Students in Greece benefit from the Ministry of Education’s positive approach to ICT and the integration of such technology into the classroom. ICT has been integrated into the curriculum at all levels in Greek schools. At the primary education level it is taught as a cross-curricular subject without formal time being set aside for separate lessons. Once pupils progress to the lower level of secondary education they receive one ICT lesson a week and in upper secondary education ICT becomes an optional subject and is taught as ‘Information Technology Applications’ or ‘Computer Applications’ Internet safety information is available on the Ministry’s website and ICT is taught from an early age in a cross-curricular manner.
Greek schools are part of the Greek Schools’ Network (GSN), an educational intranet system operated by the Ministry of Education and Religious Affairs. The GSN operates a filtering system involving blocking keywords, negative and positive lists, content labeling and rating and dedicated software. The GSN and the Educational Portal of the Hellenic Ministry of Education provide information on Internet safety and links to the SafeLine Hotline and the Safer Internet site for Greece. The Ministry of Education’s site also contains a test on the topic of net etiquette, or ‘netiquette’. In addition, supporting material, teaching scenarios, educational activities, articles and useful links are provided on the site, which is accessible to all Greek teachers. The material is constantly reviewed and evaluated, making this an excellent up-to-date resource for educators.
In 2005, the Information Technology Committee of the Ministry of Education developed, for the first time in Greece, an integrated Digital Strategy for the period 2006 - 2013. It aims at the creation of all the necessary conditions for the materialization of a ‘digital leap’ in terms of productivity and quality of life. As part of the strategy, the Broadband Action Plan to 2008 helped develop the broadband infrastructure in the country and stimulated demand through the investment of € 450 million.
As part of the Digital Strategy 2006 - 2013, the operational program Digital Convergence (NSRF 2007 - 2013) was launched with a total budget of € 2 billion, which main objective is the improvement of everyday life of citizens and businesses. The enhancement of digital security and digital knowledge are both included in the initiative. The scheme, ‘Digital Classroom’ is part of the program, which aims to upgrade the educational system through the use of ICT in education.
An integral element of this project is the ‘Student Laptop’ plan, which enabled all new students in the academic year 2009 - 2010 to apply for a government voucher covering 100% of the costs of a new laptop. The total budget of this project was € 65million and allocated up to € 450 for each new notebook.
2014 - As part of the country’s events for Safer Internet Day, Microsoft employees brought children from four remote schools in Greece and Egypt together with school children across the country, as they joined in Safer Internet Day discussions by Skype. Microsoft volunteers also participated in the discussions.
The Ministry of Education developed a strategy for the utilization of ICTs and their incorporation into educational procedures. Its main objectives are to incorporate the use of ICT into the general teaching process and Informatics lessons in particular; to support every cognitive area through the use of ICTs, and to eliminate digital illiteracy and variations in ICT skills. The strategy consists of Four Lines of action: installation and support of computers and network and equipment; development of software and digital content for educational and administrative purposes; training of the educational community on ICTs, targeting to the utilization of the above areas; and the modernization of administration areas.
It is a website maintained by the Cyber Crime Unit and other government partners, with the financial support of industry partners. It has sections aimed at children under the age of eight, those over the age of eight and one for adults. Each section links to an informative video and a downloads section enables users to download more content. The additional downloads look predominantly aimed at educators and other professionals.
This industry association represents the interests of European mobile network operators. The group engages in lobbying in areas such as children’s use of mobile phones, privacy, digital inclusion and reducing the digital gender gap. In 2008, the organization formed a mobile alliance against child sexual abuse content.
International Telecommunications Union (ITU) Europe
The ITU is is the UN agency for ICTs. Areas of focus in Europe include improving E-accessibility in Central and Eastern Europe, transitioning Europe to digital broadcasting, and sharing best practices for implementing e-applications.
Internet Governance Forum
The IGF was founded by the UN in 2006 to serve as a discussion platform for internet governance policy issues. It brings together various stakeholders to determine best practices for internet policy. Past areas of focus include cybersecurity, human rights, inclusivity and openness.
INTERPOL is the world’s largest international police organization, with 190 member countries. Its mission is to enable police forces to collaborate globally to fight crime in the Internet age. Three areas of focus are crimes against children (with a focus on internet crimes and travelling sex offenders), cybercrime and human trafficking.
One Laptop per Child (OLPC)
A nonprofit organization launched by Massachusetts Institute of Technology Media Lab, whose aim to empower the world’s poorest children through education by providing a low cost laptops.
Cooperates with Internet Service Providers, the National Academic Network ‘GRNET’ and the National School Network, Research and Cultural Institutions, Consumer Organizations and the Greek Police, towards the restriction of the flow of illegal content in the Internet. The Hotline’s website has some useful information about legislation concerning the Internet and the relevant laws and articles relating to topics such as racism and terrorism.
Works closely with industry, law enforcement, government and NGOs to make the Internet a safer place by raising awareness about unsuitable, harmful or illegal content and activities. The Center educates parents and teachers about the safe use of the Internet, ensuring that they are aware of both benefits and risks, and promotes the positive aspects of the online technologies as means of enhancing the quality daily life. The website supports parents, grandparents and educators in helping children to become responsible users of the new technologies.
The Greek Cybercrime Center
It is part of a coordinated European effort which has the capacity to improve knowledge and research on the new emerging forms of cybercrime. As a national project, GCC works in collaboration with other transnational projects such as 2CENTRE (The Cybercrime Centres of Excellence Network), and B-CCENTRE.
A Survey on the Transposition of Directive 2011/93/EU on Combating Sexual Abuse and Sexual Exploitation of Children and Child Pornography (2016)Together Against Sexual Exploitation of Children
The study examines how seven key provisions of Directive 2011/93/EU on the fight against sexual abuse and sexual exploitation of children and child pornography have been adopted by the 27 European Union (EU) Member States bound by the Directive.
How parents of young children manage digital devices at home: the role of income, education and parental style (2015)Livingstone, Sonia, Mascheroni, Giovanna, Dreier, Michael, Chaudron, Stephane, Lagae, Kaat
The report compares strategies of parental mediation on the internet according to levels of parental education and household income. The aim was to inform policy-makers and practitioners on how to approach parental guidance and awareness raising.
The impact of internet and new media on the occurrence of violence against children in Europe and Cyprus (2015)Rosella Sala
This document demonstrate that countries lack of expertise on child sexual exploitation and struggle combating this issue by their own. It suggests to establish an international legal framework to prosecute offenders and protect children.
Combatting Child Sexual Abuse (2015)Petra Jeney
The study provides an overview of existing legislation at European Union, Member State and the international level related to online child sexual abuse, as well as the role of law enforcement agencies in combatting child sexual abuse online and other governmental and private sector initiatives.
Global Research Project: A Global Landscape of Hotlines Combating Child Sexual Abuse Material on the Internet and an Assessment of Shared Challenges (2015)Melissa Stroebe, Stacy Jeleniewski, PhD
This report examines hotlines combating Internet-facilitated Child Sexual Abuse Material.
Children's Use of Online Technologies in Europe (2014)K. Ólafsson, S. Livingstone, L. Haddon
This report reviews recent research on children’s use of internet and mobile technologies identified by the EU Kids Online network.
Final recommendations for policy (2014)O’Neill, B., Staksrud, E
Combining all the EU Kids Online policy guidance into one resource, this report provides more than 30 proposed actions for making the Internet safer for children.
Mapping Safer Internet Policies in the Member States (2014)P. Baudouin, B. Mahieu, T. Dor, B. Good, J. Milayi, S. Nakajima
The purpose of the study was to set up a framework for analysing Better Internet for Children public policies covering EU Member States, and Norway and Iceland.
The Meaning of Online Problematic Situations for Children: Results of Qualitative Cross-Cultural Investigation in Nine European Countries (2014)D. Smahel, M.F. Wright
This research, based on interviews, focused on the following: what children perceive as being potentially negative or problematic while using the internet, what risks children are aware of when using the internet, what consequences online negative experiences might have, how children react to negative experiences, what children do to avoid or prevent these problematic experiences, and why children perceive certain situations as negative.
Policy Influences and Country Clusters: A Comparative Analysis of Internet Safety Policy Implementation (2014)B. O'Neill
The report examines the policy context of internet safety and looks at how countries within each cluster approach implementation.
ICT Integration in Education: The Greek and Spain Perspectives Amidst an Economic Crisis (2014)Munir Abbasi, Georgios Xydopoulos, Masoud Fakhimi, Lampros Stergioulas, Maria Fragkaki,Luis Anido, Manuel Fernandez, Panayiota Vassilopoulou,Fernandez
Research paper on the ICT integration in education in Greece and Spain after their economic crisis.
Country classification: opportunities, risks, harm and parental mediation (2013)Helsper, E.J., Kalmus, V., Hasebrink, U., Sagvari, B., and de Haan, J.
This report explores the range and type of online opportunities and risks experienced by children in each country. The ways in which parents mediate or regulate their children’s internet use is also examined.
Media Literacy in Europe: 12 Good Practices that will Inspire You (2013)Evens Foundation
This document explores 12 cases across Europe of media literacy.
In their own words: what bothers children online? (2013)Livingstone S., Kirwil, L., Ponte C. and Staksrud E., with the EU Kids Online network
The results of a survey of nearly 10,000 children in 25 countries across Europe, this report details what children say upsets them and their friends online
Overview and Analysis of 1:1 Learning Initiatives in Europe (2013)Intel
Intel 's report on the status of 1:1 Learning Initiative in Europe
Zero to Eight - Young Children and Their Internet Use (2013)Holloway, D., Green, L., and Livingstone, S. with members of the EU Kids Online network,
This report reviews a number of other studies and provides recommendations as to how younger children can be protected from online risks.
Country Classification: Opportunities, Risks, Harm and Parental Mediation (2013)Helsper, E. J., Kalmus, V., Hasebrink, U., Sagvari, B. and De Haan, J. with members of the EU Kids Online network
With data from 25 of the European countries surveyed in EU Kids Online, the report examines the range and type of online opportunities, risks and harm which children from each country experience, as well as looking at ways in which parents control or mediate their children’s Internet use.
Experiences and Good Practices of Teacher Training in ICT, in Greece (2013)Demetra Egarchou
Presentation on the experiences and positive results of training teaches in ICT in Greece.
Greece - Country Report (2013)Pantelis Nikolaidis
Report on the overall situation of the ICT in Greek schools
Risks and safety on the internet: Comparing Brazilian and European children (2013)Barbosa, A., O’Neill, B., Ponte, C., Simões, J.A., Jereissati, T.,
This study compares the results of the survey of Brazilian children and their parents/guardians, carried out by the Brazilian Internet Steering Committee. Using the same methodology as the EU Kids Online research, the results from Brazil are compared with those from Europe.
The Protection of Children Online (2012)Kristina Irion
The report provides key findings and policy recommendations to keep children safe online as a follow up to the 2008 Seoul Ministerial Declaration on the Future of the Internet Economy.
EU Kids Online: National perspectives (2012)Haddon, L., Livingstone, S., EU Kids Online Network
This report summarizes the Internet experiences of children in the 33 participating EU Kids Online countries and includes eight countries which have not appeared in previous reports.
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) for Inclusion - Greece. (2012)Athina Zoniou-Sideri
This paper explores the overall situation of the ICT for inclusion in education. It highlights accepts of policy, strategies, obstacles and short and long-term impact.
EU Kids Online: Excessive Internet Use among European Children (2012)Smahel, D, Helsper, E, Green, L, Kalmus, V, Blinka, L, Ólafsson, K,
This report uses the data from the EU Kids Online study to examine excessive use of the Internet by children in the 25 participating countries.
EU Kids Online: National perspectives (2012)Leslie Haddon, Sonia Livingstone and the EU Kids Online network
This report summarizes the Internet experiences of children in the 33 participating EU Kids Online countries and includes eight countries which have not appeared in previous reports
Excessive Internet Use by European Children (2012)D. Smahel, E. Helsper, L. Green, V. Kalmus, L. Blinka, K. Ólafsson
This report presents new findings and further analysis of the EU Kids Online 25-country survey regarding excessive use of the internet by children.
Promoting Internet Safety in Greek Primary Schools: the Teacher’s Role (2011)Panagiotes S. Anastasiades, Elena Vitalaki
This paper focuses on the impact of the integration of computers and the Internet at school and investigates the level of the teachers’ capacity to provide safe practices and wise pedagogical guidance to elementary students when they have the opportunity to surf the Internet.
Risks and safety on the internet: The perspective of European children. Full Findings (2011)Livingstone, S., Haddon, L., Görzig, A., Ólafsson, K
Building on the original study, EU Kids Online I, this second piece of research includes the findings from research which took place in 25 countries. Children in the 9 – 16 age group were surveyed on their experiences of online use, risk and safety
ICT in the Education of the Balkan Countries (2010)Dr. Rossita Penkova, Dr. Violeta Mircheva, Nikolina Tsvetkova, Mirena Legurska
This is a comprehensive document on the situation of the ICT in education in the Balkan countries.
Education on Online Safety in Schools in Europe (2009)Eurydice
The study covers 30 European countries and provides information on whether online safety is taught and how it is taught in schools within the participating countries.
EU Kids Online: Final report (2009)Livingstone, S., Haddon, L.
One of the foremost pieces of research into the online habits of children in the European Union is the EU Kids Online research, funded by the European Commission Safer Internet Plus Programme between 2006 and 2009.
Towards a safer use of the Internet for children in the EU - a parents' perspective (2008)Eurobarometer
The study covers 27 EU Member States and provides parental responses to a range of questions relating to Internet safety and their perception of risk.
Greece: uphold the rights of women and girls trafficked for sexual exploitation (2007)Amnesty International (AI)
This report identifies and explains the crisis of sexual exploitation in Greece. The trafficking of women and girls into forced prostitution.
U.S. /European Summit on Missing & Exploited Children (2005)International Centre for Missing & Exploited Children
Participants from different governments, law enforcement, and nongovernmental organizations participated in the U.S. /European Summit on Missing & Exploited Children. They discussed successes and shortcomings of current efforts to address the global problem of missing and exploited children, and adopted a comprehensive Action Plan.
The prospect of integrating ICT into the education of young children: the views of Greek early childhood teachers. (2004)Mepomeni Tsitouridou, Konstantinos Vryzas
This study explores the views of teachers on the prospects of introducing computers in early childhood education.
This section contains details of the country’s laws as they relate to sexual offenses, children and the use of the Internet in the commission of criminal activity. Where possible, sentence details have been given, including whether an increased custodial penalty is imposed where the victim is a child.
The age of majority in Greece is eighteen years of age, with the age of consent being fifteen. In Greek law, the term ‘minor’ refers to one aged between eight and eighteen years of age and the term ‘child’ refers to one under the age of eight years old.
In addition to the offenses covered by the Penal Code, child pornography is covered by the provisions of Articles 29 and 30 of Law 5060/1931 regarding indecent publications. These sections impose misdemeanor penalties on anyone who exposes indecent material to the public by means of any kind of printed or electronic matter.
Greece has signed, but not ratified the Council of Europe’s Convention on Cybercrime (November 2001). In 1992 Greece ratified the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Children.
- Article 328, Penal Code. Abduction with consent. States that it is a crime to abduct or detain a single, minor female with the intent of marriage or debauchery, with her consent but without the consent of the persons legally responsible for her. The crime is punishable by imprisonment for up to three years if the act was committed with intention of entering into a marriage, or with imprisonment for an unspecified length of time if the act was committed with intention of committing debauchery. A complaint is required for a criminal prosecution to be initiated.
- Article 336, Penal Code. Rape. Defines the crime of using physical force or threat of serious and immediate danger to force someone into extra-marital intercourse, or attempting an indecent act. The punishment for rape is imprisonment for an unspecified sentence. The article also states that if the crime is committed by two or more perpetrators acting jointly, the offenders will be punished with imprisonment for at least ten years. Where the offense causes the death of the victim, the punishment increases to imprisonment for at least ten years or life.
- Article 337, Penal Code. Violation of Sexual Dignity. This section covers the crime of an indecent assault and states that the punishment is up to one year’s imprisonment or a fine. Where the victim is less than twelve years of age, the penalty increases to between three and 24 months’ imprisonment. The article also states that any adult who, through the Internet or other means of communication, obtains contact with a minor under fifteen years of age and uses lewd gestures or suggestive behavior to attack the sexual dignity of the child, is liable to imprisonment for at least two years. Where the offensive act is committed habitually or repeatedly in subsequent meetings, the offender is liable to an increased sentence of at least three years’ imprisonment. The article also states that where the adult offender pretends to be less than fifteen years of age, the crime is punishable with at least one year’s imprisonment and, in the case of habitual or repeat offenses, an increased minimum sentence of imprisonment of at least three years.
- Article 339, Penal Code. Seduction of Minors. Defines the offense of committing an indecent act with a person under fifteen years of age, or causing the victim to commit or submit to such an act through the use of deception. The offense is punishable by imprisonment for at least ten years if the victim is under twelve years of age. Where the victim is between twelve and fourteen years of age, the punishment is up to ten years’ imprisonment. Where the victim is at least fourteen years of age, the offense carries a minimum prison sentence of at least two years. The article also states that if the victim and offender are under fifteen years of age and the age gap between both parties is less than three years, the Court can only impose reformative or curative measures. The article also states that it is an offense to entice a minor under fifteen years of age to participate in lewd acts, even if the offender does not participate himself. This offense is punishable by imprisonment for at least two years.
- Article 342, Penal Code. Abuse of minors. This section defines the crime of the sexual abuse of a minor by a relative, guardian or various people in positions of authority over the child, such as teachers or members of the clergy. The crime carries a minimum term of imprisonment of one year. The article also states that the same punishment applies to anyone who commits an indecent act upon a minor entrusted to their supervision or guardianship, even temporarily.
- Article 347, Penal Code. Sodomy. Defines the crime of committing sexual acts between males by abusing a relationship of dependency based upon employment. The offense is punishable by imprisonment for at least three months. The same penalty applies to any adult committing sodomy as the result of seducing a person under seventeen years of age, or if the act is committed for financial gain.
- Article 348A, Penal Code. Child Pornography. This article was amended in 2007 to include the use of the Internet or electronic means as a means to disseminate child pornography. The 2007 amendments and the inclusion of the Internet as a means to disseminate material led to the introduction of use of the Internet to commit a crime being deemed an aggravating form of the offense. This section states that pornographic material constitutes every depiction, real or simulated, in any format, of a minor’s body, intended for sexual excitement, as well as the recording or imprinting, in any format, of a real, simulated or fictitious indecent assault acted for the same purpose by or with a minor. The article states that it is an offense to manufacture, offer, provide, possess, or sell such pornographic material for profit. The crime is punishable by imprisonment for at least one year and a fine of between €10,000 and €100,000. It is deemed to be an aggravating factor if the pornographic materials involve exploitation mental incapacity, deafness, or inexperience of an underage person, or involves the use of violence against them. In such cases, perpetrators are punished by imprisonment for up to ten years and a fine of between €50,000 and €100,000. Where the victim is injured as the result of the commission of the offense, the punishment increases to a minimum of ten years’ imprisonment and a fine of between €100,000 and €500,000.
- Article 348B, Penal Code. Attracting Children for Sexual Purposes. Defines the crime of an adult using information and communications technology to entice a child under fifteen years of age to meet in person in order to commit offenses as specified in Articles 339 and 348A. Where the initial proposal was followed by further similar acts which resulted in one of the offenses specified above, the offender is liable to imprisonment for at least two years and a fine of between €50,000 and €200,000.
- Article 349, Penal Code. Pandering. This section states that whoever induces, urges, procures or facilitates the prostitution or lewd acts of minors with the intent to facilitate another’s debauchery, will be punished by imprisonment for up to ten years and fined between €10,000 and €50,000. A penalty of imprisonment for at least one year and a fine will be imposed where the offense is committed under one of the following circumstances: where the victim is under sixteen years of age; where the perpetrator is a relation (through blood or marriage) or a foster parent, spouse, guardian, or any other person to whom the minor is entrusted for rearing, education, supervision or custody, even temporarily; where the offender used electronic media or where the offender offered or promised monetary or any other form of payment.
- Article 351, Penal Code. Trafficking in Prostitution. Defines the offense of engaging or influencing a female minor person for the purpose of prostitution, even with her consent, with a view to facilitate another’s debauchery. The offense is punishable by imprisonment for between one and three years, and a fine. The offender is liable to an increased sentence of up to five years’ imprisonment where the offense is committed relation (through blood or marriage) a foster parent, spouse, guardian or by any other person to whom the minor is entrusted for rearing, education, supervision or custody, even temporarily.
- Article 351A, Penal Code. Lewd Acts against Minors. States that adults who commit lewd acts against minors in exchange for money or other material exchange, or adults who cause lewd acts among minors committed before other people have committed a criminal offense under this section. The offense is punishable by imprisonment of at least ten years and a fine of between €100,000 and 500,000 where the victim is less than ten years old. The article also states that where the victim is between ten and fifteen years of age, the offender is liable to imprisonment for up to ten years and a fine of between €50,000 and 100,000. Where the victim is over fifteen years of age, the sentence is imprisonment for at least one year and a fine of between €10,000 and 50,000. The offense is punishable by imprisonment for life where it causes the death of the victim.
- Greek Penal Code Article 353. Defines the offense of causing a scandal by obscene actions. The penalty is up to two years’ imprisonment.
As part of the European Union, Greece takes responsibility on Action 40 of the of the implementation of the digital agenda for Europe.
2007- Greek mobile operators signed a Memorandum for Safer Mobile Use by Younger Teenagers and Children. This is part of a wider European Union Framework for Safer Mobile Use by Younger Teenagers and Children which was signed by an initial fifteen signatories in February 2007. The Greek agreement recognizes the need to work with parents to protect children from content which could be harmful to them and to ensure that parents and guardians can enable access control mechanisms to restrict access to such content.
2014 - The Ministry of Education and Google, in collaboration with Saferinternet and the support of 30 local and regional organizations across the country, included Western Greece’s Education Directorate, the IT teachers Association of Evros, the municipality of Chania, the Region of Crete, and the Church of Kalamata, took the play “The Internet Farm” on tour through ten cities. It helped to create awareness of the dangers of the Internet and promoted child safety online.
Greece was part of the the #WePROTECT Summit 2014 Tackling Online Child Sexual Exploitation. Where countries representatives, leading technology companies and civil society organisations gathered in London with the Prime Minister, the Rt Hon David Cameron MP for a global summit. Participants signed up to ambitious Statements of Action to tackle online child sexual exploitation.
2015 - Greece participated on the 16th Europol Combating Online Sexual Exploitation of Children (COSEC) course on combating the online sexual exploitation of children on the internet. The ten-day course offered lectures and training to enhance national efforts to combat the sexual abuse of children online.