1980 – The Northern Territory Secondary Correspondence School opened, now know as the Northern Territory Open Education Centre. The school provides flexible distance learning options for students in Years 10 through 12 across the Territory and overseas. Students can enroll full-time or access the centre for subject areas their current school does not meet.
2004 – The NT’s Laptops for Teachers program began, providing teachers will access to laptops, support services and training at no cost to them. The laptops were to be used for developing programing, preparing class material and obtaining professional development.
2007 – NEC implemented its School-Based Apprenticeship and Indigenous Traineeship programme, which provides ICT training scholarships to senior students living in remote parts of the Northern Territory. Upon completion of the program, each participant is offered a job with NEC or one of the corporation’s regional partners.
2008 – The NT conducted a trial of using Canada’s web-based tool for early literacy instruction, ABRACADABRA, until 2010. The three-year trial established the program’s effectiveness in urban and remote primary schools among both indigenous and non-indigenous students.
2009 – The 2009 curriculum covered the use of learning technologies to foster lifelong learning and prepare students for a changing economy.
Also in 2009, the One Laptop per Child program was tested in a NT school serving indigenous children. The students were provided with XO laptops with built-in video cameras, microphones, word processing software, drawing and music programs, and games.
2014 – NEC Australia partnered with the Department of Education to launch iCentre, a support and management system for school technology and infrastructure. iCentre aims to improve the department’s visibility and accessibility to support services, as well as simplify problem reporting.
The same year, NEC opened its IT Apprenticeship Hub programme. Over 12 months, the programme aims to produce work-ready apprentices for the ICT industry, half of whom will be young indigenous Australians from NT.
This Anglican organization provides services to children, young people and families, with focus areas on relationships, parenting and education.
Department of Children and Families
This department focuses on child protection, supporting families, foster care and adoption policies, and accommodating women and children escaping family violence crises. It is responsible for the implementation of the Care and Protection of Children Act 2007. The Department provides a hotline for reporting child abuse.
Information Technology Educators Association of the NT
This professional association was formed in 2000 to improve ICT education in the NT. Educators and those with an interest in ICT education may join the organization.
A research centre within the Charles Darwin University, the Northern Institute studies contemporary indigenous knowledge and governance, the demography of the Northern Territory and barriers to diverse group participation in the economy, among other topics.
Northern Territory Police
The state’s police department includes the Child Abuse Taskforce, a family safety framework, and information online safety. Among other programs to engage youth, the department’s Youth Engagement Officers serve in primary and secondary schools across the state to identify at-risk youth and ensure that appropriate programs are in place to assist these students.
NTG IT and Communications Services
This office with the Department of Corporate and Information Services provides ICT services to other government agencies. It focuses on communications, digital policy, records policy, ICT services and data centre services.
Ruby Gaea provides specialized sexual assault trauma counseling, education and training services in the Northern Territory for women and children who have experienced sexual assault.
Safety House Program
This program is a community-based network of safe places in NT, which include houses, shops and businesses. Safety Houses are managed by the state police and are to be used by children when they feel frightened, unsafe or threatened.
Child Protection Matters in the Northern Territory (2014)N. Petrie, L. Kruger
In this paper, the authors argue for the implementation of mandatory alternative dispute resolution in child protection matters in the Northern Territory.
Trends in Child Maltreatment in the Northern Territory, Using Child Protection Reports and Hospital Admissions, 1999 to 2010 (2014)S.L. Guthridge
This paper explores changes in the number and characteristics of reports of child maltreatment in the NT, from 1999 to 2010, in the context of continuing public attention to the issue.
Youth Justice, Child Protection and the Role of the Youth Courts in the Northern Territory (2013)D. West, D. Heath
This chapter explores the role of the courts through both exploration of current and past policies and direct reflection from people who work in child protection and youth justice in the Norhtern Territory.
Information Communication Technologies and New Indigenous Mobilities?: Insights From Remote Northern Territory Communities (2012)A. Taylor
The study explores the early outcomes in relation to these themes from the uptake and use of information communication technologies by residents of three remote Indigenous communities in the Northern Territory.
‘Weighing In’: The Australian’s Reporting of Child Sexual Abuse in Northern Territory Indigenous Communities (2012)H. Reid, K. McCallum
This paper reports on a frame analysis of a report on child sexual abuse in the Northern Territory, its representation in news accounts and the subsequent announcement of the Northern Territory Emergency Response.
A Remote Chance?: Widening Participation of Remote Indigenous Students in the Northern Territory via ICT-Enabled Learning (2012)A. Vodic, K. Senior, B. Dwyer, P. Szybiak
This report focuses on the opportunities and barriers to accessing higher education for indigenous students residing in very remote communities to be involved in online learning.
ABRACADABRA for Magic under Which Conditions? Case Studies of a Web-Based Literacy Intervention in the Northern Territory (2012)H. Harper, J. Helmer, T. Lea, K. Chalkiti, S. Emmett, J. Wolgemuth
This paper analyses case studies of four typical regional and remote schools in northern Australia to develop an account of how teachers used and adapted the ABRA program in their own settings, and to document how schools tackled the complexities of supporting teachers in new ways of teaching.
Disparity and Disadvantage: The Context for Child Protection in the Northern Territory (2011)H. Bath
This presentation provides information to stimulate discussion and solution-finding for vulnerable children and families across the Northern Territory.
Indigenous People and E-nabling Technologies: An Analysis of Recent Experiences in Northern and Central Australia (2011)A. Boyle, R. Wallace
This analysis of a range of projects conducted in northern and central Australian contexts will provide evidence of the need for vocational education and training providers and employers to harness the potential that ICTs have to offer for the engagement, training and employment of Indigenous people.
The Affordances of Mobile Learning that Can Engage Disenfranchised Learner Identities in Formal Education (2011)R. Wallace
This book chapter explores the possibility of using mobile technologies to engage disenfranchised, indigenous adult learners.
Indigenous Dot Com: E-Learning in Australian Indigenous Workforce Development and Engagement (2011)R. Wallace, R. Appo
This chapter analyzes the outcomes of Indigenous education engagement programs that used e-learning strategies.
Using Computer-based Instruction to Improve Indigenous Early Literacy in Northern Australia: A Quasi-experimental Study (2011)J. Wolgemuth, R. Savage, J. Helmer, T. Lea, H. Harper, K. Chalkiti, C. Bottrell, P. Abrami
Results of this study found that Indigenous and non-Indigenous students who received ABRACADABRA instruction had significantly higher phonological awareness scores than their control group peers.
Getting There: Teacher Experiences in Applying ICT in Rural and Remote Education (2010)G. Shaw
This paper examines approaches being taken in developing ICT usage in Northern Territory schools for teaching and learning.
Growing them Strong, Together: Promoting the Safety and Wellbeing of the Northern Territory’s Children (2010)M. Bamblett, H. Bath, R. Roseby
The main finding of this report is that there needs to be organisational reform in child protection in the Northern Territory which includes a re-orientation towards a more collaborative approach to the task, as well as an immediate investment in more staffing resources for statutory child protection and out of home care services.
Pornography Awareness: A Process of Engagement with Northern Territory Indigenous Communities (2009)C. Bryant, M. Willis
This review suggests that the education campaign model used to encourage NT Indigenous adults to take responsibility for reducing the exposure of children to pornography be used other Indigenous communities.
Little Children are Sacred: Report of the Northern Territory Board of Inquiry into the Protection of Aboriginal Children from Sexual Abuse (2007)R. Wild, P. Anderson
This government-commissioned report argues for the improvement of education and reduction in alcoholism among Aboriginal populations to reduce the sexual abuse of Aborigional children.
This section contains details of the territory’s laws as they relate to sexual offenses, children and the use of the Internet in the commission of criminal activity. Where possible, sentence details have been given, including whether an increased custodial penalty is imposed where the victim is a child.
The age of consent in the Northern Territory is 16.
- Care and Protection of Children Act 2007. This law establishes a screening process for child-related employment. It aims to ensure that individuals who pose an unacceptable risk of harming or exploiting children. The screening process prohibits such individuals from engaging in child-related employment, which includes providing child protection services for the government, working in schools, working in juvenile detention centres, or working in a religious organisation, among other listed jobs. It also requires people who are engaged in child-related employment or who engage others in child-related employment to hold a clearance notice that is in force. Circumventing this requirement is punishable by up to 500 penalty units. Additionally, this act established a reporting requirement for cases of child abuse and neglect for all people. A person is guilty of an offence if he/she believes on reasonable grounds that a child has suffered or is likely to suffer harm or exploitation, or the child is under 14 years old and has been or is likely to be a victim of a sexual offence. Health practitioners are required to report when they suspect on reasonable grounds that a child between the ages of 14 and 16 has been or is likely to be a victim of sexual offence and the difference in age between the child and alleged sex offender is more than two years.
- Section 125B, Criminal Code Act. Possession of child abuse material. This section states that a person who possesses, distributes, produces, sells, or offers or advertises for distribution or sale child abuse material is guilty of a crime. An individual guilty of this offence is liable to 10 years’ imprisonment; a corporation guilty of this offence is liable to a fine of 10,000 penalty units.
- Section 125C, Criminal Code Act. Publishing indecent articles. This section states that a person who publishes an indecent article is guilty of an offence. An individual is liable to two years’ imprisonment; a corporation is liable to a fine of 175 penalty units. For the purposes of this section, an article may be indecent even though part of it is not indecent.
- Section 125E, Criminal Code Act. Using child for production of child abuse material or pornographic or abusive performance. This section states that a person who uses, offers or procures a child who appears to be a child for the production of child abuse material or for a pornographic or abusive performance is guilty of this crime. An individual is liable to 14 years’ imprisonment; a corporation is liable to a fine of 15,000 penalty units.
- Section 127, Criminal Code Act. Sexual intercourse or gross indecency involving child under 16 years. This section states that anyone who has sexual intercourse with or commits an act of gross indecency upon a child under 16 years old is guilty of a crime and is liable to 16 years’ imprisonment. If the child is of or over the age of 10 years and under the age of 16 years and the crime is committed in any of the following circumstances, the offender is liable to imprisonment for 20 years: (a) the offender is in the company of another person; (b) the child is (whether generally or at the time of the commission of the offence) under the care of the offender; (c) the child has a serious physical disability; (d) the child has a serious intellectual disability; (e) the offender took advantage of the child being under the influence of alcohol or a drug in order to commit the offence. If the child is under 10 years old, the offender is liable to 25 years’ imprisonment. It is a defence to a charge under this section to prove that the child was 14 or older and the accused person reasonably believed that the child was 16 or older.
- Section 127, Criminal Code Act. Sexual intercourse or gross indecency involving child over 16 years under special care. Any adult who has sexual intercourse with or commits an act of gross indecency upon a child who is 16 or older and under his/her special care is guilty of a crime and is liable to four years’ imprisonment. If the child is 16 or older but younger than 17 years old, the offender is liable to eight years’ imprisonment. The special care standard applies to the step-parent, guardian or foster parent of the victim, a victim’s school teacher, a victim’s instruction or supervisor, an officer at a correctional institution where the victim is detained or a victim’s health care provider.
- Section 131, Criminal Code Act. Attempts to procure a child under 16 years. This section states that any person who attempts to procure a child who is under 16 years old to have sexual intercourse, or to commit, perform or engage in any act of gross indecency, is guilty of a crime punishable by three years’ imprisonment. It is a defence under this section to prove that the child was 14 or older and the accused believed on reasonable grounds that the child was 16 or older.
- Section 131A, Criminal Code Act. Sexual relationship with child. Any adult who maintains a sexual relationship with a child under 16 years old is guilty of a crime punishable by seven years’ imprisonment. A person will not be convicted of this crime unless it is proven that the offender, as an adult, committed acts in relation to the child at least three times during the specified time period. It is a defence to prove that the child was 14 or older and the accused believed on reasonable grounds that the child was 16 or older.
- Section 132, Criminal Code Act. Indecent dealing with child under 16 years. This section states that anyone who indecently deals with a child under 16; exposes a child under 16 to an indecent act by the offender of any other person; permits himself to be indecently dealt with by a child under 16; procures a child under 16 years old to perform an indecent act; intentionally exposes a child under 16 to an indecent object; film, videotape, audiotape, photograph or book without legitimate reason; or intentionally takes or records an indecent visual image of a child under 16 without legitimate reason is guilty of a crime. This is punishable by 10 years’ imprisonment. If the child is under 10 years old, the offender is liable to imprisonment for 14 years. It is a defence to prove that the child was 14 or older and the accused believed on reasonable grounds that the child was 16 or older, except in cases of incest.
- Section 192, Criminal Code Act. Sexual intercourse and gross indecency without consent. A person is guilty of a crime if he/she has sexual intercourse with another person without the other person’s consent, and knowing about or being reckless as to the lack of consent. The maximum penalty is imprisonment for life. A person is guilty of a crime if the person performs an act of gross indecency on another person without the other person’s consent and knowing about or being reckless as to the lack of consent. The maximum penalty is 14 years’ imprisonment. A person who attempts to commit nonconsensual sexual intercourse is liable to seven years’ imprisonment. An adult person who attempts to commit nonconsensual sexual intercourse upon a person under the age of 16 is liable to 14 years’ imprisonment.
- Section 192B, Criminal Code Act. Coerced sexual self-manipulation. Any person who coerces another person to engage in self-manipulation, in circumstances where the other person cannot be reasonably expected to resist, is guilty of a crime and is liable to 17 years’ imprisonment.
- Section 201, Criminal Code Act. Abduction, enticement or detention of child under 16 years for immoral purpose. Any person who takes or entices away, or detains a child under the age of 16 with the intention of having sexual intercourse with the child, or that the child shall be indecently dealt with or exposed to indecent behavior, is guilty of a crime. This is punishable by seven years’ imprisonment.
- Section 202, Criminal Code Act. Abduction of child under 16 years. A person who takes a child who is under 16 out of the custody or protection of his/her parent or legal guardian against the will of one of these parties is guilty of a crime and is liable to three years’ imprisonment. If the offender is an adult or if the child is under 14 years old, the offender is liable to seven years’ imprisonment. It is immaterial that the offender believes the child is above the age of 16 or 14, as is the child’s being taken with his/her consent or at his/her suggestion.
- Section 202B, Criminal Code Act. Sexual Servitude. A person who causes an adult to enter into or continue in sexual servitude is guilty of a crime and is liable to 15 years’ imprisonment. A person who causes a child who is 12 or older to enter into or continue in sexual servitude is guilty of a crime punishable by 20 years’ imprisonment. A person who causes a child under 12 years old to enter into or continue in sexual servitude is guilty of a crime and is liable to imprisonment for life.
- Section 202C, Criminal Code Act. Conducting business involving sexual servitude. A person who conducts a business that involves the sexual servitude of adults is guilty of a crime and is liable to imprisonment for 15 years. A person who conducts a business that involves the sexual servitude of a child of or over the age of 12 years is guilty of a crime and is liable to imprisonment for 20 years. A person who conducts a business that involves the sexual servitude of a child under the age of 12 years is guilty of a crime and is liable to imprisonment for life.
- Section 202D, Criminal Code Act. Deceptive recruiting for sexual services. A person who deceives a person about the fact an engagement will involve the provision of sexual services, with the intent to induce him/her into an engagement to provide sexual services is guilty of a crime and is liable to imprisonment for 10 years. If the person deceived by the offender is a child, the offered is liable to 15 years’ imprisonment.
- Section 276B, Criminal Code Act. Unlawful access to data. A person who unlawfully accesses data held in a computer with intent to cause loss or harm to the person entitled to the data or a third person, or to gain a benefit or advantage is guilty of a crime and is liable to imprisonment for 10 years. A person who unlawfully uses data that has been accessed unlawfully, whether or not he or she is the person who gained the access to the data, is guilty of a crime and is liable to imprisonment for 10 years.
- Section 276C, Criminal Code Act. Unlawful modification of data. A person who unlawfully causes any modification of data held in a computer and intends by the modification to impede access to, or to adversely affect the reliability, security or operation of, data held in a computer, is guilty of a crime and is liable to imprisonment for 10 years.
- Section 276D, Criminal Code Act. Unlawful impairment of electronic communication. A person who unlawfully causes impairment of electronic communication to or from a computer and intends to impair electronic communication to or from the computer or any other computer is guilty of a crime and is liable to imprisonment for 10 years.
2006 – The Child Abuse Taskforce was created as a joint initiative between the Northern Territory Police and Northern Territory Families and Children. In early 2007, the Australian Federal Police joined the taskforce. CAT investigates allegations of serious and complex child abuse cases. It also aims to raise awareness of child protection issues, safety precautions and reporting abuse. Its website tailors information towards kids, youth and adults, providing safety tips, quizzes, resources, explanations of different types of abuse and lists of support services.
2013 – The Northern Territory Police joinedthe national ThinkUKnow program, which teaches internet safety to parents, carers, teachers and children. A specific focus is placed on the risk of online predation and sexual exploitation of children.
2015 – The newly formed NT Joint Anti Child Exploitation Team (JACET), a partnership between the Northern Territory Police and the Australian Federal Police made its first arrest on online child sexual exploitation offences. JACET works to identify organized networks involved in procuring and grooming children online.