Cuba

Population

11,147,407

Population 0‑14

16.6%

Internet Users

32.5%

Mobile Subscribers

3,300,000
* Statistics provided by CIA.gov, Internet World Stats and GSMA Intellligence

There is little information available on the education system, although it appears that the government is working to introduce ICT in schools. And there is no information available on whether online safety is taught at any level within schools at the present time.

1996 - The Decree-Law 209 was made to regulate Internet in Cuba (Report). This law states that citizens will need an special accreditation to be able to have Internet access at home. Requests are evaluated by the local Defense of the Revolution committee, which will grant or deny the permit according to “merit” and priorities of the nation.

2001 - Following the changes in the global socio-political context in recent years, coupled with new developments in science and technology, particularly new information technologies and communications, Cuba recognized the need to revise and adapt their national curriculum to reflect those changes. As part of continues improvements to the education system, Cuba introduced the subject of Computing to primary level education in a selected group of schools.

Cuba’s Policy for the Computerization of Society states that the promotion of a computer literate society is an important part of the country’s strategy to accelerate the process of enabling all citizens access to information technologies. The objective is to develop strategic plans for widespread computer literacy training and development, with special emphasis on the management of staff and skilled personnel in ICT. The document also lists the promotion of the widespread use of e-mail and the development of corporate intranets as one of the policy’s objectives.

2010 - Youth Club as part of the Ministry of Communications (MINCOM) is a program that constitutes a network of technology centers where Cubans can have access to ICTs.

2016 - The 16th International Convention and Fair 2016 has, in its agenda of the V International Symposium on Community, Entertainment and Social Media, the plan to address topics such as Impact of social media, responsible use of ICT and ICT for development, among others.

No information could be found as to whether Internet safety is taught in schools.

CubaEduca

Is the Educational Portal of the Ministry of Education of the Republic of Cuba, coordinated by the National Educational Computing, it is a channel interactive, systemic, dynamic communication, committed to the curriculum of the Cuban school, directed and made by teachers and technicians. It is a search option, facilitating the process of teaching - learning.

Instituto Interamericano del Niño, la Niña y Adolescente (INN)

A specialized body of the Organization of American States (OAS) on children and adolescents policy that provides guidance to the different states on how they must assume protection.

INTERPOL

INTERPOL is the world’s largest international police organization, with 190 member countries. Its mission is to enable police forces to collaborate globally to fight crime in the Internet age. Three areas of focus are crimes against children (with a focus on internet crimes and travelling sex offenders), cybercrime and human trafficking.

Latin American Network of Educational Portals (La Red Latinoamericana de Portales Educativos – RELPE)

Formed in 2004 by an agreement of the Ministries of Education from sixteen Latin American countries, a network of educational portals, allowing the collaboration and sharing of educational content between the member countries. It also provides for the construction of standards and methodologies of processes to position the network as a benchmark in the region and the world on collaborative management of educational content.

Latin American Network of ICT and Education (Red Iberoamericana de TIC y Educación – RIATE)

This organization promotes bilateral or multilateral cooperation for development through the exchange of information, initiatives and projects that promote the integration of ICT in education in 21 countries.

2015 11 11 Open Forum - Government of Cuba, Ministry of Education Workshop Room 9 Finished (2015)

UN Internet Governance Forum

This is the real time Captioning of the Tenth Annual Meeting of the Internet Governance Forum, Joao Pessoa, Brazil, November 2015.

Cyberwellness Profile Republic of Cuba (2015)

International Telecommunication Union ITU

This is the Cuban profile on cyberwellness

Freedom on the Net 2015 - Cuba (2015)

Freedom House

This paper explores the current Cuban situation on ICT and possible outcomes if Cuba opens to global internet if the embargo is lifted

Trafficking in Persons in Latin America and the Caribbean (2015)

Clare Ribando Seelke

This is a report on Trafficking in persons in Latin America

Unicef Annual Report 2014 - The Republic of Cuba (2014)

UNICEF

This report presents the first year of the Program 2014 -2018 part of the UNICEF Strategic Plan 2014-2017

ICT IN EDUCATION IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN A regional analysis of ICT integration and e-readiness (2012)

UNESCO Institute for Statistics

UNESCO Institute for Statistics, based on survey responses from 38 countries reveals the extent to which factors such as education policy, teacher training, and infrastructure drive or hamper the integration of ICTs in schools.

Tecnología de la Información y las Comunicaciones en Cifras - Cuba 2011 (2012)

Oficina Nacional de Estadística e Información República de Cuba

This is a national report on the most significant advancements of ICTs in 2011. It highlights information on infrastructure and ICT access, among others.

Computers in Schools: Why governments Should do their Homework (2011)

Inter-American Development Bank

This chapter is a comparison of the Latin American governments include ICT in their educational programs.

Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children and the Internet (2011)

Inter American Children’s Instirute

This is a report to the Organization of American States on the situation of the member states in the issue of commercial sexual exploitation and the impact of internet in their lives.

Los desafíos de las TIC para el cambio educativo (2009)

Roberto Carneiro, Juan Carlos Toscano and Tamara Díaz

This is a collective Inter-American educational program which goals are projected until the year 2021. It analyses the challenges of the new era of education and the importance of incorporating ICT on it.

Code of Conduct for the Protection of Children from Sexual exploitation in Travel and Tourism (2003)

World Tourism Organization and ECPAT

This is the plan of the project ‘Protect Children from Sexual Exploitation in Tourism’ by the World Tourism Organization and ECPAT. It aims to prevent sexual exploitation of children in the touristic context.

This section contains details of the country’s laws as they relate to sexual offenses, children and the use of the Internet in the commission of criminal activity. Where possible, sentence details have been given, including whether an increased custodial penalty is imposed where the victim is a child.

The age of consent in Cuba is sixteen.

  • Article 298, Penal Code. Rape. This article states that anyone who has sexual intercourse with a woman with the use of force or intimidation, or by abusing the victim’s mental disability, inability to resist, or lack of understanding as to the nature of the act, is guilty of an offense and is liable to imprisonment for between four to ten years. The article also states that an increased penalty of seven to fifteen years’ imprisonment applies where the crime has been committed jointly by more than one person; where the offender wore a military uniform or pretended to be a public official in order to facilitate the crime; where the victim is over twelve and under fourteen years of age. The article prescribes a penalty of imprisonment for between fifteen to thirty years or the death penalty where the offender has previously been penalized for the same crime; where the victim suffered serious injury or illness as a result of the crime; where the offender knowingly carried a life-threatening sexually transmitted disease or where the victim is under twelve years of age.
  • Article 299, Penal Code. Pederasty with Violence. States that anyone who commits pederasty, actively employing violence or intimidation, or by taking advantage of the victim’s dependency or inability to resist, is liable to imprisonment for seven to fifteen years. The penalty is increased to between fifteen and 30 years’ imprisonment or death where the victim is under the age of fourteen; where the victim suffered serious injury or life-threatening illness as a result of the crime or where the offender has previously been convicted for the same crime.
  • Article 300, Penal Code. Sexual Abuse. Defines the offense of sexual abuse in conjunction with rape and sets the following penalties: sexual abuse in conjunction with rape of a woman with the use of force or intimidation, or by abusing the victim’s mental disability, inability to resist, or lack of understanding as to the nature of the act renders the offender liable to additional imprisonment of between six months and two years, or a fine of 200 to 500 quotas; sexual abuse in conjunction with rape of a woman facilitated by pretending to be a public official or by wearing a uniform, committed jointly by more than one person, or where the victim is above the age of twelve but under fourteen years of age, will be punished by an additional one to three years’ imprisonment or a fine of between 300 to 1,000 quotas; sexual abuse in conjunction with the rape of a child under the age of twelve, or where the victim contracted a life-threatening disease or injury as a result of the crime, or if the criminal is a repeat offender, will render the offender liable to an additional sentence of between two and five years’ imprisonment. The article also states that where sexual abuse was committed without penetration, the offender will be liable to imprisonment for a term of between three months to one year, or a fine of between 100 to 300 quotas.
  • Article 302, Penal Code. Pimping and Human Trafficking. This article states that it is a criminal offense to induce another person to engage in prostitution or sexual intercourse, or to own, manage, administer, operate or finance, directly or through others, wholly or in part, an establishment which engages in prostitution or any other form of sexual intercourse. It is also unlawful to live off the prostitution of others. This offense is punishable by imprisonment for four to ten years. The article also states that an increased sentence of imprisonment for between ten to 20 years will apply if the accused works in a profession dealing with the protection of public health, the maintenance of public order, education , tourism, youth leadership or other professions combating prostitution. This also applies if the offender used threat or blackmail, or abused a position of authority over the victim, provided that this does not constitute a more serious crime or if the victim is a disabled person in the care of the culprit. An aggravated penalty of imprisonment for between 20 to 30 years applies where the offender trafficks persons in or out of Cuba to engage in prostitution; where the crime is committed by a repeat offender or where the acts described above are performed regularly in an organized way.
  • Article 303, Penal Code. Sexual Insult. This article states that anyone who harasses another person with sexual implications will be liable to imprisonment from three months to one year, or a fine of 100 to 300 quotas. The same penalty applies to anyone who offends public decency with obscene acts or exhibitions, and anyone who produces, circulates, prints, tapes, films, records or photographs material which is obscene, tends to pervert or degrades behavior.
  • Article 305, Penal Code. Defilement. Defines the offense of having sexual intercourse with a girl over the age of twelve but under sixteen years of age, not being the offender’s wife, abusing a position of authority or by deceit. The offense is punishable by imprisonment for between three months to one year.
  • Article 310, Penal Code. Defines the offense of inducing a minor under the age of sixteen to engage in prostitution or to practice acts of corruption, pornography or other illegal conduct. The offense is punishable by imprisonment for between seven to fifteen years. An aggravated sentence of imprisonment for between 20 to 30 years shall apply if the offender used violence or intimidation; if the victim suffered serious injuries or illness as a result of the crime; if more than one child was used in the illegal acts; if the offender was responsible for the care or custody of the child; if the victim is under the age of twelve or has a mental disorder or if the crime is committed jointly by more than one person. The article also states that anyone who practices corruption in the presence of a minor under sixteen years of age will be liable to imprisonment for between three and eight years. The attempt to commit any of the crimes described above is punishable by imprisonment for a term of between two to five years.
  • Article 311, Penal Code. This article states, among other things, that it is an offense to perform sexual acts in the presence of a minor under the age of sixteen, or to offer, sell or supply a person under the age of sixteen with obscene books, publications, prints, photographs, movies, videos or other obscene items. The offense is punishable by imprisonment for between two to five years.
  • Article 316, Penal Code. Sale and Trafficking of Children. States that it is a criminal offense to sell or put up for adoption a minor under the age of sixteen, in exchange for a reward, financial or other compensation. The offense is punishable by imprisonment for two to five years, or a fine of 300 to 1,000 quotas, or both. An aggravated penalty of imprisonment for three to eight years applies if the fraudulent act is committed in order to mislead authorities; if the offender is responsible for the child’s care or custody or if the purpose of the act is to move the child out of the country. The article also states that a penalty of seven to fifteen years’ imprisonment applies if the main purpose of the international trafficking is related to corruption, pornography, prostitution, forced labor, or activities linked to drug consumption or drug dealing. The penalties provided in this article are imposed whenever the facts do not constitute a greater crime.
  • Article 318, Penal Code. Defamation. This article states that it is an offense to impute to another a fact, conduct or characteristic, in the presence of other persons, that can damage the victim’s honor, social reputation or reduce the public’s opinion of them. The offense is punishable by deprivation of freedom for between three months to one year, or a fine to 100 to 300 quotas, or both. The article also states that this sentence will not apply if the offender’s allegations are proven to be true, or if the offender had serious reasons to believe that they were true.
  • Article 319, Penal Code. Slander. States that anyone who knowingly disseminates false allegations that discredit another person will be liable to imprisonment for a term of between six months to two years, or a fine of between 200 to 500 quotas.
  • Article 320, Penal Code. Insult. Defines the offense of intentionally offending another person’s honor, in writing or orally, by means of drawings, gestures or offensive actions. The court may not impose a penalty if the insult is a result of the provoking behavior of the victim, or if the victim reacts immediately by insulting the offender.

Cuban legislation covers the broad range of crimes which could be committed against children through use of the Internet, although the Internet or electronic means are not specifically referred to. There do not appear to be any cyber-crime laws or laws relating to the grooming of children, given the small percentage of citizens who actually have meaningful Internet/Intranet access.

2015 - A 24-hour hotline was established for children and adolescents to report complaints; and Cuban criminal law may be applied extraterritorially to crimes addressed by the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography.

The Sociedad Cubana Multidisciplinaria para el Estudio de la Sexualidad (Report) and Asociación Cubana para el Desarrollo de la Educación Infantil (Report in Spanish), submitted reports for the Committee’s consideration concerning Cuba’s implementation of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography.

While child prostitution is widely evident, there are no reliable statistics available regarding its extent. Although authorities enforced laws on underage prostitution, the phenomenon continued. The Cuban government prosecutes persons involved in child prostitution and child pornography and assisted other countries in international investigations of child sexual abuse.

Cuba ratified the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography on 25 September 2001 and the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict on 9 February 2007. In 2015, Cuba submitted initial report as required by the Optional Protocol on the sale on children, child prostitution and child pornography, on its the groundwork for consolidating and protecting the rights of children and adolescents in all areas of society.