The National Education Plan 2021 of the Republic of El Salvador is a government initiative led and coordinated by the Ministry of Education (MINED), to coordinate the efforts to improve the national education system. The Plan consists of a variety of programs, of which MEGATEC and CONÉCTATE (Connect) are related to ICT. MEGATEC aims to design and implement a modern educational alternative that will enhance the technical education and utilize ICT and CONÉCTATE aims to develop students’ technical competencies required in the 21st century workplace by distributing refurbished and donated computer equipment to public schools.
2008 - The NGO, Partnership in Opportunities for Employment through Technology in The Americas (POETA) provides training to people with disabilities and to young people. The aim is that through providing training in the use of ICT, as well as courses on other topics, such as job readiness, combined with POETA’s support to students to find them job placements after they have completed their course, students will find employment. Microsoft and the Trust for the Americas have provided support to this project which has benefitted over 400,000 people across the region through a number of telecenters. Nearly 8,000 people in El Salvador were trained as part of the initiative in 2008.
2009 - El Salvador joined the One Laptop Per Child (OLPC) project, known locally as the “Closing the Knowledge Gap” (Cerrando La Brecha Del Conocimiento – CBC) program. The Vice Minister of Education, Erlinda Handal, stated in 2010 that they were hoping to expand the project on a national level and equip all primary students in the country laptops by 2014.
The Ministry of Education, established the PIENSA (THINK) program, an educational project addressing the dangers of modern technologies arising from the Internet and cell phones. The project’s website advises students, teachers and parents on how to avoid and address online dangers such as luring, grooming, cyberbullying and other cyber-threats. In addition to the website, the projects includes a campaign for reporting cyber-predators: UNICEF and the Italian Development Cooperation have joined the program with various activities, one of which was to raise the public’s awareness of online dangers as well as offer basic recommendations to both the educational community and parents, who should know how to educate their children about such threats.
2012 - In support of the CBC program, the ‘Digital Learning Centers’ project was launched, a joint effort of MINED, Microsoft, USAID, the Business Foundation for Educational Development (FEPADE), FundaGeo, the San Andrés Foundation, and Holcim. The initiative’s main target was to provide modern computer labs and training in the appropriate use thereof to five public schools, each equipped with 30 computers with Internet connection and Microsoft’s Multipoint system.
2013 - ENSANCHE, was a program launched by the MINED with the purpose of improving the level of public education in the country. It provides technological resources and coaching for a responsible use of ICT in addition to the support of economic, social and scientific development
2014 - The ALBA Foundation donated a total of 4,194 computers to the MINDED that benefited 127 schools. This initiative, part of the CBC program, was called LEMPITA as a reference of its model. Its purpose is to improve classroom activities by the inclusion of technology and guarantee the progress of innovative education.
2015 - As part of the LEMPITA initiative, President Salvador Sanchez Ceren, introduced the “A girl, a Boy, a computer” (Una niña, un niño, una computadora) program. In addition to continue the inclusion of the Salvadoran youth to have access to ICT, it seeks to ensure a better quality of education.
Educational Community of Central America and Dominican Republic (CEDUCAR)
A virtual meeting place for the teaching community, this educational portal links eight Latin American countries and their respective educational systems. It provides up-to-date information, online courses, virtual communities, digital resources, newsletters, digital libraries and other educational materials.
Grado Digital (Digital Grade)
A website operated by the Ministry of Education to provide free online courses to improve digital literacy.
INTERPOL is the world’s largest international police organization, with 190 member countries. Its mission is to enable police forces to collaborate globally to fight crime in the Internet age. Three areas of focus are crimes against children (with a focus on internet crimes and travelling sex offenders), cybercrime and human trafficking.
Latin American Network of Educational Portals (La Red Latinoamericana de Portales Educativos – RELPE)
Formed in 2004 by an agreement of the Ministries of Education from sixteen Latin American countries, a network of educational portals, allowing the collaboration and sharing of educational content between the member countries. It also provides for the construction of standards and methodologies of processes to position the network as a benchmark in the region and the world on collaborative management of educational content.
Latin American Network of ICT and Education (Red Iberoamericana de TIC y Educación – RIATE)
This organization promotes bilateral or multilateral cooperation for development through the exchange of information, initiatives and projects that promote the integration of ICT in education in 21 countries.
The Republic’s educational portal, providing access to a wealth of teaching and learning resources for educators and students alike.
One Laptop per Child (OLPC)
A nonprofit organization launched by Massachusetts Institute of Technology Media Lab, whose aim to empower the world’s poorest children through education by providing a low cost laptops.
The Ministry of Education’s Internet safety advice project, in cooperation with UNICEF. The site addresses various issues such as online grooming, sexting, cyberbullying and other potential online risks, aimed for an audience of both students and their parents.
The Ministry of Education (MINED)
The Ministry is responsible for all efforts in primary and secondary education in the country.
Protecting Children from Cybercrime (2015)Simone dos Santos Lemos Fernandes, Legal Consultant, Global Forum on Law Justice and Development (GFLJD), Legal Vice Presidency, World Bank
This report studies different Latin American countries’ legislation on the prevention and combat of violence against children on the internet. It also identifies gaps and good practices on the protection of children from cybercrime.
2014 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Significant Advancement (2015)United States Department of Labor
A report on the advancements made by the government of El Salvador on its efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor.
The commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children in Latin America (2014)ECPAT International
This report studies the different forms of sexual exploitation of children inLatin America. Furthermore, it highlights the new emerging trends and how Latin america is addressing this phenomena
ICT IN EDUCATION IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN A regional analysis of ICT integration and e-readiness (2012)UNESCO Institute for Statistics
UNESCO Institute for Statistics, based on survey responses from 38 countries reveals the extent to which factors such as education policy, teacher training, and infrastructure drive or hamper the integration of ICTs in schools.
Computers in Schools: Why governments Should do their Homework (2011)Inter-American Development Bank
This chapter is a comparison of the Latin American governments include ICT in their educational programs.
Report of the Special Rapporteur on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography, Addendum : Mission to El Salvador (2011)Najat Maalla M’jid
Report of 2010 on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography in El Salvador
Missing Children in Central America: Research of Practices and legislation on Prevention and Recovery (2011)UNICEF and the International Centre for Missing & Exploited Children
This report is about the situation of Central America in 2011 on the matter of trafficking and sexual exploitation. It pays close attention to legislation, some cases and the countries’ actions on this issue.
Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children and the Internet (2011)Inter American Children’s Instirute
This is a report to the Organization of American States on the situation of the member states in the issue of commercial sexual exploitation and the impact of internet in their lives.
Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 12(1) of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography (2010)Committee on the Right of the Child
Consideration of the reports of El Salvador submitted to the committee on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography
Unicef Annual Report for El Salvador (2010)UNICEF
This is a report by Unicef on the effective fulfillment on child rights in El Salvador. It examines the significant progress and problems up to date.
Los desafíos de las TIC para el cambio educativo (2009)Roberto Carneiro, Juan Carlos Toscano and Tamara Díaz
This is a collective Inter-American educational program which goals are projected until the year 2021. It analyses the challenges of the new era of education and the importance of incorporating ICT on it.
This section contains details of the country’s laws as they relate to sexual offenses, children and the use of the Internet in the commission of criminal activity. Where possible, sentence details have been given, including whether an increased custodial penalty is imposed where the victim is a child.
The age of consent for sexual activity in El Salvador is sixteen. The age of consent for marriage is eighteen and the legal age of simple majority is also eighteen.
- Article 158, Penal Code. Rape. This Article states that anyone who forces another person to have sexual intercourse is guilty of rape and liable to imprisonment for between six and ten years.
- Article 159, Penal Code. Rape of a Minor or Disabled Person. Imposes a penalty of imprisonment for between fourteen to 20 years for anyone who rapes a minor under the age of fifteen or a disabled person.
- Article 160, Penal Code. Other Sexual Assault. States that anyone guilty of any form of sexual assault other than rape will face imprisonment for between three and six years. Where the assault consisted of oral intercourse, or inserting objects into the vagina or anus, an aggravated penalty of six to ten years’ imprisonment will apply.
- Article 161, Penal Code. Sexual Assault of Children and Disabled Persons. Defines the offense of sexually assaulting a minor under the age of fifteen, with or without violence, or a disabled person by taking advantage of the victim’s disability, and states that it is punishable by imprisonment for between eight to twelve years. The Article also states that anyone who, by deceit or by taking advantage of the victim’s inability to resist, sexually assaults a person will be liable to the same punishment. Where the assault consisted of oral intercourse, or inserting objects into the vagina or anus, an aggravated penalty of fourteen to 20 years’ imprisonment will apply.
- Article 162, Penal Code. Aggravated Rape and Sexual Assault. This Article states that anyone who commits an offense under Articles 158, 159, 160 or 161 in one of the following circumstances will face the maximum penalty prescribed, or if the crime includes penetration, face an increase of one third of the maximum sentence: the victim is under the age of eighteen; the offense was committed jointly by two or more persons or if the offense was committed in a particularly brutal, degrading or humiliating manner.
- Article 163, Penal Code. Defilement. States that it is an offense to have vaginal or anal intercourse, by using deception, with a person aged fifteen or over and under eighteen years of age. The offense is punishable by imprisonment for between four and ten years.
- Article 164, Penal Code. Defilement by Taking Advantage. Imposes a penalty of imprisonment for between six and twelve years for anyone who has vaginal or anal intercourse with a person aged fifteen or over but under eighteen. Relying on the superiority arising from any relationship shall be punished with imprisonment from six to twelve years.
- Article 165, Penal Code. Sexual Harassment. This Article states that anyone who makes unwelcome sexual advances, involving phrases, touching or other behavior of a sexual nature that does in itself not constitute a more serious crime, will be liable to between three and five years’ imprisonment. Where the victim is under the age of fifteen the penalty is increased to between four and eight years’ imprisonment.
- Article 166, Penal Code. Various Sexual Acts. Imposes a penalty of imprisonment for between four to eight years for anyone who uses deception to have sexual intercourse with a minor aged between fifteen and seventeen. Any sexual acts performed with a minor under the age of sixteen, even with consent, are punishable by imprisonment for eight to twelve years.
- Article 167, Penal Code. Corruption of Minors and Disabled Persons. States that it is an offense to promote or facilitate the corruption of a person under eighteen through various sexual acts of sexual intercourse, even if the victim consents to participate in them. The offense is punishable by imprisonment for six to twelve years.
- Article 168, Penal Code. Aggravated Corruption. Imposes an increased penalty of twelve to fourteen years’ imprisonment for anyone guilty of the corruption of a minor under the age of fifteen. The same penalty applies to anyone guilty of an offense under Article 167 committed by deception, violence, abuse of authority or trust, or any form of intimidation.
- Article 169, Penal Code. Induction, Promotion and Favoritism of Sexual or Erotic Acts. This Article states that it is an offense to promote, facilitate, manage, finance, instigate or organize in any way the use of persons under eighteen years of age in sexual or erotic acts individually or organized, publicly or privately. The penalty for this offense is between three to eight years’ imprisonment.
- Article 169A, Penal Code. Remuneration for Sexual or Erotic Acts. Defines the offense of offering a person under the age of eighteen any form of remuneration or other consideration in exchange for sexual or erotic acts. The offense is punishable by imprisonment for three to eight years.
- Article 170, Penal Code. Promotion of Prostitution. States that anyone who coerces a person to practice or remain in prostitution is guilty of an offense and liable to imprisonment for six to ten years. If the victim is a minor under the age of eighteen an aggravated penalty of eight to twelve years’ imprisonment will apply.
- Article 171, Penal Code. Obscene Exhibits. Imposes a penalty of imprisonment for two to four years for anyone who performs or makes others perform acts of lewd or lascivious exhibition, or indecency in a public place or a place open to the public or to minors under eighteen years of age.
- Article 172, Penal Code. Pornography. This Article states, among other things, that it is an offense to, by any means including electronically, manufacture, transfer, disseminate, rent, sell, offer, produce, implement, exhibit or show any pornographic material to children under eighteen years of age. The offense is punishable by imprisonment for three to five years.
- Article 173, Penal Code. Use of Persons under Eighteen Years or Mentally or Physically Disabled Persons in Pornography. States, among other things, that anyone who produces, reproduces, distributes, publishes, imports, exports, offers, finances, sells, trades or disseminates in any form, images or the voice of a person under the age of eighteen engaged in sexual activities, either directly, via computer network, virtually or by any other means, is guilty of an offense and liable to imprisonment for six to twelve years. The same penalty applies to anyone who organizes or participates in shows, whether public or private, which uses minors in pornographic or erotic performances.
- Article 173A, Penal Code. Possession of Pornography. Penalizes the possession of child pornography depicting persons under the age of eighteen with two to four years’ imprisonment.
- Article 177, Penal Code. Slander. States that anyone who falsely accuses another person of committing a crime or participating therein will be liable to imprisonment for one to three years. Slander committed via public means is punishable by imprisonment for between two and four years. Repeated slander targeting the same victim will incur the same penalty in addition to a fine of between 50 to 100 days.
- Article 178, Penal Code. Defamation. Defines the offense of assigning attributes to another person likely to damage the defamed’s honor or reputation, which is punishable by imprisonment for a term of between six months and two years. Defamation committed via public means incurs a penalty of one to three years’ imprisonment. Repeated defamation targeting the same victim will incur the same penalty in addition to a fine of between 50 to 100 days.
- Article 179, Penal Code. Insult. States that anyone who offends the dignity or modesty of another person will be liable to imprisonment for six months to two years. Insult committed via public means incurs a penalty of one to three years’ imprisonment. Repeated libel targeting the same victim will incur the same penalty in addition to a fine of between 50 to 100 days.
- Article 367B, Penal Code. Human Trafficking. This Article states that anyone who, as an individual or as part of an organization, for the purpose of financial gain, recruits, transports, transfers, harbors or receives persons with a view to subjecting them to sexual exploitation or forced labor, forced marriage or services, is guilty of an offense. The penalty for this crime is four to eight years’ imprisonment. Anyone who facilitates, promotes or encourages the above will be liable to three to six years’ imprisonment.
- Article 367C, Penal Code. Aggravated Human Trafficking. States, among other things, that where the victim of human trafficking is a minor under the age of eighteen, the respective maximum penalties as described in Article 367B increased by one third will apply.
- Since 2004, The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) has been working with the Salvadoran Government on investigating and strengthening the national capacities to prevent and fight cybercrime. Dissemination of information, sexual harassment and crimes against children are the most recurrent online offenses in El Salvador.
- On March 26 of 2009, the Legislative Assembly of El Salvador passed the law LEPINA (Spanish) (Ley de Proteción Integral de la Niñez y Adolescencia). Its purpose is to guarantee the full exercise and enjoyment of rights by every child and adolescent in El Salvador.
- The initiative THINK by the Ministry of Education, provides training and educational content for use in the classroom on the issues of online abuse, child pornography, online predators and netiquette.
- In 2015 the International Centre for Missing & Exploited Children - Latin America & Caribbean (ICMEC LAC) created the Latin American Coalition Against Child Sexual Abuse and Exploitation Online (CLAL). By providing guidance and share successful international practices, its purpose is to strengthen the already existing initiatives in the region to combat child sexual exploitation and abuse online.
- The Instituto Interamericano del Niño, la Niña y Adolescente (inn) of the Organization of American States (OAS) presented in December of 2015 a plan of action from 2015 to 2019 (Spanish). Its goal is to help to develop public policies that guarantee the exercise and promotion of the rights of the child and adolescents of the member states.