The Bolivian Constitution states that education is the highest priority of the state, is universal, free from taxation and compulsory at primary level, which covers eight years. The State guarantees freedom of education. (World Data on Education 2010 / 11 - Bolivia)
2000 - The Chaski program began with a pilot phase in 1998, designed to encourage the use of ICT as a teaching and learning tool. The program formally launched in 2000 in partnership with the NGO, Ayni Bolivia Netherlands, and since then has become one of the largest operators of independent telecenters in Bolivia, with 60 telecenters, 35,000 students, 5,000 teachers trained and 200 digital educational games created. The software is available in the country’s native languages, including Quechua and Aymara and has some educational games for digital literacy created for children in primary and secondary education.
Some schools in Bolivia participate in the Global Teenager Project, an initiative to enable students in countries all over the world to practice 21st Century skills by participating in Online Learning Circles.
2008 - Microsoft Bolivia and the Ricky Martin Foundation launched an Internet safety campaign in Bolivia. Navega Protegido comprised a portal (which is no longer operational as at 2014) which contained videos and other content which covered a range of topics, for both adults and children. Navega Protegido was launched in 2005 as part of Microsoft’s Trustworthy Computing initiative, and provided Internet safety advice in a number of Latin American countries.
The first DU Program in Latin America was launched in Bolivia. The objective was to improve people’s quality of life and enhance in the country a sustainable social and economic development. The DU Centers where it operates are Hogar Don Bosco and in Mano Amiga and as of December 2015 we trained over 800 students.
2010 - In January, the Bolivian President, Evo Morales, was re-elected to serve a term until January of 2015.18 His pre-election pledges included the connection of all Bolivian schools to the Internet and the purchase of 135,000 laptops which would be given to school teachers. The One Laptop Per Teacher project is ongoing, under the remit of the Ministry of Education, with regular roll outs of units. In 2012, nearly 129,000 laptops were planned to be distributed to teachers across the country as part of the project.
The Ministry has also developed an education portal, EducaBolivia, which contains a large amount of teaching and learning resources, as well as information for students, teachers and parents. Cyber-security and some online safety topics are covered in articles written for the portal and posted at various times, rather than a dedicated safety section.
The Ministry of Education has developed its Institutional Strategic Plan 2010 - 2014, which acknowledges the importance of the use of new technologies in the classroom. The Plan also includes details of the number of Educational Technology Centers (TECs) in the country, as well as plans to develop new science and technology curricula.
2011 - The Annual Student Scientific Olympiad took place for the first time. Earlier stages are held at a local level, with the winners progressing to a national competition. Categories include computing and robotics, as well as math and science. The computer science category is a new one for the event, which is overseen by the Vice-Ministry for Science and Technology, with the Ministry of Education. In 2014, 276,641 students registered to participate in the event - an increase of 23% on the previous year.
2012 - Microsoft’s YouthSpark development program is a global initiative which aspires to create employment opportunities for young people by providing them with access to education and technology.
2013 - To celebrate International Women’s Day, as part of YouthSpark, Microsoft donated software licenses worth an estimated value of US $2.3 million to Pro Mujer, a leading women’s development social enterprise. Established in 1990 in Bolivia, Pro Mujer’s initial focus was on education, family planning, health and child development for women who were receiving donated food. Microsoft’s donation will enable Pro Mujer to focus on women aged between eighteen to 24 as micro-entrepreneurs, as their software tools allow them to support the women’s business development and creative competencies.
2014 - In May, Bolivia’s first computer assembly plant was opened, designed to supply the public and the education sector with laptops and tablets for students and teachers. The Quipus plant produced more than 100,000 computers this year, many of which will supply schools as part of efforts started in 2011, to provide teachers and students with laptops.
World Telecommunication and Information Society Day is held annually on May 17. To coincide with Bolivia’s celebrations, the Autonomous Municipal Act No. 067 of the Internet in the Municipality of La Paz came into effect, requiring Internet cafes in the La Paz region to filter Internet content to protect children. The new regulations also prohibit children in school uniform from being given Internet access in public Internet cafes during school hours. Other events were held across Bolivia, including a national competition for adults to design a set of stamps to mark the day.
Bolivia have joined the Swedish Program for ICT in Developing Regions (Spider) in the launch of a new network, named Network for ICT in Education. Through the Fundacion LaPaz, the pilot project consisted of training for teachers and students in the integrated use of ICT in the subjects mathematics, language, history, and natural sciences. The project is coordinated together with the Ministry of Education and the Municipality of La Paz in three educational units in La Paz where primary and secondary schools presently were equipment (computer rooms) but lacks training of teachers and students in integrating ICT in the different subjects.
Ayni Bolivia Netherlands
It is a nonprofit started by three Bolivian immigrants to the Netherlands and has been operating since 1998. In 2001 the decision was taken to focus primarily on education, launching a program called Chaski in partnership with the International Institute for Communication and Development (IICD). The program aims to reduce poverty through the use of ICT, improve the quality of education and narrow the digital divide in Bolivia. The organization creates ICT hubs where schools and communities can use computers.
It is an education portal is operated by the Ministry of Education and contains information aimed at parents, teachers and students on a wide range of topics, including online safety.
Instituto Interamericano del Niño, la Niña y Adolescente (INN)
A specialized body of the Organization of American States (OAS) on children and adolescents policy that provides guidance to the different states on how they must assume protection.
International Institute for Communication and Development
It operates a range of initiatives in Bolivia designed to enable communities and schools to have access to ICT to escape poverty and improve skills. The site contains some useful video content with recipients of ICT training and access, speaking about their experiences and how ICT has helped to improve their lives.
INTERPOL is the world’s largest international police organization, with 190 member countries. Its mission is to enable police forces to collaborate globally to fight crime in the Internet age. Three areas of focus are crimes against children (with a focus on internet crimes and travelling sex offenders), cybercrime and human trafficking.
Latin American Network of Educational Portals (La Red Latinoamericana de Portales Educativos – RELPE)
Formed in 2004 by an agreement of the Ministries of Education from sixteen Latin American countries, a network of educational portals, allowing the collaboration and sharing of educational content between the member countries. It also provides for the construction of standards and methodologies of processes to position the network as a benchmark in the region and the world on collaborative management of educational content.
Latin American Network of ICT and Education (Red Iberoamericana de TIC y Educación – RIATE)
This organization promotes bilateral or multilateral cooperation for development through the exchange of information, initiatives and projects that promote the integration of ICT in education in 21 countries.
Red de Maestros
From the Ministry of Education, is aimed at providing training in and encouraging the use of ICT as a teaching tool.
It is a multi-nonprofit association comprising 25 members, including NGOs, industry, universities and government agencies. The mission of Red TICBolivia is to share information and best practice on the implementation and use of ICT, in order to influence the establishment of programs and policies on their use in sustainable human development processes to ensure gender equity and social justice.
The Plurinational Center for Alternative Education and Distance Learning
Serves young people over the age of fifteen, as well as communities and other Bolivians who need access to online courses and virtual classrooms
Digital inclusion in education in Trija, Plurinational State of Bolivia (2015)Sulma Farfán, Sossa, Antonio Medina Rivilla, Maria Luz Cacheiro Gonzalez
This article discusses the digital divide, inequalities in access to ICTs and the challenges of implementation if ICTs in education and digital inclusion in a the Plurinational State of Bolivia.
Development of Bolivia Broadband ICT infrastructure Services - Broadband Data Center (2015)Orlando D. Arratia
Plan between the Bolivian government and the IDB to improve the infrastructure of the ICTs in Bolivia.
Protecting Children from Cybercrime (2015)Simone dos Santos Lemos Fernandes, Legal Consultant, Global Forum on Law Justice and Development (GFLJD), Legal Vice Presidency, World Bank
This report studies different Latin American countries’ legislation on the prevention and combat of violence against children on the internet. It also identifies gaps and good practices on the protection of children from cybercrime.
2015 - Sexual Rights and the Internet (2015)José Eduardo Rojas
This report explores the different forms of digital violence present in Bolivia and the efforts by the REDES Foundation to combating the problem.
Literacy and Education for Sustainable Development and Women’s Empowerment (2014)Anna Robinson-Pant
The objective of this paper is to encourage women to participate in educational programs that will contribute to development.
The commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children in Latin America (2014)ECPAT International
This report studies the different forms of sexual exploitation of children inLatin America. Furthermore, it highlights the new emerging trends and how Latin america is addressing this phenomena
2014 Finding on the Worst Forms of Child Labor (2014)Bureau of International Labor Affairs
Report on the worst types of child labor in Bolivia during 2014. It also presents the laws and the government programs aimed to end them.
2013 Trafficking in Persons Report (2013)U.S. Department of State
This is a report on the problem of trafficking people in Bolivia in 2014. Moreover, it mentions the government progress on prosecution, protection and prevention on this matter.
2013 Finding on the Worst Forms of Child Labor (2013)Bureau of International Labor Affairs
Report on the worst types of child labor in Bolivia during 2013. It also presents the laws and the government programs aimed to end them.
ICT IN EDUCATION IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN A regional analysis of ICT integration and e-readiness (2012)UNESCO Institute for Statistics
UNESCO Institute for Statistics, based on survey responses from 38 countries reveals the extent to which factors such as education policy, teacher training, and infrastructure drive or hamper the integration of ICTs in schools.
2012 Finding on the Worst Forms of Child Labor (2012)Bureau of International Labor Affairs
Report on the worst types of child labor in Bolivia during 2012. It also presents the laws and the government programs aimed to end them.
ICTs and Indigenous People (2011)UNESCO Institute for Information Technologies in Education
This document explores the importance of including indigenous people in the government plan of access to ICTs as they will befit from them.
Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children and the Internet (2011)Inter American Children’s Instirute
This is a report to the Organization of American States on the situation of the member states in the issue of commercial sexual exploitation and the impact of internet in their lives.
Los desafíos de las TIC para el cambio educativo (2009)Roberto Carneiro, Juan Carlos Toscano and Tamara Díaz
This is a collective Inter-American educational program which goals are projected until the year 2021. It analyses the challenges of the new era of education and the importance of incorporating ICT on it.
Bolivia: Universal Broadband Access: Advances and challenges (2009)Orlando D. Arratia
Document on the situation of the ICT in Bolivia and the current policies to provide access.
2009 Finding on the Worst Forms of Child Labor (2009)Bureau of International Labor Affairs
Report on the worst types of child labor in Bolivia during 2009. It also presents the laws and the government programs aimed to end them.
ICTs for Education (2007)OFrans Neuman
Study of the impact and lessons learned of the International Institute for Communication and Development and its partners in the process of improving education with the use of ICTs.
Rights of the Child in Bolivia (2005)Nathalie Perround
Report on the implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child by Bolivia. It analyses national law under the international commitment to protect children.
The Internet in the Andes: Bolivia Case Study (2001)Michael Minges, Sonia Jorge, Ben Petrazzini
Profile of Bolivia on the ICT status. It presents data on internet service and access.
Bolivia - Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children in Bolivia (0000)Mary Del Carmen Arias Paz
Document on the situation of sexual exploitation of children and the different laws and actions taken by Bolivia to end this problem.
This section contains details of the country’s laws as they relate to sexual offenses, children and the use of the Internet in the commission of criminal activity. Where possible, sentence details have been given, including whether an increased custodial penalty is imposed where the victim is a child.
- Article 281 bis, Penal Code. Human Trafficking. This Article states that anyone who is found guilty of committing this offense will be punished with imprisonment for between eight and twelve years. The offense is defined as using by any means of deception, coercion, threat, the use of force and/or exploiting a position of vulnerability to obtain the consent of the victim to induce, encourage or conduct the transfer or recruitment, detention, shelter or reception of human beings, in or out of the country with a number of purposes. These include trafficking for the purposes of sexual exploitation through pedophilia or sex tourism, among many others. Where the victim is a child or adolescent, or where a position of authority was exploited (among other definitions) the penalty will be increased by a quarter. If the victim’s death was caused by the result of this offense, a penalty equal to that for murder will be imposed. If the death was caused by negligent acts, the penalty is increased by half.
- Article 281 quarter, Penal Code. Pornography and Obscene Entertainment with Children or Adolescents. Anyone who by any means, promotes, produces, displays, markets or distributes pornographic material, or promotes lewd shows in which children and adolescents are involved will be punished by imprisonment for between three and six years. The penalty is increased by a quarter if the perpetrator is the parent or guardian of the victim, or has them under their care, supervision or authority.
- Article 282, Penal Code. Defamation. Anyone who publicly reveals a fact, quality or conduct which could harm a person’s reputation, may be charged with this offense. The penalty for anyone convicted is between one month to one year’s imprisonment or a fine of 2,240 days.
- Article 283, Penal Code. Slander. Anyone who, by any means, falsely imputes the commission of a crime to another, shall be punished by imprisonment for between six months and two years, and a fine of between 100 and 300 days.
- Article 285, Penal Code. Dissemination of Offenses. Anyone who disseminates or reproduces by any means the facts referred to in Articles 282, 283 and 284, shall be punished in the same manner as the author.
- Article 287, Penal Code. Insult. States that anyone who by any means and in a direct manner offends the dignity and decency of another, shall be punished by imprisonment with labor for between one month and one year and a fine of between 30 and 100 days. If the act referred to in Article 283 and the injury referred to in this article was printed, typed or handwritten, the offender shall be deemed guilty of defamatory libel and is liable to a fine of between 60 to 150 days, subject to the corresponding penalties.
- Article 308, Penal Code. Rape. States that it is an offense to have sexual intercourse through the use of violence or force, with a victim who is incapable of consent or a child who has not attained puberty. The penalty for this offense is between four and ten years’ imprisonment, increasing to between ten to 20 years’ imprisonment if the victim had not attained puberty.
- Article 308bis, Penal Code. Rape of a Minor or Teenage Girl. States that anyone who has sexual intercourse with a person of either sex under fourteen, including anal or vaginal penetration or introducing objects with libidinous purposes, shall be punished with imprisonment of between fifteen to 20 years, without the right to pardon, even if no force or intimidation was used and consent is alleged. An exemption from this penalty applies to consensual relationships between adolescents aged twelve and over, provided the age difference between them is no more than three years and no violence or intimidation was involved.
- Article 308 ter, Penal Code. Rape of Someone in a State of Unconsciousness. States that anyone who has sexual intercourse, anal or vaginal penetration or introduces any objects for libidinous purposes, to a person of either sex, after having rendered them unconscious, will be punished by imprisonment for between ten and fifteen years.
- Article 309, Penal Code. Statutory Rape. States that anyone who uses seduction or deception to have sexual intercourse with a female who has reached puberty but is under the age of seventeen will be imprisoned for between two and six years.
- Article 310, Penal Code. Aggravated Rape. States that the crime is treated as aggravated rape if serious harm is caused to the victim’s health, or the offender is a relative, teacher or person in a position of authority over the victim. If two or more offenders are involved in the offense this section also applies. If the crime resulted in the death of the victim, the penalty is between ten and 20 years’ imprisonment. If death does not result, the penalty is between four and ten years’ imprisonment.
- Article 312, Penal Code. Molestation. States that anyone who carries out sexual contact, not including sexual intercourse, through the use of violence or force is liable to a term of imprisonment of between one and three years.
- Article 312 bis, Penal Code. Acts of Sexual Abuse. Anyone who commits this offense will be punished by imprisonment of between four and six years. The offense is defined as, during consensual sex, to force the victim’s partner or spouse to endure physical violence and humiliation. The penalty is aggravated by a third where the offender forced their spouse or partner to have sexual intercourse with another person.
- Article 312 ter, Penal Code. States that anyone who commits this offense will be punished by imprisonment for between fifteen and 30 years. This penalty applies where, as part of a widespread or systematic attack against a population or group of people, the following were committed: one or more people were raped or subjected to any form of sexual abuse, sexual humiliation and insults; one or more people were forced into prostitution, or impregnating by force a woman with the intent to influence the ethnic composition of a population.
- Article 312 quarter, Penal Code. Sexual Harassment. Defines the offense as when a person uses a position of power of any kind to harass, pursue, require, compel, threaten to cause any harm or injury, obtain a benefit by any means, or force another person to maintain a relationship or perform acts or sexual behavior, for the benefit of the offender or a third person. The punishment for this offense is imprisonment for between four and eight years. If the offense was committed by a public servant within the scope of their position, they will be removed from office and the penalty will be increased by one third.
- Article 313, Penal Code. Abduction. Anyone who, for lewd purposes and using violence, threats or deception, abducts or removes a child below puberty, will face imprisonment for between one and five years.
- Article 314, Penal Code. Abduction by Deception. States that anyone who abducts an honest woman who has reached puberty but is younger than seventeen, with their consent, shall be punished by imprisonment for between six months and two years.
- Article 318, Penal Code. Corruption of Minors. States that anyone who corrupts a minor under the age of seventeen by lewd acts or other means will be imprisoned for a period of between one and five years. The penalty may be reduced or removed entirely if the minor is considered to be of poor moral character.
- Article 319, Penal Code. Aggravated Corruption. States that the penalty for this offense is increased to between one and six years if: victim is under twelve; the act is executed for profit; the offender used violence, deception or coercion; the victim is mentally or physically disabled, or where the offender is a relative, teacher or person in a position of authority over the child.
- Article 321, Penal Code. Procuration. Defines the offense as to satisfy the desires of others or with the intention of profit, facilitating or contributing to the corruption or prostitution of persons of either sex. The offense is punishable by imprisonment for between two and six years and a fine of 30 to 100 days. The same penalty applies to operating a house of prostitution or place intended for lewd purposes. The penalty increases to imprisonment for between two and eight years if the victim is under the age of seventeen.
- Article 321 bis, Penal Code. Trafficking for Prostitution. States that anyone who induces, promotes or facilitates the entry or departure or movement within Bolivia, of persons to engage in prostitution, through the use of deception, violence, threats or reducing them to a state of unconsciousness for this purpose, shall be punished by imprisonment for between four and eight years. If the victim is under the age of eighteen, the penalty increases to between five and ten years’ imprisonment. The penalty increases further where the victim is under the age of fourteen, to between six and twelve years’ imprisonment.
- Article 323, Penal Code. Obscene Acts. States that anyone who commits an obscene act in a public place is liable to imprisonment for between three months and two years.
- Article 323 bis, Penal Code. Pornography of Children and Adolescents, or Legally Incapable People. The crime of pornography of Children and Adolescents and Legally Incapable People is defined as seeking, requiring, facilitating or inducing, by any means, one or more of these people to committing sexual or lewd acts involving bodily exhibitionism or for sexual purposes, real or simulated, in order to create video, photography, film, displays or descriptions through print ads. The transmission of data files using the public or private telecommunications network, computer systems, and other electronic means is also included. The penalty for this offense is imprisonment for between five and ten years. Anyone who creates, prints, records, photographs, film or describes lewd acts of a physical or sexual nature, or indecent real or simulated, involving one or more children, adolescents or Legally Incapable Persons shall be liable imprisonment for between three and six years and the confiscation of any objects, instruments and proceeds of the crime. The same sentence of the preceding paragraph, is imposed on anyone who reproduces, stores, distributes, sells, buys, leases, exposes, publicizes, sends files, imports or exports the materials previously described.
- Article 324, Penal Code. Obscene Publications and Performances. States that it is an offense to manufacture, import, reproduce, distribute or transmit obscene writings, drawings, pictures or any other obscene object. The penalty is between two and three years’ imprisonment.
The Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs granted ICCO Latin America 2.9 million Euros to implement the program Down to Zero - Fighting Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children in Bolivia, Peru, Colombia and Nicaragua.The Alliance is to work together from 2016 to 2015 to fight commercial sexual exploitation of children.