Vietnam

Population

94,348,835

Population 0‑14

24.1%

Internet Users

50.1%

Facebook Users

35,000,000

Mobile Subscribers

143,000,000
* Statistics provided by CIA.gov, Internet World Stats and GSMA Intellligence

2000 - Vietnam first recognized the need to integrate IT into the education system, when the Ministry of Education and Training (MoET) issued the Master Plan for Information Technology in Education for the Period 2001-2005. The plan envisaged building an IT infrastructure for education and training, consisting of computer networks (including the Internet) and computer rooms in schools and all educational institutions, linked together to provide access to resources and databases for teaching and learning activities.

2008 - Directive 55 of the Ministry of Education and Training (MoET) shifts the priority from establishing ICT access to the enhancement of teaching, training and applying through the use of IT in education. The provincial District Offices of Education and Training (DOET) are requested to locally implement the education network, along with the development of an e-mail education management system, allowing all staff, teachers and students in each school to be exchange information.

2010 - ChildFund Connect is a global education program supported by the Australian Government’s Overseas Aid Program and ChildFund Australia. The objective of this initiative is to provide children, in their last years of primary school, the opportunities to connect and learn from other children around the world. Besides Vietnam, this program runs in Australia, Laos, Timor-Leste and Sri Lanka.

2011 - UNICEF in partnership with Yahoo launched Yahoo! Safety Viet Nam, an initiative which purpose is to promote online etiquette, managing digital reputation, how to avoid cyber-bullying and other types of abuses and exploitations. In addition, the platform serves as a resource to teach educators, parents and children about the responsible use of online technology.

2012 - Yahoo, Government representatives, academia and development partners, supported the UNICEF-led workshop Youth of Viet Nam Online. As part of the global UNICEF Digital Citizenship and Safety (DCS) project, the aim of the workshop was to promotes the use of new media and technologies to advance the rights of children in developing countries, while identifying the risks that they can present.

2013 - The Vietnam Internet Day was celebrated for the first time by the Ministry of Education and Training (MoET). Internet and telecommunications infrastructure in the country has gradually flourished and every year transforming the country. During the 2015 celebration, a range of seminars were held introducing the latest modern techniques and applications in various fields of IT infrastructure, mobile, Internet-based applications, online services, digital content, e-commerce, online marketing, and Internet safety.

Annually organized by Insafe, The Safer Day in Vietnam provides a series of events at schools and other venues throughout the month of February. The events raise awareness of the dangers of internet while promoting learning and the need for safely using it.

Child Rights Coalition Asia

CRC is a network of children’s rights and human rights organizations in Asia, which brings the child rights perspectives and agenda to regional and international advocacy.

EduNet

Educational network that has been designed to link all universities, colleges, provincial departments of education and Ministry of Education and Training departments

INTERPOL

INTERPOL is the world’s largest international police organization, with 190 member countries. Its mission is to enable police forces to collaborate globally to fight crime in the Internet age. Three areas of focus are crimes against children (with a focus on internet crimes and travelling sex offenders), cybercrime and human trafficking.

Ministry of Education and Training

It is responsible for all primary and secondary education in the socialist republic. Their ICT Center is staffed by eighteen experts and responsible for educational software development, ICT training and the realization of ICT projects in education.

NoBullyin.com

It is an online forum aimed at educating, advising, counselling and helping to stop bullying, particularly cyberbullying. Although the many efforts of Vietnam to maintain safe education in the country and being the first country in Asia to confirm the UN convention on the Rights of the Child, the review Bullying in Vietnam, demonstrates that there is still a lot of work to do.

VietNet Information Technology and Communication Center

It is an organization founded in 2007 by the Vietnam Scientific Association for Development of Talents- Human Resources. It supports disadvantaged people in gaining access and benefit from ICT and narrowing the the digital divide.

Factors Influencing Integration of ICT in Higher Education in Vietnam

Jef Peeraer and Peter Van Petegen

This study explores the factors that influence the integration of ICT in the teaching Education being Vietnam an emerging developing country.

Executive Summary - Vietnam (2015)

ECPAT

This is a summary on the overall situation of Vietnam on child prostitution, trafficking of children, child pornography and child sex tourism.

Vietnam’s ICT: Future R&D Strategy (2015)

Nguyen Ngoc Binh

This is a presentation on Vietnam’s ICT Status. It gives an overall understanding of the situation of this phenomenon.

Sex, Abuse and Childhood (2014)

Dr Sophorntavy Vorng

A report on the findings of child sexual abuse in vulnerable communities in Cambodia, Lao PDR, Thailand, and Vietnam.

Vietnam: Embracing ICT for Economic Catch-up (2014)

Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy - Microsoft Case Studies Series on Information Technology.

This document studies the case of ICT growth of Vietnam as it is considered on of the developing countries with highest rates of ICT adoption and lowest cost of ICT use.

Report of the twenty-eight meeting of the World Tourism Network on Child Protection (2013)

UNWTO

Report on the 28th meeting of the World Tourism Networking on Child Protection. On this version, the delegates talked about ICT and the protection of children in tourism.

Trafficking in Persons Report 2013 (2013)

U.S. Department of State, Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons

Report on the issue of trafficking in persons in Vietnam. It highlights violations, prosecution, protection, prevention and gives some recommendations to the Vietnamese Government.

Child Sex Tourism: International Standards and Analysis of Vietnam’s Legal Framework (2012)

Ms. Lindsay Buckingham

This is a presentation of the workshop on A Legal Framework to Combating Child Sex Tourism in Hai Phong in 2012.

Exploratory Research on Trafficking in Boys in Vietnam (2012)

Tran Thi Hang and Jobst Koehler

This is a comprehensive research of the issue of trafficking in boys in Vietnam. Its aim is to contribute to rise awareness to local authorities of this phenomenon to have a policy response.

Vietnam (2012)

OpenNet Initiative (ONI)

This is a report on the usage of internet in Vietnam. It highlights the aims of the Vietnamese government to regulate Internet as it continues to expand throughout the national territory.

The Trafficking of women and Children from Vietnam (2011)

Child Exploitation and Online Protection Centre and the British Embassy, Hanoi

A report examines the situation of Vietnam on child trafficking. It focuses on the irregular increase of children arriving to the UK.

Information and Data on Information and Communication Technology Vietnam (2011)

The Ministry of Information and Communications

The Vietnam ICT White Book is a report that reflect the development status of Vietnam in the ICT sector.

An Analysis of the Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children in Selected Provinces and Cities of Vietnam (2011)

Nguyen Trong Dam and Lotta Sylwander

This is a report on the situation of Vietnamese children being sexually exploited and the new manifestation of CSEC that have emerged.

Reversing the Trend: Child Trafficking in East and South-East Asia (2009)

UNICEF East Asia and Pacific Regional Office

This report is a synthesis of seven country assessments, highlighting trends, gaps, lessons learned, promising and good practices across Asia.

Toward a Safer Internet Environment for Children (2009)

Ngo Quang Huy

This is a presentation on the presence of internet in vietnamese youth

National Report of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam Under the Universal Periodic Review of the United Nations Human Rights Council (2009)

The United Nations

This report by the Embassy of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam in the United States of America, reviews the human rights situation of the country.

E-Learning in Vietnam (2008)

Quach Tuan Ngoc and Nguyen Ngoc Binh

This presentation provides an An Overview of E-Learning in Vietnam. It explains the different platforms and program by the Ministry of Education and Training.

State Party Examination of Vietnam’s Initial report on the Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography (2006)

NGO Group for the Child Rights Connect

This periodic examination of Vietnam’s initial report on the optional protocol on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography. It addresses the general measures of implementation, legislation, court procedures, media, technologies rehabilitation, trafficking, exploitation and forced labour.

National Report on the Implementation of the Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography and the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict (2004)

Socialist Republic of Vietnam

A national report on the implementation of the optional protocols on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography and the involvement of children in armed conflict

Meta-survey on the Use of Technologies in Education in Asia and the Pacific (2003)

Glen Farrell, Cédric Wachholz

This study identifies and analyses the different practices in the use of ICTs in education in Asia and the Pacific. it discusses countries’ policies, challenges and successful ICT integration in the region.

An Analysis of Vietnam’s ICT and Services Sector (2003)

Shyam R. Chidamber

This paper analyses the position of Vietnams in the global ICT industry.

Vietnam’s ICT Enabling Environment: Policy, Infrastructure and Applications (2002)

Laurel Elmer

This paper examines Vietnam’s environment to support the use of ICTs. It analyzes policies and infrastructure for ICT applications and it gives advise to the government.

Vietnam Internet Case Study (2002)

Tim Kelly and Michael Minges

This is the case study of Internet in Vietnam. It presents data of the different ICTs

This section contains details of the country’s laws as they relate to sexual offenses, children and the use of the Internet in the commission of criminal activity. Where possible, sentence details have been given, including whether an increased custodial penalty is imposed where the victim is a child.

  • Article 111, Penal Code. Rape. This Article states that anyone who uses violence, threatens to use violence, takes advantage of the victim’s inability for self-defense or resorts to other tricks in order to have sexual intercourse with the victim against her will is liable to between two and seven years’ imprisonment. An aggravated penalty of imprisonment for a term of between seven and fifteen years will apply in the following cases: if the crime has been committed in an organized manner; if the offender is responsible for the victim’s care, education or medical treatment; if the crime was committed jointly by more than one person; if the offender is a recidivist; the victim was rape more than once during the offense; if there was more than one victim; if the crime was of an incestuous nature; if the victim fell pregnant as a result of the crime; if the victim suffered harm to her/his health with an infirmity rate of between 31% to 60%. A penalty of between twelve and 20 years’ imprisonment, or imprisonment for life, will apply if rape is committed in one of the following circumstances: if the victim suffered harm to her/his health with an infirmity rate of 61% or higher; if the offender committed the crime even though he knew he is infected with HIV; if the victim dies or commits suicide as a result of the crime. The Article also states that committing the crime against a juvenile aged over sixteen but under eighteen years renders the offender liable to imprisonment for five to ten years; the aggravating circumstances mentioned above also apply. In addition, the offender may also be banned from holding certain posts, practicing certain occupations or doing certain jobs for one to five years.
  • Article 112, Penal Code. Rape Against Children. States that anyone who rapes a child over the age of thirteen and under sixteen will be sentenced to imprisonment for between seven and fifteen years. An aggravated penalty of imprisonment for a term of between twelve and 20 years will apply in the following cases: if the act constituted incest; if the act caused harm to the victim’s health with an infirmity rate of between 31% to 60%; if the offender is responsible for the victim’s care, education or medical treatment; if the act constituted dangerous recidivism. A penalty of 20 years’ imprisonment, life imprisonment or capital punishment will apply if rape is committed in one of the following circumstances: if the crime was committed jointly by more than one person; if there was more than one victim; if the victim suffered harm to her/his health with an infirmity rate of 61% or higher; if the offender committed the crime even though he knew he was infected with HIV; if the victim dies or commits suicide as a result of the crime. The Article also states that all cases of sexual intercourse with children under the age of thirteen are considered rape against children and offenders will be liable to imprisonment for between twelve to 20 years, life imprisonment or capital punishment. In addition, the offender may also be banned from holding certain posts, practicing certain occupations or doing certain jobs for between one to five years.
  • Article 113, Penal Code. Forcible Sexual Intercourse. Defines forcible sexual intercourse as employing trickery to induce persons dependent on them or persons being in dire straits to have sexual intercourse with the offender against the victim’s will. The offense is punishable by imprisonment for between six months to five years. The penalty will be increased to between three and ten years’ imprisonment in the following circumstances: more than one person compelled one victim to have sexual intercourse with them; the offense was committed more than once; the offense also constitutes incest; the victim falls pregnant as a result of the crime; the act caused harm to the victim’s health with an infirmity rate of between 31% to 60%; the offense constitutes dangerous recidivism. The Article also states that an aggravated penalty of imprisonment for a term of between seven to eighteen years will apply: if the victim suffered harm to her/his health with an infirmity rate of 61% or higher; if the offender committed the crime even though he knew he was infected with HIV; if the victim dies or commits suicide as a result of the crime. Committing forcible sexual intercourse against juveniles over the age of sixteen but under eighteen will be punished by between two and seven years’ imprisonment; the aggravating circumstances mentioned above also apply. In addition, the offender may also be banned from holding certain posts, practicing certain occupations or doing certain jobs for between one and five years.
  • Article 114, Penal Code. Forcible Sexual Intercourse with Children. This article states that anyone who has forcible sexual intercourse with children aged between thirteen and sixteen years will be sentenced to between five and ten years’ of imprisonment. An aggravated penalty of imprisonment for between seven to fifteen years applies in the following circumstances: if the crime constitutes incest; if the victim falls pregnant as a result of the crime; if the act caused harm to the victim’s health with an infirmity rate of between 31% to 60%; if the act constitutes dangerous recidivism. The article also states that a penalty of imprisonment for between twelve to 20 years, or life imprisonment, applies if the crime was committed in one of the following circumstances: the crime is committed jointly by more than one person; the offense was committed repeatedly; there was more than one victim; the victim suffered harm to her/his health with an infirmity rate of 61% or higher; the offender committed the crime even though he knew he is infected with HIV; the victim dies or commits suicide as a result of the crime. In addition, the offender may also be banned from holding certain posts, practicing certain occupations or doing certain jobs for one to five years.
  • Article 115, Penal Code. Having Sexual Intercourse with Children. Imposes a penalty of between one to five years’ imprisonment for any adult who has sexual intercourse with a child aged over thirteen but under sixteen years of age. The following aggravating circumstances increase the penalty to between three and ten years’ imprisonment: the crime is committed more than once; there was more than one victim; the crime also constitutes incest; the victim falls pregnant as a result of the crime; the act caused harm to the victim’s health with an infirmity rate of between 31% to 60%. The Article also states that an increased penalty of imprisonment for between seven to fifteen years will apply if the victim suffered harm to her/his health with an infirmity rate of 61% or higher, or if the offender committed the crime even though he knew he was infected with HIV.
  • Article 116, Penal Code. Obscenity Against Children. This Article states that any adult who commits obscene acts against children will be sentenced to imprisonment for a term of between six months and three years. The following aggravating circumstances will increase the penalty to between three and seven years’ imprisonment: the act is committed more than once or against more than one child; the crime caused serious consequences; the act constitutes serious recidivism. The Article also states that committing the crime with serious consequences or particularly serious consequences, the offender will be sentenced to between seven and twelve years’ of imprisonment. In addition, the offender may also be banned from holding certain posts, practicing certain occupations or doing certain jobs for between one to five years.
  • Article 117, Penal Code. Spreading HIV to Other Persons. States that those who know they are infected with HIV and intentionally spread the disease to other persons will be sentenced to between one and three years’ imprisonment. The Article also states that committing the crime in one of the following circumstances will lead to an increased penalty of imprisonment for between three to seven years: the crime was committed against more than one person; the victim is a juvenile; the crime is committed against a doctor or medical worker who treats the offender directly; the crime is committed against persons performing their official duties or for reasons of the victims’ official duties.
  • Article 118, Penal Code. Intentionally Spreading HIV to Other Persons. This Article imposes a penalty of between three and ten years’ imprisonment for those spreading HIV intentionally to other persons in cases other than those defined in Article 117. The following will lead to an increased penalty of imprisonment for between ten to 20 years, or for life: the crime was committed in an organized manner, against more than one person, against juveniles or against persons performing their official duties or for reasons of the victims’ official duties. The same applies if the crime was committed by abusing the offender’s profession. In addition, the offender may also be banned from holding certain posts, practicing certain occupations or doing certain jobs for between one and five years.
  • Article 119, Penal Code. Trafficking in Humans. States that anyone who traffics humans will be liable to imprisonment for between two and seven years. The following aggravating circumstances increase the penalty to between five and 20 years’ imprisonment: the crime was committed in an organized manner; the victims are traded for the purpose of prostitution or for sending them overseas; the offender is of professional character; the crime was committed against more than one person or more than once. In addition, the offender may be subject to a fine of between VND 5,000,000 and VND 50,000,000, to probation or a residence ban for five years.
  • Article 120, Penal Code. Trading in, Fraudulently Exchanging or Appropriating Children. States that anyone who trades in, fraudulently exchanges or appropriates children in any form will be liable to imprisonment for between three and ten years. The following aggravating circumstances will increase the penalty to between ten and 20 years’ imprisonment, or life imprisonment: the crime was committed in an organized or professional manner, or for a despicable motive; the victims are traded for the purpose of prostitution, inhumane purposes, for taking the victim abroad or for taking their bodily organs; the crime was committed against more than one child; the crime caused serious consequences or was dangerous recidivism. In addition, the offender may be subject to a fine of between VND 5,000,000 and VND 50,000,000, a ban from holding certain posts, practicing certain occupations or doing certain jobs for between one and five years, or subject to probation for the same period.
  • Article 121, Penal Code. Humiliating Other Persons. This Article imposes a penalty of a warning, non-custodial reform for up to two years or a prison term of between three months and two years for anyone who seriously infringes upon the dignity or honor of other persons. The following aggravating circumstances will increase the penalty to between one and three years’ imprisonment: the crime was committed against more than one person or more than once; the offender abused his/her position and/or power; the offender is responsible for the victim’s education, care or medical treatment; the offense is committed against persons who are performing their professional duties. In addition, the offender may also be banned from holding certain posts, practicing certain occupations or doing certain jobs for between one and five years.
  • Article 122, Penal Code. Slander. States that anyone who creates or spreads stories knowing them to be fabricated in order to infringe upon the honor or damage the legitimate rights and interests of other persons will be subject to warning, non-custodial reform for up to two years or a prison term of between three months and two years. The same sentence applies to anyone who makes up a story that other persons commit crimes and denounces them before the competent agencies. The following aggravating circumstances will increase the penalty to between one and seven years’ imprisonment: the crime was committed in an organized manner; the offender abused their position or powers to commit the crime; the crime was committed against more than one person, against persons who are performing their official duties, against the offender’s own grandfathers, grandmothers, fathers, mothers or persons who teach, nurture, look after, educate and/or medically treat them; the slander accused the victim or committing a very serious or particularly serious crime. In addition, the offender may be subject to a fine of between VND 1,000,000 and VND 10,000,000, a ban from holding certain posts, practicing certain occupations or doing certain jobs for between one and five years.
  • Article 253, Penal Code. Disseminating Debauched Cultural Products. This Article sets a monetary penalty of between VND 5m and VND 50m, a non-custodial reform for up to three years or imprisonment for between six months to three years for anyone who makes, duplicates, circulates, transports, sells, purchases or stockpiles decadent books, newspapers, pictures, photographs, films, music or other objects for the purpose of dissemination thereof, or commits other acts of disseminating debauched cultural products in one of the following circumstances: the offense involves large quantities of cultural products; the cultural products are disseminated to more than one person; the offenders have already been administratively sanctioned for such act or have already been sentenced for such offense, not yet entitled to criminal record remission but continue to commit it. The Article also states that an increased penalty of between three and ten years’ imprisonment applies if the crime was committed in an organized manner; if the objects involved in the offense are in particularly great quantity; if the offense was committed against juveniles; if the crime caused serious consequences; if the act constitutes a case of dangerous recidivism. A more severe penalty or imprisonment for between seven to fifteen years will apply if the objects involved in the offense are in particularly great quantity; if very serious or particularly serious consequences are caused. In addition, the offender may also be subject to a fine of between VND 3,000,000 and VND 30,000,000.
  • Article 255, Penal Code. Procuring Prostitutes. States that anyone who entices or procures prostitutes will be liable to imprisonment for a term of between six months to five years. The following aggravating circumstances will increase the penalty to between three to ten years’ imprisonment: the victim was a juvenile aged between sixteen and eighteen; the offense was committed in an organized manner or against more than one person; the offender is of professional character; the offense is committed more than once or constitutes a case of dangerous recidivism; there is more than one victim; the offense caused other serious consequences. The Article also states that committing the crime against children aged between thirteen and sixteen, or causing very serious consequences, will increase the penalty to between seven and fifteen years’ imprisonment. In addition, the offender may be subject to a fine of between VND 1,000,000 and VND 10,000,000.
  • Article 256, Penal Code. Sexual Intercourse with Juveniles. This Article states that anyone who has paid sexual intercourse with juveniles over the age of sixteen and under eighteen will be liable to imprisonment for between one to five years. The following aggravating circumstances increase the penalty to between three and eight years’ imprisonment: the offense was committed more than once; the victim was aged over thirteen but under sixteen years; the act caused harm to the victim’s health with an infirmity rate of between 31% to 60%. The penalty is between seven and fifteen years’ imprisonment if the offense is committed more than once against children aged between thirteen years and under sixteen years, or even though the offender knew that they had been infected with HIV. The same penalty applies if harm is caused to the health of the victim with a infirmity rate of 61% or higher. In addition, the offender will also be subject to a fine of between VND 5,000,000 and VND 10,000,000.

2001 - Vietnam ratified two protocols of the convention of the Rights of the Child passed May 16, 2001. These two protocols address the issues of sale of children, child prostitution, child pornography and the use of children in armed conflict.

2013 - Project Childhood is an Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID) initiative to combat the sexual exploitation of children in the Mekong sub-region. together with World Vision and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) they work with governments and communities to prevent children from becoming victims of sexual exploitation in travel and tourism.

2016 - Unicef Vietnam proposed to the Vietnamese Government for the Building capacity on online child sexual exploitation for law enforcement in Vietnam - Child Protection. The purpose of this consultancy is to build institutional capacity for law enforcement professionals to successfully prevent, detect, and investigate online child sexual exploitation.