2008 - The ‘Lisbon Strategy – Revised National Reform Program of the Republic of Cyprus, states that the government works towards upgrading the infrastructure and hardware of elementary and secondary schools. These efforts included achieving an improved student-computer ratio and more Internet connections in educational institutions. Additionally, teachers were to receive continuous ICT training to keep them up-to-date with the latest technologies.
As of October 2008, there were five students to one computer, which was better than expected in the original Cypriot Lisbon Strategy. The target for 2010 was set at 4:1. All primary and secondary schools have now been connected to the Internet, and an Intranet connecting schools with each other was expected to be completed by the end of 2010. 85% of teachers in primary and secondary education had received ICT training by the end of 2008.
2010 - A Learning Management System was installed in all schools by the end of 2010 after an initial pilot phase in eight schools in November 2008. The system is an interactive communication platform, enabling exchanges between teachers, students and parents regarding issues such as homework, absences, grades and so on.
The curriculum for Information Technology and Computer Science (Greek) for secondary schools expects students to learn how to use modern network services and the Internet effectively and efficiently. More importantly, students will learn how to recognize the risks arising from the use of computer networks and the Internet (including data theft, deception, harassment and other hazards) and how to take appropriate protective measures. In addition, they are expected to adopt a responsible attitude towards the Internet, realizing their responsibility to protect themselves and observe codes of conduct towards other users, observing differences in culture, race and sex. In high school, the objective is to teach students to assimilate the concepts related to network security, the Internet and its users. Learners should be able to recognize the risks arising from the Internet, which include data loss, intellectual property theft and cyberbullying, and showcase examples of appropriate measures for protection and damage limitation.
2015 - The Cyprus Pedagogical Institute hosted the International Conference “Literacy and Contemporary Society: Bridging Sociocultural, Philosophical, Pedagogical and Technological Dimensions”. The conference’s objective is to explore different aspects of literacy. It focused on information technology, communication and literacy, literacy and teaching practices in pre-primary, primary and secondary education, emerging/developing literacy among others.
CyberEthics is the Cypriot Safer Internet Center, which serves the needs of all people on the island (including Turkish Cypriots and other minorities), addressing not only issues of pornography, but also gender discrimination, racism, and inappropriate use of other people’s’ images. It operates as a combined Awareness Node and a Hotline.
Cyprus Computer Society
It is a not-for-profit organization, which objective is to improve and promote high standards amongst informatics professionals, in recognition of the impact of informatics on employment, business, society as well as on the quality of life of the citizen
Cyprus Cybercrime Center of Excellence
Co-funded by the Prevention of and Fight against Crime Programme of the European Union. It is coordinated by theCyprus Neuroscience & Technology Institute with the Office of the Commissioner of Electronic Communications and Postal Regulation, the European University Cyprus, Aditess and the Office for Combating Cybercrime as partners. It specialises in training seminars on cybercrime-related issues. Facilitating the exchange and diffusion of tacit knowledge and expertise and familiarise participants with new technologies.
This industry association represents the interests of European mobile network operators. The group engages in lobbying in areas such as children’s use of mobile phones, privacy, digital inclusion and reducing the digital gender gap. In 2008, the organization formed a mobile alliance against child sexual abuse content.
International Telecommunications Union (ITU) Europe
The ITU is is the UN agency for ICTs. Areas of focus in Europe include improving E-accessibility in Central and Eastern Europe, transitioning Europe to digital broadcasting, and sharing best practices for implementing e-applications.
INTERPOL is the world’s largest international police organization, with 190 member countries. Its mission is to enable police forces to collaborate globally to fight crime in the Internet age. Three areas of focus are crimes against children (with a focus on internet crimes and travelling sex offenders), cybercrime and human trafficking.
It is a service offered by the MEC, this educational portal offers teachers access to education material for all subjects and age groups. A special section of the website is dedicated to Internet safety, which includes details on web predators, safety tips and a comprehensive guide to online child safety for download.
A Survey on the Transposition of Directive 2011/93/EU on Combating Sexual Abuse and Sexual Exploitation of Children and Child Pornography (2016)Together Against Sexual Exploitation of Children
The study examines how seven key provisions of Directive 2011/93/EU on the fight against sexual abuse and sexual exploitation of children and child pornography have been adopted by the 27 European Union (EU) Member States bound by the Directive.
How parents of young children manage digital devices at home: the role of income, education and parental style (2015)Livingstone, Sonia, Mascheroni, Giovanna, Dreier, Michael, Chaudron, Stephane, Lagae, Kaat
The report compares strategies of parental mediation on the internet according to levels of parental education and household income. The aim was to inform policy-makers and practitioners on how to approach parental guidance and awareness raising.
Global Research Project: A Global Landscape of Hotlines Combating Child Sexual Abuse Material on the Internet and an Assessment of Shared Challenges (2015)Melissa Stroebe, Stacy Jeleniewski, PhD
This report examines hotlines combating Internet-facilitated Child Sexual Abuse Material.
Combatting Child Sexual Abuse (2015)Petra Jeney
The study provides an overview of existing legislation at European Union, Member State and the international level related to online child sexual abuse, as well as the role of law enforcement agencies in combatting child sexual abuse online and other governmental and private sector initiatives.
Education and Training Monitor 2015 - Cyprus (2015)Manolis Michaelides
This report presents a general view of the situation of education in cyprus. On the section 5, it provides information of the introduction of ICT in classrooms.
Situation Analysis: Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights (SRHR) of Adolescents in Cyprus (2015)Elina Kofou, Kyriakos Michael, Angelikh Andreou, Dora Georgiou
The purpose of this paper is to provide information on the sexual and reproductive health of the Cypriot youth. The aim is to give a better understanding that will lead to better effective sexual education.
The impact of internet and new media on the occurrence of violence against children in Europe and Cyprus (2015)Rosella Sala
This document demonstrate that countries lack of expertise on child sexual exploitation and struggle combating this issue by their own. It suggests to establish an international legal framework to prosecute offenders and protect children.
Submission to the Committee on the Rights of the Child for its General Comment on the Rights of Adolescents by ‘Hope For Children’ UNCRC Policy Center and the associated Law Clinic of the University of Nicosia (2015)Dr. Antonis St.Stylianou
Report on the implementation taken to protect children’s rights in Cyprus.
Policy Influences and Country Clusters: A Comparative Analysis of Internet Safety Policy Implementation (2014)B. O'Neill
The report examines the policy context of internet safety and looks at how countries within each cluster approach implementation.
Mapping Safer Internet Policies in the Member States (2014)P. Baudouin, B. Mahieu, T. Dor, B. Good, J. Milayi, S. Nakajima
The purpose of the study was to set up a framework for analysing Better Internet for Children public policies covering EU Member States, and Norway and Iceland.
Children's Use of Online Technologies in Europe (2014)K. Ólafsson, S. Livingstone, L. Haddon
This report reviews recent research on children’s use of internet and mobile technologies identified by the EU Kids Online network.
Final recommendations for policy (2014)O’Neill, B., Staksrud, E
Combining all the EU Kids Online policy guidance into one resource, this report provides more than 30 proposed actions for making the Internet safer for children.
Cyprus - Country Report (2014)empirica
Report on the situation on the situation on ICT in Cyprus, e-skills, different policies and initiatives to improve it.
Media Literacy in Europe: 12 Good Practices that will Inspire You (2013)Evens Foundation
This document explores 12 cases across Europe of media literacy.
In their own words: what bothers children online? (2013)Livingstone S., Kirwil, L., Ponte C. and Staksrud E., with the EU Kids Online network
The results of a survey of nearly 10,000 children in 25 countries across Europe, this report details what children say upsets them and their friends online
Country Classification: Opportunities, Risks, Harm and Parental Mediation (2013)Helsper, E. J., Kalmus, V., Hasebrink, U., Sagvari, B. and De Haan, J. with members of the EU Kids Online network
With data from 25 of the European countries surveyed in EU Kids Online, the report examines the range and type of online opportunities, risks and harm which children from each country experience, as well as looking at ways in which parents control or mediate their children’s Internet use.
Risks and Safety for Children on the Internet: The Cyprus report. (2013)Yiannis Laouris, Elena Aristodemou
This report presents the findings of the risks children in Cyprus face when they are online.
Factors enabling the use of technology in subject teaching (2013)Begum Cubukcuoglu
This article identifies the factors that encourage teachers to integrate technology into their classrooms. The objective is to promote such environments among educators.
Overview and Analysis of 1:1 Learning Initiatives in Europe (2013)Intel
Intel 's report on the status of 1:1 Learning Initiative in Europe
Risks and safety on the internet: Comparing Brazilian and European children (2013)Barbosa, A., O’Neill, B., Ponte, C., Simões, J.A., Jereissati, T.,
This study compares the results of the survey of Brazilian children and their parents/guardians, carried out by the Brazilian Internet Steering Committee. Using the same methodology as the EU Kids Online research, the results from Brazil are compared with those from Europe.
Zero to Eight - Young Children and Their Internet Use (2013)Holloway, D., Green, L., and Livingstone, S. with members of the EU Kids Online network,
This report reviews a number of other studies and provides recommendations as to how younger children can be protected from online risks.
EU Kids Online: National perspectives (2012)Haddon, L., Livingstone, S., EU Kids Online Network
This report summarizes the Internet experiences of children in the 33 participating EU Kids Online countries and includes eight countries which have not appeared in previous reports.
Excessive Internet Use by European Children (2012)D. Smahel, E. Helsper, L. Green, V. Kalmus, L. Blinka, K. Ólafsson
This report presents new findings and further analysis of the EU Kids Online 25-country survey regarding excessive use of the internet by children.
EU Kids Online: National perspectives (2012)Leslie Haddon, Sonia Livingstone and the EU Kids Online network
This report summarizes the Internet experiences of children in the 33 participating EU Kids Online countries and includes eight countries which have not appeared in previous reports
EU Kids Online: Excessive Internet Use among European Children (2012)Smahel, D, Helsper, E, Green, L, Kalmus, V, Blinka, L, Ólafsson, K,
This report uses the data from the EU Kids Online study to examine excessive use of the Internet by children in the 25 participating countries.
Risks and safety on the internet: The perspective of European children. Full Findings (2011)Livingstone, S., Haddon, L., Görzig, A., Ólafsson, K
Building on the original study, EU Kids Online I, this second piece of research includes the findings from research which took place in 25 countries. Children in the 9 – 16 age group were surveyed on their experiences of online use, risk and safety
Cyprus - Country Report on ICT in Education (2011)Christos Roushias, Elias Mrgadjis
This report provides information on the situation of ICTs in classrooms.
Information and Communication technology (ICT) for Inclusion - Cyprus (2011)European Agency
Report on the situation of ICT for inclusion in Cyprus.
Children’s Use of Mobile Phones and Personal Relationships – An International Comparison 2010 (2010)Society Research Institute and the GSMA
Society Research Institute and the GSMA jointly conducted an international research study examining the ways in which children communicate through mobile phones
Children’s une of mobile phones - An international comparison 2011 (2010)GSM Association and the Mobile Society Research Institute within NTT DOCOMO Inc.
A comparative document of the statistics and facts of the usage of mobile phones by children across the globe.
EU Kids Online: Final report (2009)Livingstone, S., Haddon, L.
One of the foremost pieces of research into the online habits of children in the European Union is the EU Kids Online research, funded by the European Commission Safer Internet Plus Programme between 2006 and 2009.
Sex Trafficking of Children in Cyprus (2009)EPCAT
The report focuses on sex trafficking of children in Germany. It provides statistics, explains the nature of the problem and talks about ways to stop this challenge.
Education on Online Safety in Schools in Europe (2009)Eurydice
The study covers 30 European countries and provides information on whether online safety is taught and how it is taught in schools within the participating countries.
Inclusion in the Cyprus Educational System at the Beginning of the Twenty First Century: An Overview (2008)The Ministry of Education and Culture, Republic of Cyprus
Report on the situation of Education in Cyprus and the policies to improve its access and quality.
Towards a safer use of the Internet for children in the EU - a parents' perspective (2008)Eurobarometer
The study covers 27 EU Member States and provides parental responses to a range of questions relating to Internet safety and their perception of risk.
ICT in Primary Schools: Explaining the Integration in Relation to the Context (2007)Christina Hadjithoma, Nikleia Eteokleous
This paper presents the different attitudes of primary school teachers about integration of ICTs in their curriculum.
Mapping the Realities of Trafficking in Women for the purpose of sexual exploitation in Cyprus (2007)Mediterranean Institute of Gender Studies
This report’s aim is to create awareness and understanding on the problems of trafficking in women and sexual exploitation in Cyprus
Safer Internet for Children and Adolescents in the new Member States. Full Report (2004)Eurobarometer
This report covers the ten accession countries of the time: Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia.
This section contains details of the country’s laws as they relate to sexual offenses, children and the use of the Internet in the commission of criminal activity. Where possible, sentence details have been given, including whether an increased custodial penalty is imposed where the victim is a child.
The age of simple majority is not established by a specific law and each piece of legislation concerning children specifies its own legal age. The age of consent for sexual activity is seventeen, as defined by Article 154 of the Criminal Code. The age of consent for marriage is eighteen, as defined by Section 12 of the Marriage Law. In certain exceptional circumstances the church may permit the marriage of persons under the age of eighteen.
Cyprus has signed, ratified and entered into law the Council of Europe’s Convention on Cybercrime (November 2001).
There does not appear to be a complete version of the Criminal Code of Cyprus available online. Details of laws have been obtained from Interpol and are correct as at 2006. Penalties for some of the crimes listed below were not available.
- Section 144, Criminal Code. Rape. This section states that anyone who has unlawful sexual intercourse with a woman without her consent, or with her consent if this was obtained by force, fear of bodily harm, or by impersonating her husband, is guilty of the felony termed as rape.
- Section 145, Criminal Code. Punishment of Rape. Imposes a penalty of life imprisonment for anyone who commits the felony of rape.
- Section 146, Criminal Code. Attempt to Commit Rape. States that anyone who attempts to commit rape is guilty of a felony and liable to imprisonment for ten years.
- Section 148, Criminal Code. Abduction. Defines the felony of taking a female away or detaining her against her will, with intent to marry her or have sexual intercourse with her, or cause her to be married or have sexual intercourse with another person. The offense is punishable by imprisonment for seven years.
- Section 149, Criminal Code. Abduction of Girls under Sixteen. States that anyone who unlawfully takes an unmarried girl under the age of sixteen out of the custody or protection of her parents or guardian against their will, is guilty of a misdemeanor.
- Section 151, Criminal Code. Indecent Assault on Females. This section states that anyone who unlawfully and indecently assaults a female is guilty of a misdemeanor.
- Section 152, Criminal Code. Indecent Assault on Males. States that anyone who indecently and unlawfully assaults a male person is guilty of a misdemeanor.
- Section 153, Criminal Code. Defilement of Girl under Thirteen. Imposes a penalty of life imprisonment for anyone who has unlawful sexual intercourse with a girl under the age of thirteen. The section also states that anyone who attempts to have sexual intercourse with a girl under this age is guilty of a misdemeanor and liable to imprisonment for three years.
- Section 154, Criminal Code. Defilement of Girls Between Thirteen and Sixteen Years of Age. This section states that anyone who has unlawful sexual intercourse with a girl of or above the age of thirteen but under sixteen years of age is guilty of a misdemeanor.
- Section 156, Criminal Code. Suppression of Brothels. States that anyone who keeps, manages, acts or assists in the management of a brothel, or, being a tenant, lessee, occupier or person in charge of any premises, knowingly permits them to be used for the purposes of prostitution, is guilty of a misdemeanor. The same applies to any lessor or landlord who lets their premises with the knowledge that they will be used for the purposes of prostitution.
- Section 157, Criminal Code. Procuration. States that anyone who procures a girl or a woman under the age of 21 to have unlawful sexual intercourse with another person or persons, to become a prostitute, or to leave the country to become the inmate of a brothel, is guilty of a misdemeanor.
- Section 159, Criminal Code. Procuring Defilement of Woman by Threats, or Fraud, or Administering Drugs. States that it is a misdemeanor to procure a female to have unlawful sexual intercourse with a man by threat, intimidation or false pretense, or by administering drugs with the intent to stupefy the victim in order to enable any man to have sexual intercourse with her.
- Section 174, Criminal Code. Unnatural Offenses with a Child under Thirteen. Defines the felony of having, or attempting to have, with or without violence, anal intercourse with a child under the age of thirteen. The offense is punishable by imprisonment for fourteen years.
- Law for Combating Trafficking, Exploitation of Human Beings and for the Protection of Victims (Law No 87 (1) / 2007). The Law entered into force on July 13, 2007. It includes specific provisions for the criminalization of human trafficking, the protection and support of victims of these offenses, and administrative provisions for the implementation of the Law. Trafficking in persons is defined as a penal offense and provides punishment of up to fifteen years’ imprisonment. Trafficking in children is punished with up to twenty years’ imprisonment. Trafficking in organs is punished with up to 25 years’ imprisonment. Trafficking for forced labor is punished with up to six years if the victim is an adult and with up to ten years if the victim is a minor. Sexual exploitation of persons is punished with up to ten years’ imprisonment. Sexual exploitation of children is punished with up to twenty years’ imprisonment. Child pornography is punished with up to ten years and / or a fine of €42,715. Maintaining a brothel and corruption of civil servants is punished with five years and / or a fine of €17,100.
The Cyprus Safer Internet Centre, CyberEthics, annually coordinates the Cypriot celebration of Safer Internet Day. Events are held all over the country, and the population every year is alerted to the facts that the number of online child pornography cases in Cyprus.
Residents of Cyprus have access to online safety advice through the CyberEthics website, which also acts as the country’s reporting node for illegal content.
2005 - Cyprus’ Lisbon Strategy envisaged the country to draw up a National Information Society Strategy. However, by the end of 2007 this had still not been completed due to the lack of a sole body in charge of the promotion of Information Society. In an effort to establish some responsibility, the Council of Ministers appointed a Commissioner for Information Society in February 2008. He is responsible for designing and implementing a National Strategy for the Information Society, as well as for assessing and accomplishing the national goals of the Lisbon Strategy. (Lisbon Strategy - Revised National Reformed Programme 2008)
2010 - In March, the Cyprus Mobile Operators’ Code of Practice for the Responsible and Secure Use of Mobile Services came into effect. The code of practice is part of a wider European Union Framework for Safer Mobile Use by Younger Teenagers and Children which was signed by an initial fifteen signatories in February 2007. The code of practice in Cyprus includes undertakings such as enabling customers to report unwanted marketing messages and the classification of content provided by the operators.
As part of the European Union, Cyprus takes responsibility on long-term e-skills and digital literacy policies of Action 66 of the of the implementation of the digital agenda for Europe.
2012 - The Cyprus Neuroscience & Technology Institute and Insafe hosted the conference, ‘Promoting Internet Safety Globally: Connecting Generations’ in Cyprus, in 1 May 4-16. INSAFE promoted a global collaboration with countries outside Europe to assist them in strengthening their awareness-raising initiatives. Such efforts would help to improve country appropriate resources, tools and procedures that would to help citizens and their families online, cultures, and therefore future generations.
The Insafe organized the Insafe Training Meeting in Larnaca, Cyprus on April 20-21. 130 countries’ Safer Internet Centres participated from across Europe, including the Cyprus Safer Internet Center ‘CyberEthics.’ The training focused on the impact of technology on the health and wellbeing of children and young people.
2014 - UINFC2 project held a workshop to validate and identify additional requirements of both citizen’s and Law Enforcement Agents for effective reporting suspicious activities and content such as online child exploitation and cyber crimes. The objective was to informate and to promote cooperation and coordination amongst national and European Agencies.
2015 - Cyprus ratified the Lanzarote Convention and commitmented at national and international level, for the defense of children’s rights.