2006 - The Ethiopian Government adopted the ICTs in Education Implementation Strategy and Action Plan as one of the pillars of the ICT4D 2010 five-year action plan. The education strategy consists of three main initiatives: Ethiopian National SchoolNet Initiative, which is aimed at the deployment and the exploitation of ICTs to facilitate the teaching and learning process within primary, secondary, technical and vocational schools; the National ICTs in Higher Education Initiative, which focuses on deploying ICTs within the universities, colleges, and research institutions; and the National ICT Education, Training and Awareness Initiative, which promotes ICT awareness and literacy, lifelong and adult education, and distance and virtual education and learning.
2007 - Ericsson, Earth Institute at Columbia University, and Millennium Promise have launched the ‘Connect to Learn’ initiative to address some of the challenges relating to secondary education access and quality, particularly among the girls, by providing scholarships and bringing ICT to schools in remote, resource-poor parts around the world, including Ethiopia, over mobile broadband. Cisco made a 5-year, US $10 million commitment to the Clinton Global Initiative to support information and communications technology (ICT) development in five countries, including Ethiopia, by building the Cisco’s Community Knowledge Center (CKC).
2009 - The Ethiopian Government adopted the National ICT Policy and Strategy and made the ICT for Education Sector as one of the main focuses for transformation of Ethiopia to a middle- income economy and society. The goal for the education sector is to ensure that ICT is integrated to all levels of the educational and training system, and wherever possible, ICT shall be used to extensively deliver education. As part of the Clinton Global Initiative (CGI), One Global Economy (OGE), helps low income communities use technology to achieve their goals, launched Ethiopia Beehive. A search engine that offers information on health, jobs, education, governance, environment, and internet safety. Also, OGE and CGI partners supported the development of 4 Cisco’s Community Knowledge Centers through training computer center managers in digital literacy and business management. Ethiopia’s WoredaNet project, which connects 600 of Ethiopia’s local councils (woreda) through the provision of communications services including Internet, has won a Technology in Government in Africa (TIGA 2009) award. The initiative also provides connectivity to the SchoolNet, eHealth, and AgriNetis.
2011 - Through their Badiliko project, the British Council and Microsoft are working together to introduce ICT to children by setting up 80 digital hubs in 6 African Countries, including Ethiopia. The project aims to give teachers, students and the wider community access to ICT, as well as train teachers in leadership and innovative teaching practices to make the best use of the IT equipment for transforming student learning.
2012 - Ethiopia One Laptop Per Child, who has been working in Ethiopia since 2007, conducted a study through a One Tablet per Child project which handed out 40 tablet computers in villages where the residents were illiterate and none of the children attended school, to see if children can learn by themselves. The children showed immense potential in teaching themselves to read using the Ministry of Education approved software and applications.
2013 - About 2,500 computers have been purchased to connect all secondary schools in Ethiopian capital, Addis Abeba, as part of the National SchoolNet Initiative. SchoolNet is a satellite-based network that provides Internet connectivity as well as TV-broadcast educational content to secondary schools across the country. Since its establishment in 2003 by the joint initiative between the Ministry of Education and United Nation Development Programme (UNDP), the initiative has connected around 756 schools in Ethiopia.
2014 - Through the Hope for Children initiative, Samsung Electronics in partnership with Plan-International Ethiopia has launched Solar Powered Internet Schools (SPIS) in Kuche Woreda. The partnership plans to bring over three million birr worth of SPIS to the region, which is expected to benefit 4,000 students and teachers. World Bank has begun Part II of its Ethiopia General Education Quality Improvement Project, which is expected to be complete by 2018. On of the objectives for the program is to improve the quality of General Education (Grades 1-12 ) through the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
2015 - UNESCO’s International Institute for Education Planning has continued its cooperation with Ethiopia with the development of the country’s fifth Education Sector Development Plan (ESDP),thus contributing in Ethiopia’s objective of becoming a middle-income country by 2025. The government has been implementing five-year phases of Ethiopian ESDP since 1998. The program aim is to increasing access, improving quality, increasing effectiveness, achieving equity and expanding finance at all levels of education within Ethiopia. The previous ESDP III and IV worked on connecting secondary schools to internet, implementing national ICT curriculum, and providing teacher ICT skills training.
2016 - The Ministry of Education and Inspur Group Company Limited signed a 20 million USD contract agreement for commissioning of educational infrastructure and services for 300 secondary schools and ten universities.
Africa Child Online Protection Education & Awareness Center (ACOPEA)
The center focuses on education and awareness across Africa and the provision of mechanisms to report abuse and protect the rights of citizens in cyberspace.
Nonprofit organization that operates as a national resource center on child abuse and neglect and children’s rights. They provide information and technical expertise on child protection and child rights issues, carry out research on emerging children’s issues and lobby governments, donors, other NGOs and communities on behalf of children.
Camara Education Ethiopia
A non-governmental organization that works to improve the quality of education by facilitating Information Communication Technology (ICT) throughout educational institutions in Ethiopia.
This UK-based charity is working in Ethiopia to provide an improved standard of education to pupils and to enhance the resources available to schools. Over 5,200 computers so far have been donated to organizations across the country.
ECPAT Ethiopia/Forum on Sustainable Child Empowerment (FSCE)
An organization that works to eliminate child prostitution, child pornography and the trafficking of children for sexual purposes.
Ethiopia Knlowledge and Technology Transfer Society (EKTTS)
The organization was established in 2001, it is dedicated to mobilizing educational resources, including computers, to support the country’s development. Currently, it is working in partnership with Computer Aid. To date, EKTTS has been instrumental in providing 4,200 computers throughout Ethiopia.
Global e-Schools and Communities Initiative (GeSCI)
Part of the UN ICT task-force, focused on ICT education across Africa and the developing world. Provides technical and research assistance to e-learning programs.
A non-profit organization that is working with a number of schools in Ethiopia in partnership with School ICT Clubs in Ethiopia.
INTERPOL is the world’s largest international police organization, with 190 member countries. Its mission is to enable police forces to collaborate globally to fight crime in the Internet age. Three areas of focus are crimes against children (with a focus on internet crimes and travelling sex offenders), cybercrime and human trafficking.
ITU Development Sector, Africa
ITU-D fosters international cooperation and solidarity in the delivery of technical assistance and in the creation, development and improvement of telecommunication and ICT equipment and networks in developing countries.
Ministry of Communication and Technology
The Ministry’s mission is to develop, deploy and use information and Communication Technology, to improve the livelihood of every Ethiopian, and optimize its contribution to the development of the country.
One Laptop per Child (OLPC)
A nonprofit organization launched by Massachusetts Institute of Technology Media Lab, whose aim to empower the world’s poorest children through education by providing a low cost laptops.
Plan International Ethiopia
Nonprofit organization that helps vulnerable children in Ethiopia to access their rights to health, quality education and a sustainable future since 1974.
Save the Children Ethiopia
The organization works in partnership with the government and local stakeholders to promote a bright future for Ethiopia’s children.
The program works to develop and implement a national basic computer curriculum in all primary, secondary, technical and vocational schools of the country, and aims to train teachers throughout the school system, increasing their ICT skills and competencies.
Terre des Hommes Netherlands
This NGO focuses on stopping child sexual exploitation, child labor, child abuse and child trafficking in Asia, East Africa and Europe.
A Christian humanitarian organization dedicated to working with children, families, and their communities worldwide to reach their full potential by tackling the causes of poverty and injustice.
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Education in Sub-Saharan Africa (2015)Peter Wallet
This document presents the current status of the Information and communication technologies in Education in the Sub-Saharan region.
Reducing violence against children, with special focus on sexual exploitation of children and child sex tourism. (2014)The Netherlands, Defence for Children and ECPAT
This is a program by the Netherlands, Defence for Children and ECPAT, which objective is to reduce violence against children, with special attention to child sexual exploitation and child sex tourism.
Understanding What is Happening in ICT in Ethiopia (2012)Lishan Adam
A supply- and demandside analysis of the ICT sector in Ethiopia
Small World, Big Responsibility: The UK’s role in the global trade in children (2012)Erika Hall, Phillippa Lei
This report preset information on the different forms of child exploitation. Its purpose is to raise awareness to this global issue.
Ethiopia (2010)Albebe Chekol
This report reviews the current ICT infrastructure and access in Ethiopia and assesses the appropriateness of technology to communities and organisations. It also reviews locally relevant content, applications and services available for use by citizens and organisations. It then concludes with a review of important issues discussed in the report and provides recommendations as a way forward
ICT in Education in Ethiopia (2007)Harry Hare
Implementation of ICT in Education in Ethiopia
This section contains details of the country’s laws as they relate to sexual offenses, children and the use of the Internet in the commission of criminal activity. Where possible, sentence details have been given, including whether an increased custodial penalty is imposed where the victim is a child.
The age of consent for sexual activity in Ethiopia is eighteen. The legal age of consent for marriage is eighteen, as is the age of simple majority.
- Article 480, Criminal Code. Public Provocation to or Defense of a Crime. This Article states that anyone who publicly, in any way, provokes others to commit acts of violence or grave crimes, or who defends or praises such crime or its perpetrator, or who knowingly takes part in such activities, is liable to simple imprisonment or fine.
- Article 613, Criminal Code. Defamation and Calumny. Imposes a penalty of simple imprisonment for up to six months or a fine for anyone who, addressing another person, imputes to another an untrue act or fact, with the intent to injure the defamed’s honor or reputation.
- Article 620, Criminal Code. Rape. States that anyone who compels a woman to sexual intercourse, whether by the use of violence or grave intimidation, is liable to between five and fifteen years’ rigorous imprisonment. Where the victim is a minor girl between thirteen and eighteen years of age, the victim was subjected to cruelty or sadism, or where the offense was committed jointly by two or more persons, an aggravated penalty of between five and 20 years’ rigorous imprisonment will apply. If the victim suffered grave physical or mental injury, the penalty will be life imprisonment.
- Article 621, Criminal Code. Compelling a Man to Sexual Intercourse. States that any woman who compels a man to sexual intercourse is liable to rigorous imprisonment for up to five years.
- Article 622, Criminal Code. Sexual Outrages Accompanied by Violence. Defines the offense of using violence or grave intimidation to compel another person of the opposite sex to perform or to submit to a sexual or indecent act. This offense is punishable with simple imprisonment for a minimum of one year, or rigorous imprisonment for up to ten years.
- Article 625, Criminal Code. Taking Advantage of the Distress or Dependence of a Woman. Imposes a penalty of simple imprisonment for anyone who procures a woman to perform sexual intercourse or any other indecent act by abusing a position of authority.
- Article 626, Criminal Code. Sexual Outrages on Minors between the Ages of Thirteen and Eighteen Years. States that anyone who performs sexual intercourse with a minor of the opposite sex who is aged between thirteen and eighteen is guilty of an offense and liable to rigorous imprisonment for between three and fifteen years. A woman who causes a male minor of that age to perform intercourse with her will be punished by up to seven years’ rigorous imprisonment. The Article also covers the offense of performing a sexual or indecent act upon a minor between the ages of thirteen and eighteen, inducing him to perform such an act or performing such an act in his presence, which is punishable with simple imprisonment for a minimum of three months or rigorous imprisonment for up to five years.
- Article 627, Criminal Code. Sexual Outrages Committed on Infants. This Article states that anyone who performs sexual intercourse with a minor under the age of thirteen will be liable to rigorous imprisonment for a term of between thirteen and 25 years. Where the offender is female and the child male, a maximum term of ten years’ rigorous imprisonment will apply. The Article also covers the offense of performing a sexual or indecent act upon a minor under the age of thirteen, inducing him to perform such an act or performing such an act in his presence, which is punishable with rigorous imprisonment for up to ten years.
- Article 631, Criminal Code. Homosexual and Other Indecent Acts Performed on Minors. States that anyone who performs a homosexual act on a minor will be liable to rigorous imprisonment for between three and fifteen years where the victim is aged between thirteen and eighteen, or fifteen to 25 years if the minor is under the age of thirteen. If the offender is female the penalty is rigorous imprisonment not exceeding ten years. Indecent homosexual acts with minors are punishable with simple imprisonment.
- Article 635, Criminal Code. Trafficking in Women and Minors. States that it is an offense to traffick women or minors for the purpose of procuring them to engage in prostitution. The offense is punishable with rigorous imprisonment for up to five years and a maximum fine of 10,000 Birr.
- Article 636, Criminal Code. Aggravation to the Crime. States that where the victim of trafficking (Article 635) is a minor (amongst other aggravating circumstances), an aggravated penalty of three to ten years’ rigorous imprisonment and a fine of up to 20,000 Birr will apply.
- Article 637, Criminal Code. Organization of Trafficking in Women and Minors. This Article states that anyone who arranges the trafficking of women or minors, or makes any kind of provisions for the offense, will be liable to simple imprisonment.
- Article 639, Criminal Code. Public Indecency and Outrages Against Morals. Defines the offense of performing a sexual or obscene act in a public place or in public sight as punishable with simple imprisonment for three months to one year, or a fine of up to 1,000 Birr. Where the act was knowingly performed in the presence of a minor, an increased sentence of imprisonment for between six months and five years will apply.
- Article 640, Criminal Code. Obscene or Indecent Publications. This Article states that it is an offense to make, import, export, receive, possess, transport or circulate any indecent material. It is also an offense to advertise, by any means, from whom such material can be procured. This is punishable by a minimum of six months’ simple imprisonment and a fine, while the incriminating material will be destroyed. An aggravated penalty of a minimum of one year’s simple imprisonment plus a fine of up to 1,000 Birr will apply if the crime was committed by a habitual offender, the material was handed or delivered to a minor, or the material depicted a simulation of sexual intercourse by minors or exhibits their genitals.
- Article 641, Criminal Code. Obscene or Indecent Performances. States that the penalties prescribed in the preceding Article also apply to anyone who organizes or gives public auditions or performances of an obscene nature, which includes broadcasts by television or any other means.
- Article 643, Criminal Code. Indecent Publicity and Advertisements. Defines the offense of displaying indecent or immoral objects in public, which is punishable by simple imprisonment for at least one month plus a fine. The Article also states that anyone who sends by any means such material to another person without the receiver’s request, will be liable to simple imprisonment or a fine of up to 500 Birr.
Actions of the Convention on the Rights of the Child: Ethiopia has acceded, with no declarations or reservations to articles 16, 17(e) and 34 (c), to the Convention on the Rights of the Child and to articles 2 and 3, to the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography.
2009 - The Sixth African Conference on Child Abuse and Neglect was hosted by ANPPCAN Ethiopia in partnership with government and nongovernment organization with the focus on early childhood development and education. (maybe in education. World Vision launched Keeping Children Safe Online project to provide youth and their parents the knowledge and tools to stay safe online in Africa.
2012 - The Ethiopian Police and Interpol entered into an agreement to fight cyber crime in East Africa. No English information about this agreement could be found online but a video clip about this agreement is available (in Amharic only).
2013 - A six-month pan-African e-safety education and awareness program to promote child online safety was hosted by ITU in collaboration with ACOPEA and Facebook in Ethiopia as part of their Child Online Protection (COP) initiative. The program raised awareness, educated and engaged regional and national stakeholders in Ethiopia at all levels to work together towards a safe and empowering environment for young Internet users.
2014 - A four-day Interpol ‘cybercrime investigation’ course took place in Rwanda. All Interpol Zone V countries, including Ethiopia, participated in the training, which covered various cyber crime investigation areas like social media investigation and how to preserve and report online data.