Iceland

Population

339,747

Population 0‑14

20.4%

Internet Users

100.0%

Facebook Users

250,000
* Statistics provided by CIA.gov, Internet World Stats and GSMA Intellligence

From June, 2002, to June, 2005, the project LearnICT – Using ICT in Learning and Teaching in Iceland conducted research on the use of ICT in pre-schools, basic and secondary education, as well as in universities. The purpose of the project was to highlight the opportunities ICT offered as a medium in teaching and learning. The study’s findings indicate that although the curriculum at all school levels generally provides a framework for the effective use of ICT in schools, the implementation varies from institution to institution, as the strategy requires the unlimited support of principals and school leaders, in addition to adequate teachers’ skills and access to hardware and software. One of the key findings was that children and adolescents tended to acquire considerable proficiency in the use of technology outside school, with the school not necessarily taking this into account when planning the content and structure of their own courses. The study concluded that even though technology was efficiently used to gather information at the time, its potential to enhance communications and other subject areas had so far been neglected.

In October 2009, following the original project, LearnNet – ICT in Learning, Teaching & Research – Social Network for the Future applied for an ISK 11.6m grant for 2010. A team of researchers work on studies covering the development of new learners’ skills, competencies and literacies; the development and use of learning environments and digital resources; and trends in distance education and online learning. The evaluation report for the project is currently outstanding.

Between 2005 - 2008, the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture (MRN) carried out ‘Risk with Responsibility: Policy for ICT in Education, Science and Culture’. Policy objectives spanned five subject categories: access to the information society, infrastructure, digital content, innovative practices, and Internet safety. The three objectives for the latter were to establish Icelandic schools as leaders in the international community in the responsible and safe use of ICT and the Internet among children; to raise awareness among children and their guardians on how to stay safe online and report abuse; to establish a solid knowledge base of the effects of Internet and computer games on children. The MRN aimed to achieve these goals by teaching students the responsible use of the Internet as part of their Information Literacy and Computer Skills courses, as well as by publishing learning aids for parents and children alike on the effects of Internet use and the correct response to illegal online conduct.

In addition, the government planned to set up broadband Internet connections for all schools and use these networks for innovative educational purposes. Digital equipment and software for all educational institutions were envisaged to be used actively in vocational and arts education. There is currently no evaluation report detailing the success, or otherwise, of this ICT policy available online.

The current government policy on the Information Society, ‘Iceland the e-Nation 2008 – 2012’, sees IT as being a constant factor in everyday learning and teaching.Thorough education with a greater employment of IT in all subjects and the diversity of education on IT is designed to contribute to making Iceland an efficient and competitive European country.

In 2010, SAFT, the country’s awareness node for Internet safety, supplied three story books to all pre-schools and elementary schools in Iceland in order to promote the safe use of new media. The books were aimed at children between the ages of five and nine and covered not only Internet safety but also online gaming and social networking.

2014-2020 - The European Commission integrated its education, training, sports, and youth initiatives under a single programme called Erasmus+. This programme started in 2014 and will continue until the year 2020. The education initiatives from Erasmus+ focuses on integrating and training ICT competency to teachers and students to improve digital literacy.

Barnaheill Hotline

In October 2001, Barnaheill (Save the Children Iceland) launched the Icelandic hotline against Child pornography on the Internet, the only one of that kind in Iceland. The hotline is supported by funding from the EU Safer Internet Action Plan.

Better Internet for Kids

This web platform provides information and resources to the general public on better internet practices and risks associated with online use. This portal also promotes the Safer Internet Centres and INHOPE hotlines to assist parents and youth in reporting inappropriate conduct online.

Expert Group for Cooperation on Children at Risk (EGCC)

The group is the Children’s Unit at the Council of the Baltic Sea States Secretariat that aims to create safe and secure environment for children in the Baltic Sea Region by promoting cooperation on child rights and protection issues. The work is based on the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child and other relevant international and regional conventions, recommendations and guidelines.

Expert Group for Cooperation on Children at Risk (EGCC)

The group is the Children’s Unit at the Council of the Baltic Sea States Secretariat that aims to create safe and secure environment for children in the Baltic Sea Region by promoting cooperation on child rights and protection issues. The work is based on the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child and other relevant international and regional conventions, recommendations and guidelines.

GSMA Europe

This industry association represents the interests of European mobile network operators. The group engages in lobbying in areas such as children’s use of mobile phones, privacy, digital inclusion and reducing the digital gender gap. In 2008, the organization formed a mobile alliance against child sexual abuse content.

International Telecommunications Union (ITU) Europe

The ITU is is the UN agency for ICTs. Areas of focus in Europe include improving E-accessibility in Central and Eastern Europe, transitioning Europe to digital broadcasting, and sharing best practices for implementing e-applications.

Internet Governance Forum

The IGF was founded by the UN in 2006 to serve as a discussion platform for internet governance policy issues. It brings together various stakeholders to determine best practices for internet policy. Past areas of focus include cybersecurity, human rights, inclusivity and openness.

INTERPOL

INTERPOL is the world’s largest international police organization, with 190 member countries. Its mission is to enable police forces to collaborate globally to fight crime in the Internet age. Three areas of focus are crimes against children (with a focus on internet crimes and travelling sex offenders), cybercrime and human trafficking.

Netöryggi.is

Net Safety is an Internet safety site run by the Icelandic Post and Telecom Administration. Primarily intended for the public, the website contains educational materials and guidelines for online safety, consumer protection, privacy and ethical issues related to the Internet.

SAFT

SAFT (Samfélag, Fjölskylda and Tækni – Community, Family and Technology) works towards empowering children and parents to enjoy the Internet and new media in a safe and responsible way. Their key focus lies in awareness work on net-ethics, computer game rating, source criticism, uses of cell phones and the protection of personal information on the Internet. The site is also the country’s awareness node for online safety.

Skólavefurinn (The School Web)

The School Web was founded in early 2000 and is now the republic’s largest educational online resource. The site provides quality content for pre-school, primary and secondary schools, and almost all of the country’s schools are subscribers. Content is categorized by subject and age and is accessible by everyone.

The School Forum

Established in 1999, the School Forum aims to facilitate communication and information exchange between families and schools by using a specially-designed web solution for the school community.

Ending the Torment: Tackling Bullying from the Schoolyard to Cyberspace (2016)

United Nations

This document reports key issues of bullying and how to better understand/ prevent bullying online and in classrooms.

How parents of young children manage digital devices at home: the role of income, education and parental style (2015)

Livingstone, Sonia, Mascheroni, Giovanna, Dreier, Michael, Chaudron, Stephane, Lagae, Kaat

The report compares strategies of parental mediation on the internet according to levels of parental education and household income. The aim was to inform policy-makers and practitioners on how to approach parental guidance and awareness raising.

Combatting Child Sexual Abuse (2015)

Petra Jeney

The study provides an overview of existing legislation at European Union, Member State and the international level related to online child sexual abuse, as well as the role of law enforcement agencies in combatting child sexual abuse online and other governmental and private sector initiatives.

Global Research Project: A Global Landscape of Hotlines Combating Child Sexual Abuse Material on the Internet and an Assessment of Shared Challenges (2015)

Melissa Stroebe, Stacy Jeleniewski, PhD

This report examines hotlines combating Internet-facilitated Child Sexual Abuse Material.

Youth Internet Safety : Risks, Responses, and Research Recommendations (2014)

A. Farrukh, R. Sadwick, J. Villasenor

This paper documents an overview of existing online safety research across a wide range of categories, an analysis of major findings,an identification of knowledge gaps, and a set of recommendations for specific areas of research that can further the policy dialog regarding online safety.

Final recommendations for policy (2014)

O’Neill, B., Staksrud, E

Combining all the EU Kids Online policy guidance into one resource, this report provides more than 30 proposed actions for making the Internet safer for children.

Children's Use of Online Technologies in Europe (2014)

K. Ólafsson, S. Livingstone, L. Haddon

This report reviews recent research on children’s use of internet and mobile technologies identified by the EU Kids Online network.

Mapping Safer Internet Policies in the Member States (2014)

P. Baudouin, B. Mahieu, T. Dor, B. Good, J. Milayi, S. Nakajima

The purpose of the study was to set up a framework for analysing Better Internet for Children public policies covering EU Member States, and Norway and Iceland.

Country Classification: Opportunities, Risks, Harm and Parental Mediation (2013)

Helsper, E. J., Kalmus, V., Hasebrink, U., Sagvari, B. and De Haan, J.

With data from 25 of the European countries surveyed in EU Kids Online, the report examines the range and type of online opportunities, risks and harm which children from each country experience, as well as looking at ways in which parents control or mediate their children’s Internet use.

Risks and safety on the internet: Comparing Brazilian and European children (2013)

Barbosa, A., O’Neill, B., Ponte, C., Simões, J.A., Jereissati, T.,

This study compares the results of the survey of Brazilian children and their parents/guardians, carried out by the Brazilian Internet Steering Committee. Using the same methodology as the EU Kids Online research, the results from Brazil are compared with those from Europe.

Zero to Eight - Young Children and Their Internet Use (2013)

Holloway, D., Green, L., and Livingstone, S. with members of the EU Kids Online network,

This report reviews a number of other studies and provides recommendations as to how younger children can be protected from online risks.

EU Kids Online: National perspectives (2012)

Leslie Haddon, Sonia Livingstone and the EU Kids Online network

This report summarizes the Internet experiences of children in the 33 participating EU Kids Online countries and includes eight countries which have not appeared in previous reports

The Protection of Children Online (2012)

Kristina Irion

The report provides key findings and policy recommendations to keep children safe online as a follow up to the 2008 Seoul Ministerial Declaration on the Future of the Internet Economy.

The Development of Innovation Education in Iceland: a Pathway to Modern Pedagogy and Potential Value in the UK (2009)

Howard Denton, Gisli Thorsteinsson

This paper discusses how Innovation Education (IE) has developed in the Icelandic school system; its character, pedagogy, ideology, ethical dimensions, and practical applications. In addition, it describes Iceland’s cooperation with other European countries in Innovation Education, as a new Minerva project, under the name InnoEd.

EU Kids Online: Final report (2009)

Livingstone, S., Haddon, L.

One of the foremost pieces of research into the online habits of children in the European Union is the EU Kids Online research, funded by the European Commission Safer Internet Plus Programme between 2006 and 2009.

Education on Online Safety in Schools in Europe (2009)

Eurydice

The study covers 30 European countries and provides information on whether online safety is taught and how it is taught in schools within the participating countries.

Comparing children's online opportunities and risks across Europe (2008)

Hasebrink, U., Livingstone, S., Haddon, L.

This report examines research findings from 21 member states on how children and young people use the internet and new online technologies. This three year collaboration aims to identify comparable findings across Europe and to evaluate the social, cultural and regulatory influences affecting online opportunities and risks, along with children’s and parents' responses, in order to inform policy.

This section contains details of the country’s laws as they relate to sexual offenses, children and the use of the Internet in the commission of criminal activity. Where possible, sentence details have been given, including whether an increased custodial penalty is imposed where the victim is a child.

The age of consent for sexual activity is fifteen, as defined by Article 202 of the country’s Penal Code. The age of majority is eighteen, as is the age of consent for marriage.

Iceland has signed, ratified and entered into law the Council of Europe’s Convention on Cybercrime (November 2001).

  • Article 194, Penal Code. Rape. This Article states that anyone who has sexual intercourse or other sexual relations by means of using violence, threats or other unlawful coercion is guilty of rape and liable to imprisonment for a term of between one and sixteen years. Violence, in this context, refers to the deprivation of independence by means of confinement, drugs or other comparable means. The same penalty applies to anyone who has sexual intercourse with a person by exploiting the victim‘s psychiatric disorder, other mental illness, or their inability to resist or understand the nature of the act.
  • Article 195, Penal Code. Aggravated Rape. States that the penalty prescribed in Article 194 for rape can be increased by the judge if the victim is under the age of eighteen; if the violence employed is classed as severe or if the victim suffered particularly serious pain or injury.
  • Article 198, Penal Code. Defines the offense of abusing a financial dependency, either through employment or a confidential relationship, to have sexual intercourse or other sexual relationship with a person. The offense is punishable by imprisonment for up to three years, or up to six years if the victim is under the age of eighteen.
  • Article 199, Penal Code. Sexual Harassment. Imposes a penalty of imprisonment for anyone guilty of sexual harassment. This is defined as stroking, groping or probing the genitals or breasts of another person, as well as suggestive behavior or language which is extremely offensive, repeated or of such nature to cause fear.
  • Article 202, Penal Code. This Article states that anyone who has sexual intercourse or other sexual relations with a child under the age of fifteen will be punished by imprisonment for a term of between one and sixteen years. Punishment may be reduced or waived if the perpetrator and the victim are of similar age or level of maturity. Sexual harassment of a type other than that above will render the offender liable to up to six years‘ imprisonment. The Article also states that anyone who, by deception, gifts or in any other way entices a child under the age of eighteen to engage in sexual intercourse or other sexual relations will be imprisoned for up to four years. Imprisonment for up to two years is the punishment for anyone who pays a child under the age of eighteen years a consideration in return for having sexual intercourse or other sexual acts.
  • Article 204, Penal Code. Where violations of Article 202 have been committed in ignorance of the age of the victim, a relatively more lenient punishment may be imposed; however, it may not be reduced to less than the minimum sentence prescribed.
  • Article 206, Penal Code. Defines the offense of living on the earnings of the prostitution of others, a crime which is punishable by imprisonment for up to four years. The same penalty applies to anyone who deceives, encourages or assists a child under the age of eighteen to engage in prostitution; anyone who takes steps to have a person move from or to Iceland in order to derive his/her support from prostitution. The Article also states that anyone who uses deception, encouragement or mediation in order to encourage other persons to have sexual intercourse or other sexual relations in return for payment or to derive income from prostitution practiced by others will be liable to imprisonment for up to four years, a fine or imprisoned for up to one year if there are extenuating circumstances. Anyone who publicly advertises, offers, arranges or seeks to have sexual intercourse with another person in return for payment will be fined or imprisoned for up to six months.
  • Article 208, Penal Code. States that any subsequent offenses against Article 206 may increase the prescribed penalty by up to half.
  • Article 209, Penal Code. Defines the offense of offending people’s sense of decency or causing public scandal through lewd conduct. The offense is punishable by imprisonment for up to four years or a fine if the offense is minor.
  • Article 210, Penal Code. Pornography. This Article states that if pornography appears in print, the person responsible for its publication will be subject, under the Printing Act, to a fine or up to six months’ imprisonment. The same penalty will apply to anyone who produces or imports pornographic publications, films or other items with a view to disseminate, sell, distribute or publicize them in other ways, or to have them on view to the public. Organizing an immoral public lecture or performance or handing over pornographic publications, films or other items to a person under the age of eighteen years will also render the offender liable to up to six months’ imprisonment. The Article also states that anyone who imports or possesses photographs, films or comparable items that show children in a sexual or pornographic manner will be fined or imprisoned for up to two years in the case of a gross violation. The same penalty applies to anyone who imports or possesses photographs, films or other comparable items showing children in sexual acts involving animals or using objects in a pornographic manner.
  • Article 227a, Penal Code. This Article states that anyone guilty of one of the following acts for the purpose of sexually using a person will be liable to imprisonment for up to eight years: procuring, removing, housing or accepting someone who has been subjected to unlawful force under Article 225 or deprived of freedom as per Article 226 or threat as per Article 233 or unlawful deception by awakening, strengthening or utilizing his/her lack of understanding of the person concerned about circumstances or other inappropriate method.
  • Article 229, Penal Code. States that anyone who officially discloses the private affairs of another person without sufficient reasons being at hand to justify the act shall be subject to fines or imprisonment for up to one year.
  • Article 233a, Penal Code. This Article imposes a penalty of a fine or imprisonment for up to two years for anyone who ridicules, calumniates, insults, threats or otherwise assaults a person or group of persons on account of their nationality, color, race, religion or sexual inclination.
  • Article 234, Penal Code. Defines the offense of injuring the personal honor of another person by means of insult in word or in deed or spreading such rumor. The offense is punishable by fines or imprisonment for up to one year.
  • Article 235, Penal Code. Libel States anyone who insinuates to another something detrimental to his/her respect or circulates such an insinuation will be liable to fines or imprisonment for up to one year.
  • Article 236, Penal Code. Defamation. States that where a defamatory matter is presented or circulated contrary to better knowledge, the penalty will be imprisonment for up to two years. Where an insinuation is published or circulated officially, despite the fact that the accusing party had no likely reasons for believing it correct, the offender will be liable to fines or imprisonment for up to two years.