China

Population

1,384,688,986

Population 0‑14

17.2%

Internet Users

53.2%

Facebook Users

1,800,000

Mobile Subscribers

1,474,097,000
* Statistics provided by CIA.gov, Internet World Stats and GSMA Intellligence

Plan International created community technology centers (CTCs) in various locations in China which have provided ICT skills to over 10,000 migrant laborers since 2006. A grant from Microsoft helped expand the program by establishing an additional CTC in the Youth Entrepreneurs Incubation Center in Chengdu. In addition to IT training, the Chengdu CTC provides young migrants and unemployed youth with courses that include health and child protection, among other topics.

In May of 2009, British Telecom and UNICEF launched the Inspiring Young Minds program in China, aimed at bringing education, technology and communication skills to disadvantaged young people. Working in partnership with the Chinese National Center for Educational Technology and Ministry of Education, the project provides schools with laptops and digital projectors, as well as internet access.

In July of 2009, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology reversed a decision to mandate the installation of the Green Dam filtering software on all personal computers purchased in China, but it stated that the use of the software in schools and Internet cafes would be compulsory. In September of the same year it was reported that many schools started to remove the software as it caused serious conflicts with educational software.

The Ministry of Education and Microsoft launched the Partners in Learning (PiL) project in 2003, focusing on IT integration in schools. By 2011, 100 rural computer classrooms and 400 multimedia classrooms had been built, with nearly 160,000 IT teachers and 50,000 subject teachers receiving training and more than 400,000 students reached by student activities.

2013 - “Pink Shirt Day” for anti-bullying originated in Canada in 2009, and has since made its way to international schools, including in China. The Canadian International School of Beijing held its own Pink Shirt Day in 2013 and 2016. Dulwich College Beijing (which offers classes for kids ages 1 to 18) held a parent seminar called “Why Children Bully.” These events aim to address the rampant problem of bullying, particularly cyberbullying, in China and beyond.

2015 - The Cyberspace Administration of China, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, and the Public Security Ministry collaborated to launch a week-long Internet safety education campaign for Chinese youth, catered toward educating heavy Internet users about how use the Internet safely.

In March 2015, the Ministry of Education announced that by the end of the year, all primary and middle schools would have at least one state-of-the-art computer facility and that 2.6 million teachers and 50,000 primary and middle school principals would be given IT training.

To encourage high school girls to consider careers in technology, Microsoft supports the DigiGirlz project. Microsoft employees attend the sessions, discuss careers and run technology workshops. Sessions take place in countries all over the world free of charge.

The China Youth Development Foundation (CYDF) launched Project Hope Computer Lab to address the lack of ICT teaching facilities in rural primary schools.

2014 - CCTalk, a Chinese online streaming service that serves as an interactive teaching platform is helping improve access to education, especially in rural China. The platform uses two-way live video and a digital whiteboard to allow educators–called iTeachers– to lead lessons from a distance.

2018 - The Chinese government signed an agreement with China Unicom to increase internet speeds in rural schools by 2020, with a goal of achieving 100 mbps speeds, comparable speeds to urban schools.

All-China Youth Federation (ACYF)

Established in 1949 by the Chinese Communist Party, the organization is now considered an academic body that oversees youth organizations nationwide. The ACYF deals with education and youth betterment, including teaching Chinese youth to use technology safely and be respectful online citizens.

China Internet Network Information Center (CNNIC)

Founded in 1997, the center is works under the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology and is responsible for a variety of tasks, including the operation and administration of China’s domain name industry, international liaison and research activities.

China Youth Development Foundation (CYDF)

A national non-profit organization founded in Beijing in 1989. The organization works to develop Chinese youth through education, science and technology, culture, physical education, health, and environmental protection. One of its most noteworthy projects was Project Hope, which sought to help children in remote regions achieve at least an elementary-level education.

INTERPOL

INTERPOL is the world’s largest international police organization, with 190 member countries. Its mission is to enable police forces to collaborate globally to fight crime in the Internet age. Three areas of focus are crimes against children (with a focus on internet crimes and travelling sex offenders), cybercrime and human trafficking.

Ministry of Civil Affairs

The Ministry coordinates a variety of social administrative functions, including some responsibilities dealing with the protection of families and children and partnering with/monitoring China’s NGOs and government-organized NGOs (GONGOs) that deal with children’s issues.

Ministry of Education

The Ministry develops policies and strategies in the education sector.

Ministry of Industry and Information Technology

Established in 2008, the ministry is responsible for proposing the national industrial development strategy and providing guidance in formulating regulations and industry standards around technology, among other issues.

One Laptop per Child (OLPC)

A nonprofit organization launched by Massachusetts Institute of Technology Media Lab, whose aim to empower the world’s poorest children through education by providing a low cost laptops.

41st Statistical Report on Internet Development in China (2018)

China Internet Network Information Center (CNNIC)

Issued by the government-run CNNIC, this report details the findings of a twice annual survey on Internet structure, access, usage, and other related topics.

China Online Education Industry Report (2017)

Research and Markets

This report outlines trends in the online education market in China, with projections to the year 2021, including focuses on individual market segments as well as relevant online education companies.

36th Statistical Report on Internet Development in China (2015)

China Internet Network Information Center (CNNIC)

Issued by the government-run CNNIC, this report details the findings of a twice annual survey on Internet structure, access, usage, and other related topics.

36th Statistical Report on Internet Development in China (2015)

China Internet Network Information Center (CNNIC)

This report is an annual report of internet development conducted by the China Internet Network Information Center (CNNIC)

Reducing violence agains children, with special focus on sexual exploitation of children and child sex tourism. (2014)

The Netherlands, Defence for Children and ECPAT

This is a program by the Netherlands, Defence for Children and ECPAT, which objective is to reduce violence against children, with special attention to child sexual exploitation and child sex tourism.

INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT) IN EDUCATION IN ASIA (2014)

UNESCO,UNESCO Institute of Statistics

A comparative analysis of ICT integration and e-readiness in schools across Asia

INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT) IN EDUCATION IN ASIA (2014)

UNESCO,UNESCO Institute of Statistics

A comparative analysis of ICT integration and e-readiness in schools across Asia

Reducing violence against children, with special focus on sexual exploitation of children and child sex tourism. (2014)

The Netherlands, Defence for Children and ECPAT

This is a program by the Netherlands, Defence for Children and ECPAT, which objective is to reduce violence against children, with special attention to child sexual exploitation and child sex tourism.

Microsoft Computing Safety Index (2014)

Microsoft

This annual survey of more than 10,000 adults in 20 countries around the world creates the data for the MCSI, which measures the actions that consumers take to help keep themselves and their families safe online.

Microsoft Computing Safety Index (MCSI). (2013)

Microsoft

This annual survey of more than 10,000 adults in 20 countries around the world creates the data for the MCSI, which measures the actions that consumers take to help keep themselves and their families safe online.

Cyberbullying and its risk factors among chinese high school students (2013)

Zongkui Zhou

This study investigates the epidemiological characteristics and risk factors of cyberbullying, utilizing a sample of 1,438 high school students from central China

Microsoft Computing Safety Index (MCSI) (2013)

Microsoft

The survey, Computing Safety Index, measures the steps people report taking to protect their computers, mobile phones, and info online in the categories of foundational, technical and behavioral.

Worldwide Online Bullying Survey (2012)

Microsoft

This survey explored children’s experience of online bullying in 25 countries across the globe.

Global Digital Communication: Texting, Social Networking Popular Worldwide (2012)

J. Menasce Horowitz, K. Simmons, J. Poushter, C. Barker

The report is a part of the Pew Research Center's Global Attitudes Project, which conducts opinion surveys on subjects ranging from people's assessments of their own lives to their views about the current state of the world and important issues of the day.

Worldwide Online Bullying Survey. (2012)

Microsoft

This survey explored children’s experience of online bullying in 25 countries across the globe.

Safety and Security on the Internet Challenges and Advances in Member States (2011)

World Health Organization

Evaluation of public health threat presented by the Internet in every Member States.

Safety and Security on the Internet Challenges and Advances in Member States (2011)

World Health Organization

Evaluation of public health threat presented by the Internet in every Member States.

2010 Norton Online Family Report (2010)

Symantec

Gaps in child activity and guardian awareness may present areas of vulnerability for children to come in contact with harm online. The researchers interviewed nearly 10,000 adults and children in 14 countries to understand children's online behavior and guardians' perceptions and understanding of that activity.

Internet Safety for Children: A Study of Policy Responses in China, Japan and South Korea (2010)

Sun Lim

This study reviews efforts to promote children’s Internet safety by examining regional trends and paying special attention to policies and initiatives unique to each country

Cyber bullying in Chinese Web Forums: An examination of nature and extent (2010)

Chang Su & Thomas J. Holt

This study uses a sample of 374 threads from web forums for multiple middle and high schools throughout China to examine the forms of bullying that occur in online environments and the ways that victims and bullies interact.

Norton Online Family Report (2010)

Norton by Symantec

The Norton Online Family Report investigates children's experiences online.

Children’s une of mobile phones - An international comparison 2011 (2010)

GSM Association and the Mobile Society Research Institute within NTT DOCOMO Inc.

A comparative document of the statistics and facts of the usage of mobile phones by children across the globe.

2010 Norton Online Family Report (2010)

Norton by Symantec

The report reveals how children are spending more time online and have had more negative online experiences than parents realize. It highlights different approaches taken by families globally and uncovers the emotional impact of children’s negative online experiences.

Children’s Use of Mobile Phones and Personal Relationships – An International Comparison 2010 (2010)

Society Research Institute and the GSMA

Society Research Institute and the GSMA jointly conducted an international research study examining the ways in which children communicate through mobile phones

Reversing the Trend: Child Trafficking in East and South-East Asia (2009)

UNICEF East Asia and Pacific Regional Office

This report is a synthesis of seven country assessments, highlighting trends, gaps, lessons learned, promising and good practices across Asia.

Morality in Cyberspace: A comparison of Chinese and U.S. youth’s beliefs about acceptable online behavior. (2008)

Linda A. Jackson, Yong Zhao, Wei Qiu, Anthony Kolenic III, Hiram E. Fitzgerald, Rena Harold and Alexander von Eye

This cross-cultural comparison of approximately 600 youth in China and 600 youth in the U.S. focused on the moral values, acceptability of a variety of morally questionable online behaviors, and the relationship between moral values and acceptability of online behaviors.

Meta-survey on the Use of Technologies in Education in Asia and the Pacific (2003)

Glen Farrell, Cédric Wachholz

This study identifies and analyses the different practices in the use of ICTs in education in Asia and the Pacific. it discusses countries’ policies, challenges and successful ICT integration in the region.

This section contains details of the country’s laws as they relate to sexual offenses, children and the use of the Internet in the commission of criminal activity. Where possible, sentencing details are been given, including whether an increased custodial penalty is imposed where the victim is a child.

  • Article 236, Criminal Code. States that whoever rapes a woman by violence, coercion or any other means will be punished by imprisonment of 3-10 years. It further states that having sexual intercourse with a girl under the age of 14 is considered rape. The following are aggravating circumstances that increase the punishment to fixed-term imprisonment of no less than 10 years, life imprisonment or death: where the circumstances are flagrant, the actor rapes a number of women or girls under the age of 14, the act is committed in a public place, the rape is committed by one or more persons in succession, or the act causes causing serious injury, death, or other serious consequences to the victim.
  • Article 237, Criminal Code. States that whoever acts indecently against or insults a woman by violence, coercion or any other forcible means shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of not more than five years or criminal detention. Furthermore, whoever gathers a number of people to commit the same act, or does so in a public place will be punished by a fixed-term imprisonment of not less than five years. Whoever commits such acts against a child will be “given a heavier punishment in accordance with the provisions of the preceding two paragraphs”.
  • Article 240, Criminal Code. States that whoever abducts and traffics a woman or child will be fined and sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of 5-10 years. Under aggravating circumstances where the actor is the leader of a gang engaged in trafficking, abducted three or more women/children, raped the victims, prostituted or facilitated prostitution of the victim, kidnapped the victims by means of violence, coercion or drugging, caused death or injury to the victim or her family, trafficked the victim(s) outside of China, or where the victim is an infant, the punishment is increased to fixed-term imprisonment of not less than 10 years or life imprisonment as well as a fine or confiscation of property. If the circumstances are especially serious, the punishment is death and also confiscation of property. “Abducting and trafficking” is defined as abducting, kidnapping, buying, trafficking in, fetching, sending, or transferring a woman or child, for the purpose of selling the victim.
  • Article 241, Criminal Code. States that whoever buys an abducted woman or child will be punished by imprisonment of not more than three years, criminal detention or public surveillance. Whoever buys an abducted woman and forces her to have sexual intercourse with him will be punished in accordance with the provisions of Article 236. Furthermore, whoever buys an abducted woman or child and illegally deprives the victim of his or her personal freedom or restricts his or her personal freedom, or commits any criminal acts such as harming and humiliating the victim may receive harsher penalties. Whoever buys an abducted woman or child and sells the victim afterwards shall be convicted and punished in accordance with the provisions of Article 240.
  • Article 246, Criminal Code. States that whoever, by violence or other methods, publicly humiliates another person or invent stories to defame him will be punished by a fixed-term imprisonment of not more than three years, criminal detention, public surveillance or deprivation of political rights.
  • Article 250, Criminal Code. States that it is a crime for any publication to carry material that is intended to discriminate against or humiliate an ethnic group, and the person responsible will be punished by a fixed-term imprisonment of not more than three years, criminal detention or public surveillance.
  • Article 262, Criminal Code. States that whoever abducts a minor under the age of 14 (separating the child from his family or guardian) will be punished by a fixed-term imprisonment of not more than five years or criminal detention.
  • Article 262a. Further states that whoever, by means of violence or coercion, organizes disabled persons or minors to beg will be fined and punished by a fixed-term imprisonment of not more than three years. Where the circumstances are serious, the actor will be fined and sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of 3-7 years.
  • Article 262b. Further states that whoever organizes minors to commit theft, fraud, snatch, extortion or any other activity will be punished in accordance with the penalties in Article 262a.
  • Articles 285-287: Computer crimes
  • Article 287, Criminal Code. States that using computers to commit crimes such as financial fraud, theft, embezzlement, misappropriation of public funds and theft of State secrets is a crime punishable “in accordance with the relevant provisions of Articles 285 and 286. (For full content of Articles 285-287, see: http://www.cecc.gov/resources/legal-provisions/criminal-law-of-the-peoples-republic-of-china#2)
  • Articles 358-362: Prostitution
  • Article 358, Criminal Code. States that whoever arranges for or forces another person to engage in prostitution will be punished by a fine and a fixed-term imprisonment of 5-10 years. The following are aggravating circumstances that whoever falls under any of the following categories shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of not less than 10 years or life imprisonment and shall also be fined or be sentenced to confiscation of property: making arrangements for another person to engage in prostitution and the circumstances being serious, forcing a girl under the age of 14 to engage in prostitution, forcing a number of persons to engage in prostitution or repeatedly forcing another person to engage in prostitution, forcing the victim to engage in prostitution after raping her, or causing serious injury, death or other serious consequences to the person who is forced to engage in prostitution. Furthermore, whoever recruits or transport persons for an organizer of prostitution or otherwise assists in organizing prostitution commits a crime punishable by imprisonment of not more than five years and a fine, or if the circumstances are serious, 5-10 years imprisonment and a fine.
  • Article 359, Criminal Code. States that whoever lures other persons into or shelters prostitution or procures other persons to engage in prostitution will be punished by a fine and a fixed-term imprisonment of not more than five years, criminal detention or public surveillance, or where the circumstances are serious, fixed-term imprisonment of not less than five years and shall also be fined. The article specifies that whoever lures a girl under the age of 14 to engage in prostitution will be punished by a fixed-term imprisonment of not less than five years and shall also be fined.
  • Article 360, Criminal Code. States that any person who knows clearly that he or she is suffering from serious venereal diseases such as syphilis and gonorrhea and who engages in sexual activity with a prostitute or engages in prostitution will be punished with a fine and a fixed-term imprisonment of not more than five years, criminal detention or public surveillance. The article further states that anyone who seeks the services of a prostitute where the prostitute is a girl under the age of 14 will be punished with a fine and a fixed-term imprisonment of not less than five years.
  • Article 361-2, Criminal Code. States that any employee engaged in the hotel trade, the catering or entertainment services, or in the taxi services who takes advantage of their trade to shelter or facilitate prostitution, procures other persons to engage in prostitution, or foils law enforcement attempts to address the crime will be punished in accordance with previous articles.
  • Articles 363-367: Pornography
  • Article 363, Criminal Code. States that whoever, for the purpose of profit, produces, duplicates, publishes, sells or disseminates pornographic materials will be punished with a fine and a fixed-term imprisonment of not more than three years, criminal detention or public surveillance, or if the circumstances are serious, fine and imprisonment of 3-10 years, or if the circumstances are especially serious, fine or confiscation of property and imprisonment of 10 years-life.
  • Articles 364, Criminal Code. States that whoever disseminates pornographic materials including books, periodicals, movies, video-audio tapes and pictures, if the circumstances are serious, will be punished with a fixed-term imprisonment of not more than two years, criminal detention or public surveillance. Furthermore, whoever produces, duplicates, or arranges for shows of pornographic audio-video products including movies and video-tapes will be punished with a fine and a fixed-term imprisonment of not more than three years, criminal detention or public surveillance, or if the circumstances are serious, fined and imprisoned for 3-10 years. The articles further states that whoever disseminates pornographic materials to a minor under the age of 18 will be given a heavier punishment.
  • Article 365, Criminal Code. States that whoever arranges for pornographic performances will be punished with a fine and a fixed-term imprisonment of not more than three years, criminal detention or public surveillance, or if the circumstances are serious, a fine and imprisonment of 3-10 years.
  • Article 367, Criminal Code. Clarifies that for the purpose of these laws, pornographic materials refer to obscene books, periodicals, movies, video-and audio-tapes, pictures, etc. that explicitly portray sexual behavior or clearly publicize pornographic materials.

2002 - China ratified the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography.

2009 - The Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (MIIT) established a controversial regulation that required the use of Green Dam Youth Escort software to filter harmful online text and image content in order to promote a “healthy and harmonious Internet environment.” Soon after, the government clarified that the implementation of the software was voluntary for the general public, and mandatory only in schools and internet cafes. The project was described as protecting children from pornography and other harmful content.

2012, 2015 - The Chinese government twice passed legislation requiring people to register their real names online, a regulation that intends to address anonymous online bullying, harassment, and other threats.

2013 - China released guidelines addressing sex offences against minors, including stricter penalties, particularly for those parties (eg. teachers and civil servants) holding responsibility to educate and protect minors, or who commit offences against vulnerable parties such as pre-teens, disabled children, or migrant children.