Responsibilities for legislation and implementation in school education are split between federal and provincial governments: the federal authorities have exclusive responsibility over legislation and implementation in the entire field of general upper secondary education, intermediate and upper secondary technical and vocational education, as well as training for kindergarten teaching staff.
The federal parliament is responsible for basic legislation, whereas the Länder (provinces) issue and implement by-laws, for example with regard to kindergarten. In general, the Federal Government introduces draft laws, which when enacted require the Länder to issue pertinent implementing laws within a deadline of up to one year.
2000-2006- Austria’s Federal Ministry for Education, the Arts and Culture (BUKK) provides the country’s main educational portal. This is an important online clearing house for resources, accessible to both teachers and students. The Learning for the Future (eFit) initiative funded a dramatic improvement in ICT. This was supported too by the eContent initiative that built out the school infrastructure as well as developed specific e-learning materials for teachers and subject servers in federal provinces (called eContent clusters). The updated eFit21 initiative aims to expand the use of digitized tools in Austrian educational institutions by incorporating IT into administrative, professional skill-building, and international aspects of digitized educational growth.
2007-2010 - The project is nearing the end of its second phase which is focused on ‘Future Learning’. The project has many goals and will be implemented in many ways but one of the areas of focus is cross-curricular ICT teaching where formal ICT lessons are replaced by integrating the subject into all other classes. Central technical services were provided to the schools, such as education portals, central services for learning platforms and the distribution of educational resources and software. These include eduMoodle, an open-source virtual-learning environment from Ning, containing information about courses and providing communication channels to help students communicate with each other and their teachers.
2002-present The eLC 2.0 (eLearning Cluster Project) is an initiative of the Austrian Ministry of Education, the aim of which is to enable Upper Secondary Schools and Colleges to implement eLearning on a practical level.7 As part of this cluster, the BMUKK (the Federal Ministry for Education, the Arts and Culture) carried out the project eLSA (eLearning im Schulalltag, translating as e-learning in every-day school life) between 2002 to 2005 in four middle schools (school levels 5 - 8) across the country. To find out more go to http://elsa20.schule.at/ The main objective of this project is to implement e-teaching and e-learning in the classroom and utilize their potential in the teaching process. In addition, as a direct result of this project, the number of teachers with adequate ICT skills rose from 58% to 80% by the end of the initiative.8 eLSA has shown that blended learning is a new and important methodological approach applicable in lower secondary education and supported both by teachers and parents.
The official e-learning portal of the BUKK, bildung.at is a one-stop shop for all e-learning activities within the framework of the FutureLearning initiative. The portal hosts a vast collection of teaching material available to download in the Bildungspool section of the site (http://bildungspool.bildung.at/) and also acts as gateway to the educational portals of the Länder.
The Education Highway that acted as the Upper Austrian educational server merged with the education media center to create Education Group. This acts as a portal that provides news and information on digital learning updates and initiatives. Comprehensive materials on topics related to schools and education are present on this website.
This industry association represents the interests of European mobile network operators. The group engages in lobbying in areas such as children’s use of mobile phones, privacy, digital inclusion and reducing the digital gender gap. In 2008, the organization formed a mobile alliance against child sexual abuse content.
An initiative by the Viennese education portal, this website is dedicated to early childhood education. The collection of educational materials has been brought together by early years educators and is constantly being updated.
Innocence En Danger
This international NGO brings together activists, Internet specialists, policy makers and the media to raise awareness of the sexual exploitation of children online, and support child victims and their families.
International Telecommunications Union (ITU) Europe
The ITU is is the UN agency for ICTs. Areas of focus in Europe include improving E-accessibility in Central and Eastern Europe, transitioning Europe to digital broadcasting, and sharing best practices for implementing e-applications.
Internet Governance Forum
The IGF was founded by the UN in 2006 to serve as a discussion platform for internet governance policy issues. It brings together various stakeholders to determine best practices for internet policy. Past areas of focus include cybersecurity, human rights, inclusivity and openness.
INTERPOL is the world’s largest international police organization, with 190 member countries. Its mission is to enable police forces to collaborate globally to fight crime in the Internet age. Three areas of focus are crimes against children (with a focus on internet crimes and travelling sex offenders), cybercrime and human trafficking.
This website is designed specifically for teachers and educators, offering information and downloads. The classroom material is organized by age level and subject, making the resources easy to navigate.
The Austrian awareness node’s mission is to empower citizens to use the Internet, as well as other information and communication technologies, safely and effectively. It runs information campaigns, provides information and teaching materials about safe and responsible use of the Internet, organizes events and works closely with all Austrian projects in the area of safer Internet and the European Internet Safety Network.
The Stopline Hotline is run by Internet Service Providers Austria (ISPA). It is a platform for users that stumble over illegal material in the Internet by coincidence and deals solely with child-pornography and neo-Nazi content.
A Survey on the Transposition of Directive 2011/93/EU on Combating Sexual Abuse and Sexual Exploitation of Children and Child Pornography (2016)Together Against Sexual Exploitation of Children
The study examines how seven key provisions of Directive 2011/93/EU on the fight against sexual abuse and sexual exploitation of children and child pornography have been adopted by the 27 European Union (EU) Member States bound by the Directive.
How parents of young children manage digital devices at home: the role of income, education and parental style (2015)Livingstone, Sonia, Mascheroni, Giovanna, Dreier, Michael, Chaudron, Stephane, Lagae, Kaat
The report compares strategies of parental mediation on the internet according to levels of parental education and household income. The aim was to inform policy-makers and practitioners on how to approach parental guidance and awareness raising.
Global Research Project: A Global Landscape of Hotlines Combating Child Sexual Abuse Material on the Internet and an Assessment of Shared Challenges (2015)Melissa Stroebe, Stacy Jeleniewski, PhD
This report examines hotlines combating Internet-facilitated Child Sexual Abuse Material.
Combatting Child Sexual Abuse (2015)Petra Jeney
The study provides an overview of existing legislation at European Union, Member State and the international level related to online child sexual abuse, as well as the role of law enforcement agencies in combatting child sexual abuse online and other governmental and private sector initiatives.
The impact of internet and new media on the occurrence of violence against children in Europe and Cyprus (2015)Rosella Sala
This document demonstrate that countries lack of expertise on child sexual exploitation and struggle combating this issue by their own. It suggests to establish an international legal framework to prosecute offenders and protect children.
Children's Use of Online Technologies in Europe (2014)K. Ólafsson, S. Livingstone, L. Haddon
This report reviews recent research on children’s use of internet and mobile technologies identified by the EU Kids Online network.
Mapping Safer Internet Policies in the Member States (2014)P. Baudouin, B. Mahieu, T. Dor, B. Good, J. Milayi, S. Nakajima
The purpose of the study was to set up a framework for analysing Better Internet for Children public policies covering EU Member States, and Norway and Iceland.
Policy Influences and Country Clusters: A Comparative Analysis of Internet Safety Policy Implementation (2014)B. O'Neill
The report examines the policy context of internet safety and looks at how countries within each cluster approach implementation.
Children’s Use of Online Technologies in Europe: A Review of the European Evidence Base (2014)K. Ólafsson, S. Livingstone, L. Haddon
This report provides an overview of past research on children's online behaviors, making recommendations for policy and future research.
Final recommendations for policy (2014)O’Neill, B., Staksrud, E
Combining all the EU Kids Online policy guidance into one resource, this report provides more than 30 proposed actions for making the Internet safer for children.
Country classification: opportunities, risks, harm and parental mediation (2013)Helsper, E.J., Kalmus, V., Hasebrink, U., Sagvari, B., and de Haan, J.
This report explores the range and type of online opportunities and risks experienced by children in each country. The ways in which parents mediate or regulate their children’s internet use is also examined.
Country Classification: Opportunities, Risks, Harm and Parental Mediation (2013)Helsper, E. J., Kalmus, V., Hasebrink, U., Sagvari, B. and De Haan, J. with members of the EU Kids Online network
With data from 25 of the European countries surveyed in EU Kids Online, the report examines the range and type of online opportunities, risks and harm which children from each country experience, as well as looking at ways in which parents control or mediate their children’s Internet use.
Overview and Analysis of 1:1 Learning Initiatives in Europe (2013)Intel
Intel 's report on the status of 1:1 Learning Initiative in Europe
Zero to Eight - Young Children and Their Internet Use (2013)Holloway, D., Green, L., and Livingstone, S. with members of the EU Kids Online network,
This report reviews a number of other studies and provides recommendations as to how younger children can be protected from online risks.
Risks and safety on the internet: Comparing Brazilian and European children (2013)Barbosa, A., O’Neill, B., Ponte, C., Simões, J.A., Jereissati, T.,
This study compares the results of the survey of Brazilian children and their parents/guardians, carried out by the Brazilian Internet Steering Committee. Using the same methodology as the EU Kids Online research, the results from Brazil are compared with those from Europe.
In their own words: what bothers children online? (2013)Livingstone S., Kirwil, L., Ponte C. and Staksrud E., with the EU Kids Online network
The results of a survey of nearly 10,000 children in 25 countries across Europe, this report details what children say upsets them and their friends online
Excessive Internet Use by European Children (2012)D. Smahel, E. Helsper, L. Green, V. Kalmus, L. Blinka, K. Ólafsson
This report presents new findings and further analysis of the EU Kids Online 25-country survey regarding excessive use of the internet by children.
EU Kids Online: National perspectives (2012)Leslie Haddon, Sonia Livingstone and the EU Kids Online network
This report summarizes the Internet experiences of children in the 33 participating EU Kids Online countries and includes eight countries which have not appeared in previous reports
The Protection of Children Online (2012)Kristina Irion
The report provides key findings and policy recommendations to keep children safe online as a follow up to the 2008 Seoul Ministerial Declaration on the Future of the Internet Economy.
EU Kids Online: Excessive Internet Use among European Children (2012)Smahel, D, Helsper, E, Green, L, Kalmus, V, Blinka, L, Ólafsson, K,
This report uses the data from the EU Kids Online study to examine excessive use of the Internet by children in the 25 participating countries.
Risks and safety on the internet: The perspective of European children. Full Findings (2011)Livingstone, S., Haddon, L., Görzig, A., Ólafsson, K
Building on the original study, EU Kids Online I, this second piece of research includes the findings from research which took place in 25 countries. Children in the 9 – 16 age group were surveyed on their experiences of online use, risk and safety
EU Kids Online: Final report (2009)Livingstone, S., Haddon, L.
One of the foremost pieces of research into the online habits of children in the European Union is the EU Kids Online research, funded by the European Commission Safer Internet Plus Programme between 2006 and 2009.
Education on Online Safety in Schools in Europe (2009)Eurydice
The study covers 30 European countries and provides information on whether online safety is taught and how it is taught in schools within the participating countries.
Towards a safer use of the Internet for children in the EU - a parents' perspective (2008)Eurobarometer
The study covers 27 EU Member States and provides parental responses to a range of questions relating to Internet safety and their perception of risk.
Article 10, Austrian Penal Code. General Principles and Minors. Places restrictions on the Austrian Broadcasting Corporation as to what programs may contain, when they can be shown and what warnings should be made in advance of transmission of any program which has content which may be harmful to minors.
52a, Austrian Penal Code. Allows the courts to monitor sex offenders after their release for an indeterminate amount of time. [NB Austria has a closed sex offender registry: the details are not made public.]
Article 64 (1) 4a, Austrian Penal Code. States that an Austrian resident can be held liable under the Penal Code for committing the following offenses abroad: serious sexual abuse of minors, sexual abuse of minors, pornographic images of minors under Article 207a paragraphs 1 and 2, sexual abuse of minors pursuant to Article 207b paragraphs 2 and 3, and promotion of prostitution or pornographic performances involving minors. Article 101, Penal Code. Abduction Of a Minor. This Article states that anyone who abducts a minor with the intention of subjecting them to sexual abuse, by them or a third party, is liable to imprisonment for between six months and five years.
Article 107, Penal Code. Dangerous Threat. This Article states that it is unlawful to make threats to someone which puts that person in fear for their safety or causes them anxiety. The penalty for this offense is up to a year’s imprisonment. Threats include those relating to abduction, arson and a range of others, such as threats to someone’s position or livelihood. The penalty for making these threats over a sustained period of time is up to three years’ imprisonment.
Article 107a, Penal Code. Stalking. This Article states that anyone who persistently and unlawfully follows another person is liable to imprisonment for up to one year. ‘Persistently following’ in this Article means unacceptably affecting another person’s life by trying to get into close physical proximity, getting into contact with another person by ways of telecommunication or other means of contact, using a person’s personal detail to order goods or services for this person, or inciting others to make contact with the victim.
Article 111, Penal Code. Defamation. States that it is an offense to accuse someone of dishonorable actions or actions offending public morals that can damage the victim’s reputation, in a manner that is perceivable by third persons. The offense is punishable by imprisonment for up to six months, or a fine of up to 360 Tagessätzen. (A ‘Tagessatz’ is a fine calculated on the daily rate of income. One Tagessatz is equal to one’s daily income.) The Article also states that where the defamation was made in print, on the radio or in another way accessible by the general public, an aggravated penalty of up to one year’s imprisonment will apply. The penalty will be waived if the offender can prove that the accusations are true or that he had serious reason to believe so.
Article 115, Penal Code. Insult. Defines the offense of publicly, or in the presence of more than more person, verbally or physically abusing, mocking, or threatening to abuse another person. The offense is punishable by imprisonment for up to three months, or a fine of up to 180 Tagessätzen, unless it constitutes a more serious crime.
Article 201, Penal Code. Rape. This Article states that anyone who coerces another person by serious force or threat of imminent danger for life and limb to perform or to endure sexual intercourse or another sexual act similar to intercourse is guilty of an offense and liable to imprisonment for one to ten years. The Article also states that where the victim falls pregnant or sustains serious injury as a result of the crime, or if the act is particularly demeaning, an aggravated sentence of five to fifteen years’ imprisonment will apply. If the crime results in the death of the victim, the offender will be sentenced to imprisonment for between ten and 20 years, or for life.
Article 202, Penal Code. Sexual Coercion. States that whoever coerces a person except in the cases referred to in Article 201 by force or by dangerous threat to perform or to endure a sexual act shall be punished by imprisonment up to five years. The Article also states that where the victim falls pregnant or sustains serious injury as a result of the crime, or if the act is particularly demeaning, an aggravated sentence of one to ten years’ imprisonment will apply. If the crime results in the death of the victim, the offender will be sentenced to imprisonment for five to fifteen years.
Article 206, Penal Code. Grievous Sexual Abuse of Underage Minors. Prescribes a penalty of imprisonment for a term of between one to ten years for anyone who has sexual intercourse, or a sexual act equivalent to intercourse, with a minor under the age of fourteen. The Article also states that anyone who incites an underage minor to perform or endure sexual intercourse, or a sexual act equivalent to intercourse, with another person shall also be punished. The same applies to anyone who, in order sexually to arouse or satisfy himself or a third party, incites an underage minor to perform a sexual act equivalent to intercourse on him. If the act results in grievous bodily harm or pregnancy of the victim, the perpetrator will be liable to an aggravated sentenced of fife to fifteen years’ imprisonment. If the act results in the death of the victim, the offender will be sentenced to ten to 20 years’ imprisonment or to imprisonment for life. The Article also states that if the offender is not more than three years older than the underage minor, the sexual act does not involve penetration with an object and the act does not result either in grievous bodily harm or the death of the minor, then the perpetrator will not be punished, unless the victim is under thirteen years of age.
Article 207, Penal Code.Sexual Abuse of Underage Minors. Defines the offense of performing a sexual act on a minor under the age of fourteen or having a sexual act performed on the offender by an underage minor, except for the cases provided in Article 206. The offense is punishable by imprisonment for a term of between six months to five years. The Article also states that anyone who incites an underage minor to perform a sexual act with another person or, in order sexually to arouse or satisfy himself or a third party, incites an underage minor to perform a sexual act on him, shall also be punished. Where the offense results in grievous bodily harm, the perpetrator will be sentenced to between one and ten years’ imprisonment. If the act results in the death of the victim, the perpetrator will be sentenced to five to fifteen years’ imprisonment. However, if the offender is not more than four years older than the underage minor and the act does not result either in grievous bodily harm or the death of the victim, then the perpetrator will not be punished, unless the underage minor is under twelve years of age.
Article 207a, Penal Code. Pornographic Depictions of Minors. This Article states that anyone who produces, offers, procures, transfers, presents, makes available, transports, imports or exports for the purpose of dissemination, pornographic depictions of a minor is liable to imprisonment for up to three years. The Article prescribes an increased penalty of six months’ to five years’ imprisonment for anyone who commits such an act for financial gain, and one to ten years’ imprisonment if the act is committed by an organized group or in a way that causes the minor to sustain particularly grievous harm. The same penalty applies to anyone who produces a pornographic depiction of a minor using severe violence or endangers the life of the minor intentionally or as a result of gross negligence. Obtaining or possessing pornographic depictions of minors over fourteen years of age is punishable by imprisonment for up to one year; if the minor is under fourteen years of age, the penalty will be increased to up to two years’ imprisonment. The Article also states that it is not illegal to produce or possess pornography depicting minors over the age of fourteen, if their consent was obtained or if the material is for his or the minor’s personal use only, provided no risk of dissemination of the depiction is associated with the act. For the purpose of this paragraph, pornographic depictions of minors are realistic images of sexual acts performed on a minor under fourteen years of age or by such minor on himself, on another person or with an animal; realistic depictions of an event performed with a minor under fourteen years of age which create the impression that they involve a sexual act performed on such minor or by the minor on himself, on another person or with an animal; realistic depictions of a sexual act or of an event with minors over fourteen years of age, or of the genitals or pubic region of such minors, provided such depictions are distorted in a sensational manner, focus on the genitals or pubic region or are meant to sexually to arouse the observer or pictorial representations which create the impression that they are a depiction of a sexual act performed with or by a minor.
Article 207b, Penal Code. Sexual Abuse of Juveniles. States that it is an offense to abuse a person under eighteen by taking advantage of an exploitative situation and hence engaging in sexual activity. The offender is liable to imprisonment for up to one year, or a fine of up to 360 Tagessätzen. The Article also states that it is an offense to coerce a person under the age of sixteen into submitting or performing sexual acts by abusing the victim’s situation of distress. The offender is liable to imprisonment for up to three years. The same penalty applies to a person who entices an individual under eighteen to commit a sexual act with the offender or a third person by offering a financial reward for the act.
Article 208, Penal Code. Endangering the Moral Development of Persons under 16 Years of Age. This Article states that anyone who performs an act likely to endanger the moral, psychological development or health of persons under sixteen years of age in front of a minor or a person under sixteen with whose upbringing, education or supervision he is charged, in order sexually to arouse or satisfy himself or a third party, will be sentenced to up to one year’s imprisonment. There will be no punishment if, according to the circumstances of the case, endangering of the development of the minor or person under sixteen years of age can be ruled out. The Article also states that if the perpetrator is not more than four years older than the minor, he will not be punished, unless the minor is under twelve years of age.
Article 212, Penal Code. Abuse of Authority. States, among other things, that it is a criminal offense to sexually abuse a minor who is under the education, training or supervision of the offender, by taking advantage of their position, or attempt to make the victim perform a sexual act on themselves in order to sexually excite or satisfy themselves or a third person. The offense is punishable by imprisonment for up to three years.
Article 213, Penal Code. Procuration. This Article states, among other things, that it is an offense to procure a person to commit a sexual act with a third person by abusing a position of authority or trust. The offender is liable to imprisonment for up to three years. If the offender procured the victim in order to obtain a financial gain for himself or another person, the penalty will be increased to imprisonment for a term of between six months and five years.
Article 215, Penal Code. Leading to Prostitution. Defines the offense of leading a person into prostitution. The offense is punishable by imprisonment for up to two years.
Article 215a, Penal Code. Promotion of Prostitution and Pornographic Performances of Minors. This Article states that anyone who recruits a minor (regardless of whether the minor is already engaged in prostitution) to perform prostitution or to participate in a pornographic performance or who offers or procures the minor to another person for that purpose shall be liable to a term of imprisonment not exceeding three years. The same sentence will apply to anyone who exploits a minor who is engaged in prostitution or participating in a pornographic performance for financial gain for himself or a third party. The Article also states that anyone who commits the crime as part of a criminal gang, uses severe violence or endangers the life of the minor intentionally or as a result of gross negligence, or where the crime is particularly detrimental to the person, will be liable to a term of imprisonment of between six months and five years. If the victim is under the age of fourteen, an increased penalty of imprisonment for between one and ten years will apply. A person shall be deemed to participate in a pornographic performance if he performs a sexual act which is reduced to itself, removed of other expressions of life and for the sexual arousal of the viewer, on himself, on another person or with an animal, allows such a sexual act to be performed on himself or who displays his genitals or pubic region in such a manner.
Article 216, Penal Code. Living on the Earnings of Prostitution of Others. Defines the offense of exploiting a person in order to live on the earning of this person’s prostitution. The offender is liable to a term of imprisonment of up to one year. The Article also states that where the offender intimidates the victim to enable him to exploit her, or sets rules concerning the way she prostitutes herself, an increased penalty of imprisonment of up to two years will apply. Where the crime was committed by an organized group, the penalty will increase to up to three years’ imprisonment.
§ 1, Pornography Act, 1950. States that it is an offense to produce, publish, store for the purpose of distribution, import, export, transport, exhibit, offer, make available or disseminate any obscene or indecent writings, images, films or other material with mercenary intent. The offense is punishable by imprisonment for up to one year. In addition, a fine of up to 360 Tagessätzen can be imposed.
§ 2, Pornography Act, 1950. This paragraph states that it is a criminal offense to offer, sell, circulate, disseminate, distribute or advertise to a person under the age of sixteen any printed material, pictures or other depiction that is apt to harm the moral or mental development or health of the young person. It is also unlawful to show a person under sixteen any obscene films or play audio recordings of an indecent nature. The offense is punishable by imprisonment for up to six months, or a fine of up to 360 Tagessätzen.