2004 - Development and initial implementation of an educational strategy on Internet safety for multipliers, teachers and parents carried out by several EU consumer groups, including the Bulgarian National Consumers Association. The project explored the needs of parents and teachers, to create a strategy for effective protection of children online. This involved creating educational materials, empowering teachers to fight against children abuse on the internet, and preventing harmful content (violence, racism, pornography, etc.) from being posted online.
2005- From 2005 onward, the Bulgarian Safer Internet Centre has been open in Sofia, promoting strategies for protecting young people in Bulgaria in online activities. The Centre works not only to protect but to empower and educate Bulgarian youth. Safer Internet Day is celebrated with a global network of participating countries annually.
From 2005 - 2007, the Bulgarian government implemented their National Strategy for the Introduction of ICT in Bulgarian secondary schools. The strategy’s primary objective was to meet EU averages for ICT incorporation in schools. To do this involved developing and rolling out computer classes, high speed internet links within the schools, adequate teacher training, and the design and launch of an e-learning portal to cover all disciplines.
2013 - The [email protected] Libraries Bulgaria program attracted a large number of children to the service for homework and socializing. The final report for the project reported that children in rural areas have gained particular benefit from the program, as well as other members of the community, such as the elderly.
2015 - Bulgaria was one of twelve countries identified as incorporating coding into secondary school curriculum in a European Schoolnet report. The report also explained that Bulgarian schools incorporate coding under the subject “informatics” and include user ICT skills and digital competence as priority learning components.
2016 - The European Literacy Policy Network (ELINET) issued the Literacy in Bulgaria Country Report, Short Version, summarizing literacy across all age groups in the country with recommendations for areas of need in the population. Among the reports are details of the Strategy for Effective Implementation of ICT in Education and Science. While the report notes that most schools have been equipped with an internet connection, further training is needed, specifically for instructors.
8 Golden Rules
The campaign is aimed at children ages 6-12, their parents, and their teachers. It works on helping children from an early age to use the Internet effectively and avoid the potential dangers they might encounter.
Bulgarian Safer Internet Centre
Operating since 2005 under the co-ordination of the Applied Research and Communications (ARC ) Fund Sofia and co-financed by the European Commission, the Bulgarian Safer Internet Centre provides users with news and information about Internet safety.
An interactive center for professionals working in the field of child abuse and neglect prevention and intervention in Eastern Europe. It was created in 2001, the website was designed to build upon and promote the professional networks established by the Eastern European Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Program.
Distributed by the Dolphin Foundation, this site offers free software to parents to monitor their child’s Internet access and acts as a filter against inappropriate content.
The Bulgarian CyberCrime sector supplies education and projects to help children safely navigate online and mobile services. The site has sections on different online safety topics, including advice for children and parents. They are the Europol-listed Bulgarian contact for Internet service and content providers to voluntarily report child sexual abuse material or related information to, via the email address [email protected] or by telephone at 0035-928018363. To report information as an individual, visit the CyberCrime site or use emergency number 112.
Executive Agency "Electronic Communications Networks and Information Systems"
The Executive Agency “Electronic Communications Networks and Information Systems” was established by Decree No. 232 of the Council of Ministers, September 28, 2009 to replace the State Agency for Information Technology and Communications. The agency is tasked with promoting information technologies and enabling e-government resources in Bulgaria.
[email protected] Libraries Bulgaria
This project aims to encourage technology use among disadvantaged groups by installing ICT equipment, such as computers and projectors, in community centers.
This industry association represents the interests of European mobile network operators. The group engages in lobbying in areas such as children’s use of mobile phones, privacy, digital inclusion and reducing the digital gender gap. In 2008, the organization formed a mobile alliance against child sexual abuse content.
International Telecommunications Union (ITU) Europe
The ITU is is the UN agency for ICTs. Areas of focus in Europe include improving E-accessibility in Central and Eastern Europe, transitioning Europe to digital broadcasting, and sharing best practices for implementing e-applications.
Internet Governance Forum
The IGF was founded by the UN in 2006 to serve as a discussion platform for internet governance policy issues. It brings together various stakeholders to determine best practices for internet policy. Past areas of focus include cybersecurity, human rights, inclusivity and openness.
INTERPOL is the world’s largest international police organization, with 190 member countries. Its mission is to enable police forces to collaborate globally to fight crime in the Internet age. Three areas of focus are crimes against children (with a focus on internet crimes and travelling sex offenders), cybercrime and human trafficking.
The website contains advisory content for teachers, but does contain a range of resources designed to help them teach Internet safety messages to children of various ages.
State Agency for Child Protection
The State Agency for Child Protection was established under the Child Protection Act with an Ordinance of the Council of Ministers No.226 from October 30, 2000, active from January 1, 2001. The Agency is chaired by a Council of Ministers; a specialized body for guidance, coordination, and control in the area of child protection activities. The Agency acts in cooperation with ministries, agencies, and NGOs working in child rights protection.
This portal contains information on a range of topics, from education policy to teaching resources. Internet safety information is featured with a link to SafeTeacher, and to a section with content aimed at children.
Знам (I Know)
Знам is an educational online portal providing various learning aids and multimedia content. The website’s stated purpose is to be the “main source of knowledge and information” for primary and secondary school students in Bulgaria.
Internet helplines: Operation, effectiveness, emerging issues for internet safety helplines (2017)Dinh, T., Farrugia, L., O’Neill, B., Vandoninck, S. & Velicu, A.
European Schoolnet (EUN) commissioned report published March 2016, expands on four country-specific case studies of internet helplines and young people’s exposure to harmful content and contact online. The case studies are supplemented with observations from other European countries, including Bulgaria.
Bulgaria: Are children empowered to benefit from the internet? (2017)Global Kids Online
This report summarizes findings from the launch of Global Kids Online Bulgaria by the Bulgarian Safer Internet Centre, on Safer Internet Day February 7, 2017.
Internet safety helplines: exploratory study first findings (2016)Dinh, T., Farrugia, L., O'Neill, B., Vandoninck, S. and Velicu, A.
This report describes exploratory first findings of the first study on Internet Safety Helplines in European Insafe member countries, along with three recommendations moving forward.
A Survey on the Transposition of Directive 2011/93/EU on Combating Sexual Abuse and Sexual Exploitation of Children and Child Pornography (2016)Together Against Sexual Exploitation of Children
The study examines how seven key provisions of Directive 2011/93/EU on the fight against sexual abuse and sexual exploitation of children and child pornography have been adopted by the 27 European Union (EU) Member States bound by the Directive.
Bulgaria (2015)London School of Economics - Department of Media and Communications
Landing page for materials collected by LSE EU Kids Online research project relevant to Bulgaria. Includes a Factsheet, Executive Summary of Findings, Recommendations, Research, Safety Guide and Questionnaires.
Combatting Child Sexual Abuse (2015)Petra Jeney
The study provides an overview of existing legislation at European Union, Member State and the international level related to online child sexual abuse, as well as the role of law enforcement agencies in combatting child sexual abuse online and other governmental and private sector initiatives.
How parents of young children manage digital devices at home: the role of income, education and parental style (2015)Livingstone, Sonia, Mascheroni, Giovanna, Dreier, Michael, Chaudron, Stephane, Lagae, Kaat
The report compares strategies of parental mediation on the internet according to levels of parental education and household income. The aim was to inform policy-makers and practitioners on how to approach parental guidance and awareness raising.
The impact of internet and new media on the occurrence of violence against children in Europe and Cyprus (2015)Rosella Sala
This document demonstrate that countries lack of expertise on child sexual exploitation and struggle combating this issue by their own. It suggests to establish an international legal framework to prosecute offenders and protect children.
Global Research Project: A Global Landscape of Hotlines Combating Child Sexual Abuse Material on the Internet and an Assessment of Shared Challenges (2015)Melissa Stroebe, Stacy Jeleniewski, PhD
This report examines hotlines combating Internet-facilitated Child Sexual Abuse Material.
Implementation of ICT-based teaching in Bulgarian schools (2014)Terzieva, V., Paunova, E., Kademova-Katzarova, P., and Stoimenova, Y.
This study surveys Bulgarian teachers to see where the use of ICTs is incorporated into classroom learning. Findings indicated that while children are increasingly digitally literate, classroom ICT use could be limited by teachers not trained to work with digital tools.
Fourth Implementation Review of the European Framework for Safer Mobile Use by Younger Teenagers and Children (2014)GSMA
Here GSMA reviews the European Framework for Safer Mobile Use by Younger Teenagers and Children of 2007, or the ‘Safer Mobile Framework’. This update includes information on signatories to the framework, including how they met or went beyond expectation for upholding commitments to creating safer online experiences for young people.
Policy Influences and Country Clusters: A Comparative Analysis of Internet Safety Policy Implementation (2014)B. O'Neill
The report examines the policy context of internet safety and looks at how countries within each cluster approach implementation.
Final recommendations for policy (2014)O’Neill, B., Staksrud, E
Combining all the EU Kids Online policy guidance into one resource, this report provides more than 30 proposed actions for making the Internet safer for children.
Children's Use of Online Technologies in Europe (2014)K. Ólafsson, S. Livingstone, L. Haddon
This report reviews recent research on children’s use of internet and mobile technologies identified by the EU Kids Online network.
Mapping Safer Internet Policies in the Member States (2014)P. Baudouin, B. Mahieu, T. Dor, B. Good, J. Milayi, S. Nakajima
The purpose of the study was to set up a framework for analysing Better Internet for Children public policies covering EU Member States, and Norway and Iceland.
Country classification: opportunities, risks, harm and parental mediation (2013)Helsper, E.J., Kalmus, V., Hasebrink, U., Sagvari, B., and de Haan, J.
This report explores the range and type of online opportunities and risks experienced by children in each country. The ways in which parents mediate or regulate their children’s internet use is also examined.
Country Classification: Opportunities, Risks, Harm and Parental Mediation (2013)Helsper, E. J., Kalmus, V., Hasebrink, U., Sagvari, B. and De Haan, J. with members of the EU Kids Online network
With data from 25 of the European countries surveyed in EU Kids Online, the report examines the range and type of online opportunities, risks and harm which children from each country experience, as well as looking at ways in which parents control or mediate their children’s Internet use.
In their own words: what bothers children online? (2013)Livingstone S., Kirwil, L., Ponte C. and Staksrud E., with the EU Kids Online network
The results of a survey of nearly 10,000 children in 25 countries across Europe, this report details what children say upsets them and their friends online
Zero to Eight - Young Children and Their Internet Use (2013)Holloway, D., Green, L., and Livingstone, S. with members of the EU Kids Online network,
This report reviews a number of other studies and provides recommendations as to how younger children can be protected from online risks.
Risks and safety on the internet: Comparing Brazilian and European children (2013)Barbosa, A., O’Neill, B., Ponte, C., Simões, J.A., Jereissati, T.,
This study compares the results of the survey of Brazilian children and their parents/guardians, carried out by the Brazilian Internet Steering Committee. Using the same methodology as the EU Kids Online research, the results from Brazil are compared with those from Europe.
EU Kids Online: National perspectives (2012)Haddon, L., Livingstone, S., EU Kids Online Network
This report summarizes the Internet experiences of children in the 33 participating EU Kids Online countries and includes eight countries which have not appeared in previous reports.
EU Kids Online: National perspectives (2012)Leslie Haddon, Sonia Livingstone and the EU Kids Online network
This report summarizes the Internet experiences of children in the 33 participating EU Kids Online countries and includes eight countries which have not appeared in previous reports
Excessive Internet Use by European Children (2012)D. Smahel, E. Helsper, L. Green, V. Kalmus, L. Blinka, K. Ólafsson
This report presents new findings and further analysis of the EU Kids Online 25-country survey regarding excessive use of the internet by children.
EU Kids Online: Excessive Internet Use among European Children (2012)Smahel, D, Helsper, E, Green, L, Kalmus, V, Blinka, L, Ólafsson, K,
This report uses the data from the EU Kids Online study to examine excessive use of the Internet by children in the 25 participating countries.
Risks and safety on the internet: The perspective of European children. Full Findings (2011)Livingstone, S., Haddon, L., Görzig, A., Ólafsson, K
Building on the original study, EU Kids Online I, this second piece of research includes the findings from research which took place in 25 countries. Children in the 9 – 16 age group were surveyed on their experiences of online use, risk and safety
ICT in the Education of the Balkan Countries (2010)Dr. Rossita Penkova, Dr. Violeta Mircheva, Nikolina Tsvetkova, Mirena Legurska
This is a comprehensive document on the situation of the ICT in education in the Balkan countries.
Comprehensive Response to Child Pornography: Thematic Study on the System for Prevention of Online Sexual Abuse and Exploitation of Children in Bulgaria (2009)Desislava Koleva and Iva Boneva
Here the authors study practices in place to combat child online sexual abuse and exploitation in Bulgaria and Eastern Europe. The project was conducted under Save the Children Norway, assisted by the Office of the State Coordinator for Anti-trafficking in Human Beings and Illegal Immigration in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
EU Kids Online: Final report (2009)Livingstone, S., Haddon, L.
One of the foremost pieces of research into the online habits of children in the European Union is the EU Kids Online research, funded by the European Commission Safer Internet Plus Programme between 2006 and 2009.
Education on Online Safety in Schools in Europe (2009)Eurydice
The study covers 30 European countries and provides information on whether online safety is taught and how it is taught in schools within the participating countries.
Teenagers’ Actions and Interactions Online in Central and Eastern Europe (2008)Monica Barbovschi and Maria Diaconescu
In this book, the editors present articles on Central and Eastern European teenagers’ online behavior, covering aspects including gender differences, frequency of use, and ties between life lived on and offline.
Towards a safer use of the Internet for children in the EU - a parents' perspective (2008)Eurobarometer
The study covers 27 EU Member States and provides parental responses to a range of questions relating to Internet safety and their perception of risk.
U.S. /European Summit on Missing & Exploited Children (2005)International Centre for Missing & Exploited Children
Participants from different governments, law enforcement, and nongovernmental organizations participated in the U.S. /European Summit on Missing & Exploited Children. They discussed successes and shortcomings of current efforts to address the global problem of missing and exploited children, and adopted a comprehensive Action Plan.
This section contains details of the country’s laws as they relate to sexual offenses, children and the use of the Internet in the commission of criminal activity. Where possible, sentence details have been given, including whether an increased custodial penalty is imposed where the victim is a child. The age of simple majority in Bulgaria is eighteen. The age of consent for marriage is sixteen and the age of consent for sexual activity is fourteen, as defined by Article 151 of the country’s Criminal Code. Persons under the age of fourteen are considered to be minors. Bulgaria has signed, ratified and entered into law the Council of Europe’s Convention on Cybercrime (November 2001). It adopted the Declaration of the Committee of Ministers on the protection of dignity, security and privacy of children on the Internet in February 2008. Chapter 9A of the Criminal Code, entitled ‘Cybercrime’, deals with a wide range of computer-related offenses, ranging from unauthorized access to a computer and its data, to the development and dissemination of computer viruses as well as password disclosure and alteration of computer data.
- Article 146, Criminal Code. Insult. This Article states that anyone who says or does something degrading to the honor and dignity of another person in the presence of the latter, shall be punished for insult by a fine from BGN1,000 to BGN3,000. The court may also impose the punishment of public censure. If the victim responded at once with an insult, the court may exempt both of them from punishment.
- Article 147, Criminal Code. Slander. Defines the offense of making a public a disgraceful fact about someone or ascribing a crime to them. The offense is punishable by a fine between BGN3,000 to BGN7,000, as well as by public censure. The perpetrator will not be punished if the truth of the divulged circumstances or of the ascribed crimes is proved.
- Article 148, Criminal Code. States that where insult was inflicted publicly; spread through printed material or in a similar manner; or by an official or representative of the public, during or in connection with the fulfillment of his duties or function, the punishment will be a fine ranging between BGN3,000 to BGN10,000 as well as public censure. For slander committed under the aforementioned circumstances, an increased fine of BGN5,000 to BGN15,000 plus public censure will apply.
- Article 149, Criminal Code. This Article states that anyone who performs an act for the purpose of arousing or satisfying sexual desire, without copulation, with a person under fourteen years of age, shall be punished for lewdness by imprisonment for up one to six years. Where the act was committed by the use of violence or threat, by making use of the victim’s helpless situation or by putting the victim into such a condition by abusing his/her state of dependency, the penalty will be increased to imprisonment for a term between two up to eight years. Further convictions under this section render the offender liable to an increased sentence of three to ten years’ imprisonment. Where the offense was committed jointly by two or more persons, the penalty will be three to fifteen years’ captivity. The offense is punishable by imprisonment for five to 20 years if it was committed against two or more minors; if it caused severe bodily injury or a suicide attempt by the victim or if it constitutes a particularly grave case or dangerous recidivism.
- Article 150, Criminal Code. Defines the offense of committing an act with the purpose of stimulating or satisfying sexual desire without sexual intercourse regarding a person of or over the age of fourteen, by abusing the victim’s helpless situation or putting her in such a state, or by using force or threat. The offense is punishable by imprisonment for two to eight years. In exceptionally grave cases the penalty will be increased to imprisonment for a term from three up to ten years.
- Article 151, Criminal Code. States that anyone who has intercourse with a person under the age of fourteen is liable to imprisonment for two to six years, unless the act constitutes a more serious crime. Where the offense has been committed by abusing the victim’s state of dependency, the penalty will be one to five years’ imprisonment. The Article also states that sexual intercourse with a person of or over the age of fourteen, who does not fully comprehend the nature of the act, is punishable by up to five years’ imprisonment.
- Article 152, Criminal Code. Rape. This Article states that it is an offense to have sexual intercourse with a female who is unable to defend herself and without her consent, by compelling her to it by force or threat, or by bringing her to a helpless state. The offense is punishable by imprisonment for three to ten years if the victim is under the age of eighteen, the rapist is related to the victim, or if it was a repeat offense. An aggravated penalty of three to fifteen years’ imprisonment will apply if the crime: was committed jointly by two or more persons; caused the victim to suffer bodily harm or to attempt to commit suicide; was committed for the purpose of engagement in subsequent lewd activities or prostitution; and represents a dangerous recidivism. Where the victim is under the age of fourteen, caused severe bodily harm, led to a suicide attempt or represents a particularly serious case, the offender will be liable to ten to 20 years’ imprisonment.
- Article 154a, Criminal Code. States that anyone who commits sexual abuse or intercourse with a prostituting minor is liable to a penalty of imprisonment for a term up to three years.
- Article 155, Criminal Code. 1. This Article states that anyone who persuades another person to practice prostitution or acts as a procurer for the prostitution of others is guilty of an offense and liable to imprisonment for up to three years and a fine of BGN1,000 to BGN3,000. 2. The Article also states that anyone who provides premises to different people for the purposes of prostitution is liable to imprisonment for up to five years and a fine of BGN1,000 to BGN5,000. Where the aforementioned have been committed with a venal goal in mind, an increased penalty of one to six years’ imprisonment plus a fine ranging from between BGN5,000 to BGN15,000 will apply. 3. Anyone who persuades or forces another person to using narcotic substances for the purpose of prostitution, indecent assault, intercourse or any other act of sexual gratification with a person of the same sex, will be punished by imprisonment for five to fifteen years and a fine between BGN10,000 to BGN50,000. 4. The Article also states that where any of the aforementioned offenses have been committed by an individual acting at the orders or implementing a decision of an organized criminal group; with regard to a person under eighteen years of age; with regard to two or more persons; repeatedly; at the conditions of a dangerous recidivism, the penalties will be increased as follows: imprisonment for two to eight years and a fine of BGN5,000 to BGN15,000 for paragraphs 1 and 2; imprisonment for three to ten years plus a fine between BGN10,000 to BGN20,000 for paragraph 3; imprisonment for ten to 20 years plus a fine of between BGN100,000 to BGN300,000 for paragraph 4.
- Article 155a, Criminal Code. Online Grooming. States that anyone who, for the purpose of establishing contact with a person under the age of eighteen, in order to perform indecent acts, sexual intercourse, prostitution or create pornographic material, provides information about him/her via Internet or another possible way, is subjected to a penalty of imprisonment for one to six years and a fine ranging from BGN5,000 to BGN10,000. The same punishment shall be imposed on anyone who for the purpose of performing a indecent acts, copulation or sexual intercourse, establishes contact with a minor under the age of fourteen by using information provided on the Internet or in another manner.
- Article 155b, Criminal Code. This Article imposes a penalty of imprisonment for up to three years or probation for anyone who persuades a minor under the age of fourteen to watch real, simulated or virtual sexual intercourse between persons of the same or different sex, carnal display or human genitals, sodomy, masturbation, sexual sadism or masochism.
- Article 156, Criminal Code. Defines the offense of abducting a person for the purpose of subjecting them to debauchery. The offense is punishable by imprisonment for three to ten years and a fine of up to BGN1,000. The penalty will be increased to five to twelve years’ imprisonment if the victim is under the age of eighteen, or the victim was abducted for the purpose of moving him/her outside the country for acts of debauchery. Where the offense was committed by an individual acting on the orders or in execution of a decision of an organized criminal group, the victim was handed over for sexual activities outside the borders of the country, and the act constitutes dangerous recidivism, the penalty will be five to fifteen years’ imprisonment and a fine between BGN5,000 and BGN20,000.
- Article 157, Criminal Code. This Article states that anyone who performs sexual intercourse or other sexual acts with a person of the same sex, by using force or threat, or by taking advantage of a position of authority or the victim’s helpless situation, is guilty of an offense and liable to imprisonment for two to eight years. Where the victim is under the age of fourteen, an aggravated penalty of two to six years’ imprisonment will apply.
- Article 158, Criminal Code. States that in the cases of Article 149 - 151 and 153 of this Code, the offender will not be punished if he subsequently marries the victim.
- Article 158a, Criminal Code. Imposes a penalty of imprisonment for up to six years for anyone who, no matter by what means, recruits or forces particular minors or groups of minors to execute a sexual intercourse, fornication, sodomy, masturbation, sexual sadism, masochism or carnal display of human genitals. Where the offender obtained tangible benefits from the crime, an aggravated penalty of up to eight years’ imprisonment plus a fine of up to BGN10,000 will apply. The Article also states that anyone who knowingly watches sexual intercourse, fornication, sodomy, masturbation, sexual sadism, masochism or carnal display of human genitals featuring a person who was forced to participate, is guilty of an offense and liable to imprisonment for a term of up to three years.
- Article 159, Criminal Code. This Article states that anyone who produces, displays, presents, broadcasts, distributes, sells, rents or otherwise circulates pornographic material, will be punished by deprivation of liberty of up to one year and a fine of BGN1,000 to BGN3,000. Anyone who broadcasts pornographic material on the Internet or in another similar way is liable imprisonment for up to two years and a fine from BGN1,000 to BGN3,000. The Article also states that anyone who displays, presents, offers, sells, rents or distributes in another manner pornographic material to a person under the age of sixteen is liable to an increased penalty of imprisonment for up to three years and a fine of up to BGN5,000. The Article also states that if a person under the age of eighteen, or someone who appears to be under that age, features in any of the afore mentioned pornographic material, the offender is liable to a punishment of deprivation of liberty of up to six years and a fine of up to BGN8,000. Where any of the offenses mentioned above have been committed at the orders or in implementing a decision of an organized criminal group, the penalty will increase to imprisonment from two to eight years and a fine of up to BGN10,000; the court being also competent to impose confiscation of some or all the possessions of the perpetrator. The Article also states that anyone who possesses or provides for himself or for another person through a computer system or in another manner pornographic material featuring a person under the age of eighteen or someone who appears to be under this age, shall be punished by imprisonment for up to one year or a fine of up to BGN2,000.
- Article 159a, Criminal Code. Human Trafficking. States that anyone who recruits, transports, conceals or admits particular individuals or groups of people with the purpose of using them for debauchery, forceful labor, or dispossession of bodily organs, regardless of their consent, is liable to imprisonment for a term from two to eight years and a fine from BGN3,000 to BGN12,000. An aggravated penalty of imprisonment for three to ten years and a fine between BGN10,000 to BGN20,000 will apply if the offense has been committed with regard to a victim under the age of eighteen; by the use of force or by misleading the victim; through kidnapping or illegal deprivation of liberty; by abusing a position of authority or power; through promising, giving or receiving benefits.
- Article 159b, Criminal Code. States that anyone who recruits, transports, conceals or admits particular individuals or groups of people and takes them over the border of the country with the purpose of using them for debauchery, forceful labor, or dispossession of bodily organs, is guilty of an offense and liable to imprisonment for a term from three to twelve years and a fine between BGN10,000 to BGN20,000. This will be increased to five to twelve years’ imprisonment and a fine between BGN20,000 to BGN50,000 if the offense has been committed with regard to a victim under the age of eighteen; by the use of force or by misleading the victim; through kidnapping or illegal deprivation of liberty; by abusing a position of authority or power; through promising, giving or receiving benefits.
- Article 159c, Criminal Code. States that anyone who uses an individual who is a victim of human trafficking for debauched activities, forceful labor or the removal of bodily organs is guilty of an offense and liable to imprisonment for three to ten years and a fine between BGN10,000 to BGN20,000.
- Article 159d, Criminal Code. States that where an offense under Article 159a and 159b is qualified as dangerous recidivism or has been committed after an order or in implementation of a decision of an organized criminal group, the penalty is imprisonment for five to fifteen years and a fine from BGN20,000 to BGN100,000; the court may also decree a confiscation of part or the whole property of the offender.