2002 - Chicos.net is an organization which develops innovative projects for education and social inclusion for children and adolescents. They have published a range of guides, manuals and research related to ICTs, social networking, and children and digital technology. It aims to bring teachers, students and the general public a range of resources and materials designed to promote good practice in a digital world.
2003 - Argentina has a national portal, Educ.ar, which is designed to implement the policies designed by the Ministry of Education. It aims to achieve this by providing teachers with a range of dynamic content which is available online or on a CD, online training for teachers and programs for providing Internet connectivity to schools. The portal also manages the distribution of recycled computer equipment to schools across the country.
2006 - The Ministry of Education formed the ICT unit. Its objective is to foster joint actions related to ICT at different levels of the education system and other areas of Ministry of Education. It promotes equity in access to ICT by teachers and students of secondary schools.
2007 - Areport from Telefónica, Situation Analysis of Children & Youth in Argentina with Respect to ICT, reported the following information about children’s use of the Internet:
- Only 15% of young people aged eleven to seventeen have Internet access at home. However, in 2005, 2700 cyber cafes existed in Buenos Aires alone.
- Between January 23 and March 25, 2005, inspections were carried out on cyber cafes in Buenos Aires. Of the 61 premises checked, 36 were closed down for not having filters to block access to pornography for minors. (A local requirement not replicated nationally.)
- Of the young people aged between seven and seventeen, living in metropolitan areas that are connected to the Internet, 83% accessed it without parental supervision.
- 65% of young people aged eleven to seventeen use the Internet for Chat, 45% for music, 50% look for information and 45% use email.
2008 - Informática Legal, a company specializing in providing information and training on computer and Internet law, is committed to educate Argentine children and their parents about online dangers and preventative measures, promoting good practice and a responsible netiquette.To that end they hold talks and training sessions in schools, universities, municipalities and educational communities across Argentina throug its initiative Internet Responsable.
2010 - The Telefónica Foundation is very active in the education space in Argentina. It provides information for students, teachers and parents on a wide range of education-related issues. The primary focus of the Foundation’s activities in education is to promote the inclusion of new technologies to bridge the digital divide that may exist both culturally and socially.
The Plan [email protected] Buenos Aires it is part of the Digital Education Comprehensive Plan, an initiative of the Ministry of Education of the City of Buenos Aires, whose main objective is to integrate state primary schools of Buenos Aires City into the digital culture to promote social inclusion and digital literacy. The program provides laptop computers with wireless Internet connection to all teachers and students of the target schools across Buenos Aires, together with training and support of ICT facilitators.
2011 - The Civic Front of Santiago, currently governing the province and its 26 municipalities, filed a draft resolution to include grooming and sexting education in the curriculum of all levels.
2014 - Chicos.net launched the project Todoa1clic which aim is sensitize children and adolescents in Latin America about the problems of affecting their communities through technology. It also focuses digital citizenship by teaching duties and rights on the virtual world that allow them to seize the opportunities offered by new technologies whilst also avoiding risky situations.
Is an NGO which aim is to increase public digital safety through education and awareness campaigns aimed at various stakeholders. They promote laws governing the Internet and aim to protect its users, whilst also striving to educate children and adolescents on issues related to computer security.
Association for Information Security in the Republic of Argentina (ASIRA)
It is an NGO dedicated to the development, study and research on the problem of security in information systems and communications, creating spaces for the development of appropriate knowledge in order to achieve policies that promote the safe management of information.
It provides information for children and adolescents on Internet safety, as well as educational resources for teachers to use in the classroom and beyond. Working in partnership with public, private, national and international companies, Chicos.net designs and implements initiatives that promote compliance with children’s rights and protection. This organization was founded and is managed by a group of parents with children and provides Internet safety information aimed at children, parents and teachers.
Federal Police Cyber Crimes Unit
Is a unit of the Argentine Federal Police, the Cyber Crimes unit undertakes investigations into crimes committed through the use of technology including child pornography. The division organizes seminars to train staff and the general public and works with NGOs, prosecutors and judges. The website is very basic but provides a point of contact for those interested in obtaining more information about the Unit’s work.
Instituto Interamericano del Niño, la Niña y Adolescente (INN)
A specialized body of the Organization of American States (OAS) on children and adolescents policy that provides guidance to the different states on how they must assume protection.
INTERPOL is the world’s largest international police organization, with 190 member countries. Its mission is to enable police forces to collaborate globally to fight crime in the Internet age. Three areas of focus are crimes against children (with a focus on internet crimes and travelling sex offenders), cybercrime and human trafficking.
Latin American Network of Educational Portals (La Red Latinoamericana de Portales Educativos – RELPE)
Formed in 2004 by an agreement of the Ministries of Education from sixteen Latin American countries, a network of educational portals, allowing the collaboration and sharing of educational content between the member countries. It also provides for the construction of standards and methodologies of processes to position the network as a benchmark in the region and the world on collaborative management of educational content.
Latin American Network of ICT and Education (Red Iberoamericana de TIC y Educación – RIATE)
This organization promotes bilateral or multilateral cooperation for development through the exchange of information, initiatives and projects that promote the integration of ICT in education in 21 countries.
Mediación y Violencia
This organization aims to eradicate violence, bullying, cyberbullying, child abuse and the maltreatment of any socially vulnerable group. They work towards building awareness and encouraging communication.
One Laptop per Child (OLPC)
A nonprofit organization launched by Massachusetts Institute of Technology Media Lab, whose aim to empower the world’s poorest children through education by providing a low cost laptops.
Created to provide Internet safety information to children, adolescents, parents and teachers, Segu Kids educates on ways to prevent and protect, as well as the responsible use of modern technologies.
The Interactive Generations Forum
A nonprofit organization which mission is to promote the use of technology to improve people’s lives. It was founded in 2008 by Telefónica, the University of Navarra and the Inter-American Organization (OUI). The Forum seeks to understand the impact of technology on children aged between 6 - 18 in Latin America, to provide educational resources for that age group and to educate through its own programs.
The Network for the Rights of Children and Adolescents to the Safe and Responsible Use of New ICTs - RedNATIC
It comprises a joint group of organizations from across Latin America. Its member organizations assume as shared the principles of the statements contained in the Theoretical Framework for the rights of children and teens to a Safe and Responsible Use of ICT.
Building a Safe Internet: A challenge and a possibility (2016)Maria Jose Ravalli
This small report talks about the current unicef’s aim of improving digital citizenship in Argentina
Study on the Effects of New Information Technologies on the Abuse and Exploitation of Children (2015)UNODC
This is a study on how the new information technologies are part of abuse and child exploitation when misusing them
Protecting Children from Cybercrime (2015)Simone dos Santos Lemos Fernandes, Legal Consultant, Global Forum on Law Justice and Development (GFLJD), Legal Vice Presidency, World Bank
This report studies different Latin American countries’ legislation on the prevention and combat of violence against children on the internet. It also identifies gaps and good practices on the protection of children from cybercrime.
The commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children in Latin America (2014)ECPAT International
This report studies the different forms of sexual exploitation of children inLatin America. Furthermore, it highlights the new emerging trends and how Latin america is addressing this phenomena
Children’s Rights in the Digital Age (2014)A. Third, D. Bellerose, U. Dawkins, E. Keltie, K. Pihl
This study found unequal access to digital media among youth from 16 countries, among other key findings on children's digital usage.
Worldwide Online Bullying Survey (2012)Microsoft
This survey explored children’s experience of online bullying in 25 countries across the globe.
ICT IN EDUCATION IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN A regional analysis of ICT integration and e-readiness (2012)UNESCO Institute for Statistics
UNESCO Institute for Statistics, based on survey responses from 38 countries reveals the extent to which factors such as education policy, teacher training, and infrastructure drive or hamper the integration of ICTs in schools.
Digital technologies meet the challenges of inclusive education in Latin America: some examples of good practices (2012)NU. CEPAL, European Commission
The publication includes a series of studies on policies and programs to integrate digital technologies into education in various Latin American countries. The document also presents eight cases of good practices in ICTs that can be used in the Latin American school system to contribute to inclusion and reduce social inequalities.
Online Bullying Among Youth 8-17 Years Old – Argentina (2012)Microsoft
This survey explored children’s experience of online bullying in 25 countries across the globe.
Worldwide Online Bullying Survey. (2012)Microsoft
This survey explored children’s experience of online bullying in 25 countries across the globe.
Online Child Sexual Abuse Content: The Development of a Comprehensive, Transferable International Internet Notice and Takedown System (2011)Internet Watch Foundation
Report analyzes the legislative frame in that regulates inlines child sexual abuse content.
Status of ICT policy development. Country report Argentina (2011)Community Research and Development Information Service
This is a report on the sttatus of ICT in Argentina. It explores its policy, strategies of implementation and compare this information with other member countries of PRO-IDEAL
Computers in Schools: Why governments Should do their Homework (2011)Inter-American Development Bank
This chapter is a comparison of the Latin American governments include ICT in their educational programs.
Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children and the Internet (2011)Inter American Children’s Instirute
This is a report to the Organization of American States on the situation of the member states in the issue of commercial sexual exploitation and the impact of internet in their lives.
2010 Human Rights Reports: Argentina (2011)Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor
A comprehensive report on the situation of Human Rights in Argentina during 2011.
State party Examination of Argentina’s Initial Report on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography (2010)NGO Group for the Convention on the Rights of the Child
This paper examines the state of Argentina after the ratification of the optional protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography.
Hacia un entendimiento de la interacción de los adolescentes con los dispositivos web 2.0. El caso de Facebook. (Towards an Understanding of the Interaction of Adolescents with Web 2.0 devices. The Case of Facebook.) (2009)Chicos.net
This survey examines the Facebook experiences of children aged thirteen to eighteen living in the City of Buenos Aires and the surrounding area.
[email protected] Y Tecnología (2009)Chicos.net
This research aims to achieve a better understanding of the customs and practices of children and adolescents using ICTs, aged between nine and eighteen and of different socio-economic backgrounds in Buenos Aires and the vicinity.
Los desafíos de las TIC para el cambio educativo (2009)Roberto Carneiro, Juan Carlos Toscano and Tamara Díaz
This is a collective Inter-American educational program which goals are projected until the year 2021. It analyses the challenges of the new era of education and the importance of incorporating ICT on it.
Argentina Primary School Gives a PC to Every Student (2008)Graciela Bertancud
A report on the impact of technology on students and their process of learning the school Tomas Alva Edison in Mendoza, Argentina.
2004 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Argentina (2005)Bureau of International Labor Affairs
Report on the findings on the worst forms of labor in Argentina during 2004. It explores the incidences of child labor, government legislation, enforcement, policies and programs to eliminate them.
ICT Policy and Poverty: the Argentine Case (2004)Hernan Galperin
This paper explores the disparity in the ICT infrastructure and the digital divide
This section contains details of the country’s laws as they relate to sexual offenses, children and the use of the Internet in the commission of criminal activity. Where possible, sentence details have been given, including whether an increased custodial penalty is imposed where the victim is a child.
The age of consent for sexual activity in Argentina is eighteen, as is the minimum age for marriage without parental consent and the age of majority.
Argentina’s 23 provinces and one autonomous district, Buenos Aires, have a similar level of autonomy to the states and territories of Australia. Any local laws and constitutions must abide by those laid down at a national level before all else.
In 2008, National Law 26388 was approved, introducing information technology crimes to the Criminal Code. Offenses are typified as crimes of the following conducts: the distribution and possession with the intent to distribute child pornography; e-mail violations; illegal access to information systems; distribution of virus and damages to information systems; aggravated crimes against information systems; and interruption of communications.
The Autonomous City of Buenos Aires passed a law requiring educational institutions, libraries and other areas under government ownership that have computers available for students and/or the general public to install and activate filters that block access to pornographic websites.
- Article 110, Criminal Code. States that anyone who intentionally defames another person with intent to damage the honor or reputation of the victim is guilty of an offense and liable to a fine of 1,500 to 90,000 pesos or imprisonment from one month to one year.
- Article 113, Criminal Code. This Article states that anyone who publishes or reproduces, by any means, libel or slander inflicted by another person shall be liable to the same penalty as the person responsible for the initial defamation.
- Article 119, Criminal Code. This Article imposes a penalty of imprisonment for between six months and four years for anyone who sexually abuses a child under the age of thirteen years or sexually assaults a person in a manner that is violent, accompanied by threat or intimidation of authority, or where the victim is unable to consent due to lack of mental capacity or any other cause. The penalty will be increased to four to ten years if the abuse causes “outrageous sexual subjection to the victim” whether by circumstance or duration of the abuse, and six to fifteen years’ imprisonment if the offense included sexual penetration. The penalty will be increased to eight to twenty years in circumstances where the act causes serious damage in the physical or mental health of the victim, the act is committed by a family member or educator, the actor is knowingly infected with a contagious sexually transmitted disease, the act is committed by multiple people or in possession of a weapon, the act is committed by a police officer or someone of similar position, or the act was committed against a child under eighteen years, taking advantage of cohabitation to perpetrate the act.
- Article 120, Criminal Code. This Article applies to the rape of a person aged between thirteen and fifteen, which renders the offender liable to between three and six years’ imprisonment. The penalty is increased to six to ten years under aggravating circumstances including where the act causes serious damage to the physical or mental health of the victim, the act is committed by a family member or educator, the actor is knowingly infected with a contagious sexually transmitted disease, the act is committed by a police officer or someone of similar position, or the act was committed against a child under eighteen years, taking advantage of cohabitation to perpetrate the act.
- Article 124. Criminal Code - States that the sentence will be life imprisonment in the cases of articles 119 and 120 that result in the death of the person offended.
- Article 125, Criminal Code. States that anyone who promotes or facilitates the corruption of minors under the age of eighteen, even with consent, will be liable to imprisonment for three to ten years. Where the victim is under the age of thirteen, an increased sentence of six to fifteen years will be imposed. Regardless of the victim’s age, the penalty shall be imprisonment for ten to fifteen years if the offense was accompanied by deceit, violence, threats or abuse of power or a position of authority, or by a family member or guardian.
- Article 125 bis, Criminal Code. States that anyone who promotes or facilitates the prostitution of person under the age of eighteen, even with their consent, will be punished with imprisonment for between four and ten years. The same aggravating circumstances of Article 125 apply.
- Article 126, Criminal Code.** States that it shall be punished with imprisonment for four to ten the act of promoting or facilitating the prostitution of anyone over eighteen years of age using deceit, abuse of a relationship of dependency or power, violence, threat, or any other means of intimidation or coercion.
- Article 127, Criminal Code. States that it is a crime punishable by three to six years imprisonment to use deception, coercion or abuse of intimidating a relationship of dependency, of authority, power, violence, threat or any other means of intimidation or coercion to gain financially from the prostitution of another person.
- Article 127 bis, Criminal Code. Where the victim is under eighteen year of age, the penalty will be four to ten years imprisonment for facilitating the entry or exit of a person from a country for the purpose of prostitution. The penalty will be six to fifteen years when the victim is less than thirteen years. The penalty will be imprisonment for ten to fifteen years when committal uses deception, violence, threat, abuse of authority or any other means of intimidation or coercion, as also if the offender is a relative, spouse, cohabitant, or guardian.
- Article 127 ter, Criminal Code. States that it is a crime to use deceit, violence, threat, abuse of authority or any other means of intimidation or coercion to facilitate the entry or exit of a country for a person over the age of eighteen for the purpose of prostitution. This crime is punishable by imprisonment of three to six years.
- Article 128, Criminal Code. Imposes a penalty of imprisonment for between six months and four years for anyone who produces, finances, offers, trades, publishes, facilitates or distributes by any means, including the Internet, any image of a minor who is or appears to be under the age of eighteen engaged in explicit sexual activities, or any representation of their genitals for predominantly sexual purposes. Any person who facilitates access to pornographic images or material to minors under the age of fourteen will be liable to imprisonment for between one month and three years.
- Article 129, Criminal Code. Defines the offense of performing obscene acts in public, which renders the offender liable to a fine of between 1,000 to 15,000 pesos. Where the person witnessing the obscene act is under the age of eighteen, the penalty shall be imprisonment for between six months and four years. The same penalty applies to the victimization of girls under the age of thirteen, regardless of whether the minor consented to witnessing the act.
- Article 130, Criminal Code. This Article states that anyone who kidnaps another person by force, intimidation or fraud, with intent to subject the victim to non-consensual sexual intercourse, will be liable to imprisonment for between one and four years. This is aggravated to between two and six years’ imprisonment if the victim is under the age of thirteen. Where the victim is a minor under the age of sixteen who consented to the act, a prison sentence of between six months and two years will be imposed.
- Article 131, Criminal Code. States that it is a crime to use the phone, Internet, or any other mode of technology with the intent to commit any crime against the sexual integrity of a person under the age of eighteen. This offense is punishable by six months to four years imprisonment.
2003 - Argentina ratified the Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography (OPSC).
2004 - The Organization of American States (OAS) (of which Argentina is a member) unanimously adopted the Comprehensive Inter-American Cybersecurity Strategy, which aimed to enhance international cooperation on cyber security among member states.
2005 - Argentina became the first Latin American country to establish a national cyber crime bureau, Computer Security Incident Response Team (CSIRT).
2008 - Argentina passed a comprehensive cyber crime law, specifying penalties for online crimes like hacking, distributing child pornography, and illicit data interception.
In its 2008 report to the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child, Argentina reported that it had established the National Office for Children, Youth and Family (SENNAF), which focuses on the prevention of sexual exploitation of children and trafficking in persons and has a specialized team to monitor activities of pedophiles and child pornographers on the Internet, detect situations in which rights were being violated, and identify the circuits and methodology with which pedophiles operate. This team coordinates its work with the Division of Cybercrime, and the Division of Criminal Analysis and of Offenses against Minors, which is part of the Argentine Federal Police (PFA).
2011 - The government put in place a national cybersecurity plan and set up the National Program of Critical Information Infrastructure and Cybersecurity to promote cybersecurity. In doing so, the government invited both the public and private sectors to increase efforts to address online safety.
2012 - In collaboration with Colombian law enforcement and allies in Chile and Spain, Argentina participated in “Operation Unmask,” a plan to address online hacking.
Argentina, in collaboration with UNICEF, published the National Plan of Action for the Rights of Children and Adolescents, with one of its goals to strengthen active policies that protect children and adolescents against abuse, neglect, trafficking, exploitation, violence, and all forms of discrimination. Specifically, the plan utilizes the Special Unit to Promote the Eradication of Sexual Exploitation of Children and Adolescents under the Human Rights Secretariat to promote policies that protect the rights of children and adolescent victims of sexual abuse. Furthermore, they published an informative document for children and adolescents called InternetSegura (Spanish).
2013 - Argentina took steps to participate in international collaborative cybersecurity efforts, including hosting the “2013 Meridian Conference” on critical infrastructure protection (becoming the first Latin American country to do so) and starting bilateral cooperation talks with Brazil on cybersecurity. Additionally, the National Office of Technology drafted a National Cyber Security and Critical Infrastructure Protection Plan 2013–2015 focused on raising awareness for the need to cyber security, securing digital assets, promoting judicial and academic understanding of information security, and developing critical information infrastructure.
After three years of debate, the Argentine government amended its Criminal Code to include an ‘online grooming’ statute, making it illegal to use any form of technology to facilitate the sexual victimization of children.
2014 - Along with Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Spain, Uruguay, and Venezuela, Argentina participated in “Operation Historia” creating a platform for the partner countries to work together to target online child pornography distributors. About 100 arrests were made, with almost half of them in Argentina.
2015 - Argentina created the Undersecretary of CIIP and Cybersecurity and the National Direction of CIIP and Cybersecurity under the Chief of the Cabinet Office for the National Government. The Ministry of Defense also instituted the General Direction of Cyber Defense under the Ministry of Defense.