocacy, human rights education, and the dignified settlement of past human rights abuses.
ICT Watch is a civil society organization established in order to support Indonesian efforts on Internet Safety (Internet Sehat program), Internet Rights (through documentaries), Internet Governance (interactions with national and global key players), as well as distributing Netizen Facts (through newsletters). They also provide free web hosting services for bloggers and CSOs as well as a digital literacy program and raspberry pi education and support. It is internationally recognized by its World Summit on the Information Society Champion and Runner Up Awards from the UN International Telecommunication Union.
Indonesian Center for Education and Communication Technology for Education
This center is responsible for providing ICT training to teachers. It also produces teaching materials in the form of textbooks and audio and online content.
Indonesian Child Protection Commission (KPAI)
This commission focuses on the main supervision and protection of children in Indonesia. Some features of this group include a complaint form, links to district regulations/policy related to children, access to a data bank which includes data on complaints, which institutions they partner with, and secondary data relating to events and information on child rights violations, news surrounding the child rights space, and reviews or articles. This commission was created in 2002 based on Law #23 by Megawati.
Indonesian Committee for Children’s Rights
The committee works to monitor and implement the Convention on the Rights of the Child in Indonesia. It follows children’s rights cases, strategic research and development, and advocacy and regulations in this field.
Internet Sehat is the brainchild of ICT Watch, a nonprofit organization established by a group of students in Jakarta in 2002. Translating simply as ‘Healthy Internet’, this Indonesian website aims to convey its message to as many people as possible, through Facebook groups, Twitter updates and YouTube videos, as well as through the main website. The website contains a range of advice on a variety of topics from safe behavior on social networking sites to computer security. ICT Watch also offers presentations to schools and community groups, as well as maintaining a presence at conferences to spread the message about the safe use of the Internet.
INTERPOL is the world’s largest international police organization, with 190 member countries. Its mission is to enable police forces to collaborate globally to fight crime in the Internet age. Three areas of focus are crimes against children (with a focus on internet crimes and travelling sex offenders), cybercrime and human trafficking.
Ministry of Communication and Informatics
This department is tasked with forming and implementing national policies, related to informatics and communication, including telecommunications, information technology and multimedia services.
Ministry of Women's Empowerment and Children Protection
This ministry is in charge of anything related to women and children’s affairs where they create policies, support state responsibilities and promote gender mainstreaming. They conduct educational trainings on financial and banking literacy, investments, and other ventures to include more women in the economy.
One Laptop per Child (OLPC)
A nonprofit organization launched by Massachusetts Institute of Technology Media Lab, whose aim to empower the world’s poorest children through education by providing a low cost laptops.
Save the Children Indonesia
This UK charity has branches worldwide, with one in Indonesia serving over 30 years. Save the Children Indonesia responds to all natural disasters and supports children and families in crisis as well as provides vital nourishment. This organization has a Sponsorship program connecting local families with children so that they receive quality preschool and early literacy, strong educational curriculums with passionate teachers, and other resources.
Terre des Hommes Netherlands
This NGO focuses on stopping child sexual exploitation, child labor, child abuse and child trafficking in Asia, East Africa and Europe.
This is a hotline for children to report abuse. It aims to provide at-risk children with the care and protection resources they need.
The Wahid Institute
This organization was founded in 2004 based on the visions of former president KH Abdurrahman Wahid (Gus Dar). It fulfills its mission by facilitating dialogue and understanding between Muslims and those of differing religions, fostering young thinkers and activists, and organizing events for youth where economic welfare, justice, and good governance is promoted.
Among Unicef’s areas of focus in Indonesia are child protection and basic education for all. Its website provides information on the state of education in Indonesia for children and adolescents.
The YCAB Foundation was established in 1999 out of the increasing rate of teen engagement into risky behaviours and the millions of school dropouts. Its full name translates to “Loving The Nation’s Children Foundation” and focuses on youth development with emphasis on healthy lifestyles, education, and economic empowerment.
Digital Media Literacy to Higher Students in Indonesia (2017)Lucy Pujasari Supratman, Aep Wahyudin
This research study presented a digital media literacy curriculum to university students in Indonesia to provide education about online safety and social media. It found that a curriculum of this nature produced more knowledgable digital users.
Religiousness and Digital Piracy Among Young Consumers in an Emerging Market (2016)Denni Arli, Krzysztof Kubacki, Fandy Tjiptono, Sebastian Morenodiez
This research looks into the relationship between religion and online digital piracy among young people in Indonesia. It found that intrinsically religious youth had a positive impact on the perceived likelihood of punishment and fear of legal consequences whereas the extrinsic (social) religiousness by some had a negative impact on the perceived likelihood of punishment and fear of legal consequences.
Prevalence and Impact of Cyberbullying in a Sample of Indonesian Junior High School Students (2016)T. Safaria
This study examines the impact and prevalence of cybervictimization in a sample of junior high school students in Jogjakarta, Indonesia.
Restricting, Distracting, and Reasoning: Parental Mediation of Young Children’s Use of Mobile Communication Technology in Indonesia (2016)Laras Sekarasih
This research study looked at Indonesian parents with young children who introduced tablets or phones to their child for educational, entertaining, or "babysitting" purposes. This study found that parents' perceptions about online risks outweigh the benefits of technology, with screen time being a particular concern.
Education in Indonesia: Rising to the Challenge (2015)OECD/Asian Development Bank
This report assesses the state of education, including the use of ICT, in Indonesia and makes recommendations for its improvement.
INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT) IN EDUCATION IN ASIA (2014)UNESCO,UNESCO Institute of Statistics
A comparative analysis of ICT integration and e-readiness in schools across Asia
Views on Children's Media Use in Indonesia: Parents, Children, and Teachers (2014)Hendriyani, Ed Hollander, Leen d'Haenens, Johannes Beentjes
This article surveyed teachers, parents, and children about their experiences using new media. It found that Indonesian children perceive themselves as more advanced users of new media than their parents or teachers and established that children view media rules as guideline rather than instructions.
Reducing violence against children, with special focus on sexual exploitation of children and child sex tourism. (2014)The Netherlands, Defence for Children and ECPAT
This is a program by the Netherlands, Defence for Children and ECPAT, which objective is to reduce violence against children, with special attention to child sexual exploitation and child sex tourism.
Digital Citizenship Safety among Children and Adolescents in Indonesia (2014)Research and Development Agency, Indonesia MCIT
This presentation aims to bolster knowledge on how children and adolescents use social media and digital technology, and the potential risks they face.
Microsoft Computing Safety Index (2014)Microsoft
This annual survey of more than 10,000 adults in 20 countries around the world creates the data for the MCSI, which measures the actions that consumers take to help keep themselves and their families safe online.
Preliminary Study on the Opportunity of e-Learning Deployment for Non ICT Subjects at High Schools in Jakarta-Indonesia (2014)H. Suhartanto, K. Junus
This paper reports the result of the training on Indonesia's e-learning portal and its implementation using several non-ICT subject modules, as well as measuring the participants’ readiness in implementing the e-Learning modules.
The Existence and the Effect of Sex Tourism Habitus in Bandungan, Central Java, Indonesia (2013)A. Demartoto
This qualitative study identifies the existence and effect of a sex tourism habitus in Bandungan, Central Java, Indonesia.
Microsoft Computing Safety Index (MCSI). (2013)Microsoft
This annual survey of more than 10,000 adults in 20 countries around the world creates the data for the MCSI, which measures the actions that consumers take to help keep themselves and their families safe online.
Mobile Learning for ICT Training: Enhancing ICT Skill of Teachers in Indonesia (2013)I.K. Yusri, R. Goodwin
This paper proposes an ICT training program for teachers using mobile phones to improve teachers' confidence using ICT in the classroom.
The Risk and Benefits of Using Internet Among Youth in Indonesia (2013)Reza Safitri
This study of Indonesian youth reveals that they primarily used the Internet to get news and entertainment, and for communication.
Children's Media Use in Indonesia (2012)Ed Hollander, Leen d'Haenens, Johannes W.J. Beentjes
This article explores how children in Indonesia have integrated media into their daily lives and into their homes and bedrooms. Like kids in the US and Europe, Indonesia children are spending a lot of time on platforms and getting multiple gratifications. It was determined that boys tend to be into gaming, and girls use media platforms for communication.
Identifying and Bridging the Gaps of ICT Integration in Primary and Secondary Education in Indonesia (2012)Agus Mutohar
This thesis dissects the gaps in ICT integration in Indonesian primary and secondary schools from researching governmental publications, non-governemental reports, and other documents. The thesis found that because of the absence of ICT national standards, ICT financial policies, the lack of professional development and ICT leadership all contribute to the differences in schools.
The Use of ICT for Learning Guidance for Junior High School in Indonesia (2012)S. Tri Prasetyaningrum
This research aims to enhance the value of academic performance report grades by using ICT as a Guidance and Counseling Learning Guidance service.
Global Digital Communication: Texting, Social Networking Popular Worldwide (2012)J. Menasce Horowitz, K. Simmons, J. Poushter, C. Barker
The report is a part of the Pew Research Center's Global Attitudes Project, which conducts opinion surveys on subjects ranging from people's assessments of their own lives to their views about the current state of the world and important issues of the day.
Children’s use of mobile phones – An international comparison 2012 (2012)GSMA
This report surveyed 4,500 children to provide a detailed picture of children’s mobile phone usage across five different countries
Small World, Big Responsibility: The UK’s role in the global trade in children (2012)Erika Hall, Phillippa Lei
This report preset information on the different forms of child exploitation. Its purpose is to raise awareness to this global issue.
Indonesian Youth Online (2012)G. Beger, P.K. Hoveyda, A. Sinha
This report focuses on the role of the Internet in the lives of Indonesian youth and adolescents.
Teachers' Attitudes and Technology Use in Indonesia EFL Classrooms (2012)Hilda Cahyani, Bambang Yudi Cahyono
This article gained perspective on teachers who educate second-language learners and incorporate technology into their classrooms. It found that incorporating technology into lesson planning dramatically increased the success of learning a second language and provided teachers with a unique way to present the teaching material.
Global Monitoring: Status of Action Against Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children, Indonesia (2011)L. Pouille
This report provides a comprehensive baseline of information on all manifestations of commercial child sexual exploitation in Indonesia, and assesses achievements and challenges in implementing counteractions to eliminate the crime.
The Internet in Indonesia: Development and Impact of Radical Websites (2010)Jennifer Yang Hui
This article traces the development of the Internet in Indonesia starting in 1983 while examining the result of radical Indonesian websites. It hopes to situate the websites within the emerging Internet space instead of examining them by themselves.
Working Towards a Deeper Understanding of Digital Safety for Children and Young People in Developing Nations (2010)Urs Gasser, Colin M. Maclay, John G. Palfrey
This study by the Berkman Center for Internet & Society at Harvard University and UNICEF delves into children's safety in developing nations. Specifically, it found that in Indonesia, mobile phone cameras were used by teenagers to produce clips of sexually explicit behaviour and highlights how mobile phones are used in the distribution and access of harmful materials. Police inspected individual phones in several Indonesian schools as a result. It concluded with the risks and usages of digital content being the same in developed and developing countries, yet access devices (phones) and access locations (Internet cafes) are different.
Children in Indonesia: Child Trafficking (2010)Unicef Indonesia
This report explains the problem of child trafficking and the extent to which it affects Indonesian children.
The Agency of the Heart: Internet Chatting as Youth Culture in Indonesia (2010)M. Slama
This study focuses on young people's practices and intentions online.
Reversing the Trend: Child Trafficking in East and South-East Asia (2009)UNICEF East Asia and Pacific Regional Office
This report is a synthesis of seven country assessments, highlighting trends, gaps, lessons learned, promising and good practices across Asia.
Always on Call: Abuse and Exploitation of Child Domestic Workers in Indonesia (2009)Human Rights Watch
The report focuses on policies and government action on the issue of child domestic worker abuse.
Using the Technology Adoption Model to Analyze Internet Adoption and Use Among Men and Women in Indonesia (2007)Fathul Wahid
This study examines the differences in Internet adoption between men and women in Indonesia. It was found that men used the Internet more for reading news, testing and downloading software, shopping, job seeking, and pornographic sites, whereas women used the Internet more for chatting and study-related activities. It also identifies obstacles of Internet adoption in the country.
Internet for Development? Patterns of use among Internet cafe customers in Indonesia (2006)Fathul Wahid, Bjorn Furuholt, Stein Kristiansen
This study analyses the use of the Internet in Yogyakarta, Indonesia's Internet cafes, specifically looking for human resource development. It was found the cafes are used for communications, instrumental, and recreational usages and the consumers are mostly older and highly educated.
Meta-survey on the Use of Technologies in Education in Asia and the Pacific (2003)Glen Farrell, Cédric Wachholz
This study identifies and analyses the different practices in the use of ICTs in education in Asia and the Pacific. it discusses countries’ policies, challenges and successful ICT integration in the region.
This section contains details of the country’s laws as they relate to sexual offenses, children and the use of the Internet in the commission of criminal activity. Where possible, sentence details have been given, including whether an increased custodial penalty is imposed where the victim is a child.
The age of consent for sexual intercourse in Indonesia is, broadly, nineteen for males and sixteen for females but this can be overridden if the young person is married. Females may marry at fifteen and males at eighteen. Generally, a person is considered underage if they are under fifteen years old.
Where fines are quoted, it should be noted that 13,500 Indonesian rupiah equates to just over one U.S. dollar at current exchange rates.
- Law 19 of 2002. Copyright. Among other provisions this law states that the penalty for breach of copyright (which specifically includes Internet-based content as well as other types of content) is imprisonment for between one month to seven years, a fine of between 1,000,000 and 5,000,000,000 rupiah or both imprisonment and a fine. Intentionally reproducing a computer program for commercial purposes incurs a prison sentence of five years, a fine of up to 500,000,000 rupiah or both.
Law 44 of 2008. (UU 44-2008) Pornography. The law defines pornography as being capable as being in any of the following media: pictures, sketches, illustrations, text, sound, moving images, animation, cartoons, conversations, gestures or other forms of messages communicated through various media. It also includes public performances. Pornography is defined as being something which contains obscenity or exploitation and which violates the norms of sexual morality in society. Providers of pornographic services specifically include providers who do so through use of the Internet. In this law, children are defined as being under the age of eighteen.
- Article 4. The creation, production, reproduction, copying, distribution, broadcast, importing, exporting, offering, trading, leasing or provision of explicit pornography is prohibited under this law. The definition of explicit is matter that contains sexual intercourse, sexual violence, masturbation, explicit nudity, depiction of genitalia or child pornography. This section also prohibits anyone from providing pornographic services which present explicit displays of nudity, genitalia, the exploitation or display of sexual behavior or offering or advertising (directly or indirectly) sexual services.
- Article 5. This section prohibits the lending or downloading of pornography.
- Article 6. This section prohibits the broadcast, exhibition, use, possession or storage of pornography. - Article 7. Prohibits the funding or facilitation of any of the acts referred to in Article 4.
- Article 8. This section prohibits a person for knowingly acting as a model, or consenting to act as a model, in a pornographic capacity.
- Article 9. This section prohibits anyone from making someone else act as a model in a pornographic capacity.
- Article 10. This section prohibits anyone from exposing themselves or another person in a show or in public in a way that depicts nudity, sexual exploitation, sexual intercourse or other pornographic acts.
- Article 11. This section prohibits anyone from involving a child in any of the activities or acts described in Articles 4, 5, 6, 8, 9 or 10.
- Article 12. This section states that it is an offense to abuse one’s position of authority over a child in order to take, entice, take advantage, allow or force them to use pornographic products or services.
- Article 18. This section grants the Government the powers to shut down networks which disseminate pornography. It also allows them to block Internet pornography and to facilitate the co-operation between national and international bodies to prevent the creation, distribution and use on pornography.
- Article 19. This section grants Local Government the same powers and responsibilities governing pornography as in Article 18. In addition, Local Government is obliged to develop communication systems, information and education in order to prevent pornography within its territory.
- Article 20. This section states that society can participate in the prevention of the manufacture, distribution and use of pornography.
- Article 21. This section defines the ways in which society may participate in preventing the manufacture, distribution and use of pornography. These are: by reporting violations of this Act, by bringing legal action (pressing charges) when needed, by disseminating laws and regulations governing pornography and by providing guidance to the public about the dangers and effects of pornography.
- Article 22. Provides legal protection to members of the public who report violations of this Act.
- Article 29. States that the penalty for producing, making, coping, reproducing, distributing, broadcasting, importing, exporting, offering, trading, leasing or otherwise making available any pornography covered by Article 4 is imprisonment for between six months and/or a fine of between 250,000,000 and 6,000,000,000 rupiah.
- Article 30. This section states that the penalty for providing pornographic services as laid out in Article 4 is imprisonment for between six months and six years and/or a fine of between 250,000,000 and 3,000,000,000 rupiah.
- Article 31. Defines the penalty for downloading pornography as defined in Article 5 as imprisonment for up to four years and a fine of up to 2,000,000,000 rupiah or both.
- Article 32. States that the penalty for the possession or storage of pornography under Article 6 is imprisonment for up to four years, a fine of up to 2,000,000,000 rupiah or both.
- Article 33. This section states that the penalty for facilitating or funding pornography under Article 7 is imprisonment for between two and fifteen years, a fine of between 1,000,000,000 and 7,500,000,000 rupiah or both.
- Article 34. The penalty for a breach of Article 8 is imprisonment for up to eight years, a fine of 5,000,000,000 or both.
- Article 35. This section states that the penalty for causing someone to act as a model for the purpose of pornography as per Article 9 is imprisonment for between one and twelve years, a fine of 500,000,000 to 6,000,000,000 rupiah or both.
- Article 36. This section states that the penalty for taking part in a sexually explicit performance as per Article 10 is imprisonment for up to ten years, a fine of 5,000,000,000 rupiah or both.
- Article 37. This section applies to those who involve children in any of the activities listed in Article 11, or who causes a child to be the focus of such acts. The section states that they will receive the same punishments as per Articles 29, 30, 31, 32, 34, 35 and 36 plus one third of the maximum allowable penalty.
- Article 38. This section states that anyone who invites, persuades, uses, lets, or forces a child to use pornographic products or services as per Article 12 is liable to sentencing under this section. This section also applies to someone who abuses a position of power to accomplish the same acts. The penalty for these offenses is imprisonment for between six months and six years, a fine of between 250,000,000 and 3,000,000,000 rupiah or both.
- Section 285, Penal Code. Rape. This section defines the crime of rape as using force or threats to accomplish the act of sexual intercourse with a woman outside of marriage and states that the penalty is up to twelve years’ imprisonment.
- Section 286, Penal Code. This section states that it is a crime to have sexual intercourse with a woman outside of marriage if she is in a helpless or unconscious state. The penalty for this offense is imprisonment for up to nine years.
- Section 287, Penal Code. This section defines the crime of engaging in sexual intercourse with a woman outside of marriage when the offender knows, or has cause to know that the victim is under the age of fifteen. The penalty for this offense is imprisonment for up to nine years. The section also states that prosecution will only commence after a complaint from the victim unless they are under the age of twelve.
- Section 288, Penal Code. This section states that anyone who engages in sexual intercourse within a marriage with a person who is, or is presumed to be, under the age of consent is guilty of a crime punishable by up to four years’ imprisonment if the act caused injury to the victim. In the event of serious injury to the victim the penalty increases to up to eight years’ imprisonment and if death results the maximum penalty is twelve years’ imprisonment.
- Section 289, Penal Code. States that it is an offense to use the threat of force or violence to compel someone to commit lewd acts, or to allow them to be performed upon them. The penalty for this offense is up to nine years’ imprisonment.
- Section 290, Penal Code. States that it is an offense, punishable by up to seven years’ imprisonment, to commit an obscene act on someone who is unconscious or helpless. This section also states that it is an offense to perform an obscene act on a person under fifteen years of age, or to persuade that person to perform obscene acts.
- Section 291, Penal Code. This section states that if serious injury resulted to the victim under any of sections 286, 287, 289 or 290 the maximum penalty will be twelve years’ imprisonment. If an act punishable under any of sections 285, 286, 287, 289 or 290 results in the death of the victim, the offender faces imprisonment for up to fifteen years.
- Section 292, Penal Code. This section defines the crime of committing an act of obscenity upon someone of the same sex who is, or is presumed to be, under the age of fifteen. The offense is punishable by up to five years’ imprisonment.
- Section 293, Penal Code. This section states that anyone who promises money or goods to persuade an underage person to commit a lewd or obscene act upon them, commits this offense. The section also covers the abuse of authority over the victim to achieve the same purpose. The offense is punishable by up to five years’ imprisonment and will only be prosecuted if a complaint is filed.
- Section 294, Penal Code. This section deals with anyone who abuses a position of authority (be it official or familial) to accomplish an obscene act with a person. The offense is punishable by up to seven years’ imprisonment.
- Section 295, Penal Code. Defines the crime of facilitating the commission of an obscene act by an underage person when the facilitator is in a position of authority or responsibility over them. The penalty for this offense is up to five years’ imprisonment. Persons falling outside the category of having familial or official responsibility over the underage person are liable to imprisonment for up to four years. If the offender facilitates such acts regularly or does so as their livelihood, they are liable to a longer prison term.
- Section 296, Penal Code. This section defines the offense of facilitating the commission of an obscene act by one person to another where the offender commits the offense as their livelihood. The penalty for this offense is imprisonment for one year and four months or a fine of $15,000.
- Section 297, Penal Code. This section states that anyone who trafficks in women (an age limit is not given) or underage boys will be liable to imprisonment for up to six years.
- Section 315, Penal Code. States that publicly defaming or slandering another person, verbally or in writing, is punishable by a maximum term of imprisonment of four months and two weeks or a fine of 4,500 rupiah.
2002 – Indonesia released its National Plan of Action for the Eradication of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children (2002–2007). The plan follows the recommendations of the East Asia and Pacific Regional Consultation and the Second World Congress against commercial sexual exploitation of children in 2001. However, the plan’s implementation was not prioritized by the Indonesian government, according to an ECPAT report.
2006 – The Indonesian national police was equipped with the Child Exploitation Tracking system, a computer system monitoring child sexual abuse which was developed by Microsoft and Canadian police.
2008 – The Indonesian government established more than 300 units focused on assisting women and children victims of violence and trafficking in local police offices.
2009 – The National Plan of Action on the Eradication of the Criminal Act of Trafficking in Persons and Sexual Exploitation of Children (2009-2014) was published by the Ministry of Women’s Empowerment. However, according to an ECPAT report, implementation was limited due to a lack of prioritization and understanding of the issue.
Also in 2009, the National Anti-Trafficking Task Force was established to design a new national plan of action on the Eradication of the Criminal Act of Trafficking in Persons and Sexual Exploitation of Children (2009-2014). The Task Force was also charged with coordinating and monitoring activities aimed at eliminating other forms of commercial sexual exploitation of children.
2013 – The Indonesian Ministries of Social Affairs, Women’s Empowerment and Child Protection, and Communication and Information Technology partnered with UNICEF on the #ENDViolence against Children campaign in November. The government promised to initiate a national survey on the the prevalence of physical, emotional, and sexual violence against children and UNICEF and the US CDC are supporters.
2015 – The national anti-trafficking task force was funded by participating ministries but did not have a budget of its own. The government and international organizations co-hosted awareness raising events for officials and law enforcement personnel on the topic, and facilitated a training workshop on victim identification and witness protection.
2016 – The Jakarta city government has suspended a traffic rule stating that vehicles must have more than three passengers after reports of children and infants being sedated and hired by drivers to fulfill that rule came out. Authorities have increased the number of safehouses in the city for children as well as increased police patrols of neighborhoods with many children.
Also in 2016, a report by ECPAT Indonesia was released and was a country specific report titled the Global Study on Sexual Exploitation of Children in Travel and Tourism. This comprehensive report looked into the forms of exploitation children face in Indonesia, the cities they are in, and where they are picked up. At the end, it gives nine solutions to the increasing tourism based child sexual exploitation problem such as national and local regulations, information dissemination, trainings for teachers and parents, among others.
2017 – Indonesian national police cybercrime chief Himawan Bayu Aji reported that hate speech is the most reported form of online crime in the country in 2016 and to combat this, new police units have been formed. They include the directorate of cybercrime, which is hosted under the economic and special crimes division. It will have 47 officers and plans have been in motion to increase that to 120.