Uzbekistan

Population

29,199,942

Population 0‑14

24.6%

Internet Users

43.6%

Facebook Users

450,000

Mobile Subscribers

20,300,000
* Statistics provided by CIA.gov, Internet World Stats and GSMA Intellligence

2004 - The Government of Uzbekistan adopted the National Program for Basic Education Development (NPBED) for 2004 - 2009 with the main objective to improve the quality of education and establish a compulsory 12-year schooling system by 2009. One of the five components of the program is to provide schools with new modern teaching aids and laboratory equipment, computers, textbooks and materials.

Furthermore, The Ministry of Public Education (MOPE), in assistance from the Asian Development Bank (ADB), developed and implemented the National ICT Strategy for Basic Education to improve the quality of learning and teaching in basic schools by ensuring effective and sustainable access to appropriate ICT for all teachers and students. The first 5-year phase (2005– 2009) of the strategy aimed at introducing ICT in teaching and learning to grades 5–9 subjects in all schools and preparing for future ICT expansion in improving financial, educational, and infrastructural conditions. The second 5-year phase (2010–2014) continued implementing ICT in grades 5–9 and began introducing ICT basic training to all students in grades 1–4. As of 2013, ICT use in schools increased from zero in 2005 to a minimum of 5.0 hours per week, the number of teachers with skills regarding modern pedagogy and information technology rose from 3% to 13%, and all schools gained equitable access to ICT.

2006 - Funded by the Government of the Republic of Korea, Centre for the Development of Multimedia Educational Programs implemented “Informatization of secondary schools of the Republic of Uzbekistan” project. The aim of the project was to improve the quality of secondary education of the Republic of Uzbekistan, through the development and implementation of ICT in the educational process. Project provided modern computer classes in 1500 schools, established Center for ICT Development in Education (CICDE), and developed educational portal (Ziyo Net) and school (VPN) network.

2008 - The Tech Age Girls (TAG) program was implemented by IREX with support from Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OCSE), Peace Corps, USAID, and US Department of State to develop information technology (IT) skills of young female leader. The program addresses the underrepresentation of women in the IT field and promotes the online presence of girls’ voices in local languages.

2009 - Over the span of three years, the Government of Uzbekistan provided e-Textbooks and other e-learning materials and versions of textbooks as well as training aids and manuals according to the State Educational Standards through its Development of Effective Multimedia Teaching and Learning tools program.

The same year, International Research and Exchanges Board (IREX) has completed the Internet Access and Training Program (IATP), which was initiated in 1995 by the U.S. Department of State’s Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs and in 2007, was funded by USAID. The program promoted internet usage and information access by setting up IATP centers in over 250 locations in 11 Eurasian countries, including Uzbekistan. In addition, IATP staff created over a dozen training modules, covering basic computer literacy, Web design, internet research, blogging, and wiki creation.

2010 - UNESCO, in cooperation with the Ministry of Public Education and Intel Moscow, held a workshop on introduction of New Pedagogical and Information Communication Technologies in Uzbekistan Education for teachers at teacher training institutions. The course focused on building skills of teachers for the use of information and innovative educational technologies in the 21st century classroom.

2011 - The Asian Development Bank (ADB) completed Rural Basic Education Project, which was initiated in 2008. The project was proposed in line with Government’s NPBED, focusing on the improvement of the relevance and quality of basic education in rural areas. ADB provided assistance in modernizing the curriculum and textbook, as well as improving teaching and learning through information and communication technology.

2013 - The Government of Uzbekistan implemented Education Sector Plan 2013-2017, where it continues working on the implementation of ICT in classroom and expanding teachers ICT skills and modernizing teaching methods.

2014 - The Ministry of Public Education has implemented the Improving Pre-primary and General Secondary Education Project, which was developed by the World Bank inline with the Education Sector Plan 2013-2017, and is expected to be completed by the 2018. The project supports the professional development of education personnel through improvements of training conditions, including upgrading schools to the minimum school standards in terms of ICT equipment for computer labs and teaching and learning materials. It plans to finance the purchase of ICT equipment for all 14 provincial education departments and 194 district education departments.

2015 - The Ministry for Development of Information Technologies and Communications, established by the president in 2015, has taken over the implementation E-Government Development Program 2013–2020, as well as launched the ICT Infrastructure Development Program 2015-2019, which is comprised of nine investment projects totalling $883.7 million.

UNESCO Asia and the Pacific Regional Bureau for Education organized the Central Asia Symposium on ICT in Education (CASIE) as a sub-regional platform for the Member States (Republic of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Mongolia, Republic of Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Republic of Uzbekistan) to brainstorm possible solutions for integrating technologies into the education systems and teachers’ education. All participating member states and international experts convened to formulate a long-term (3 to 5 years) strategic action plan for the sub-region to achieve the effective integration of ICT in education.

2016 - The World Bank has financed Modernizing Higher Education Project, which is planned to be completed in 2023. The project provides support for the government in improving laboratories and research systems in the higher education institutions that will help better prepare higher education graduates to contribute to scientific progress in an effort to increase economic growth.

Center for Development of Multimedia Educational Programs

The center operates under the Ministry of Public Education has developed and introduced 119 e-materials, 40 virtual labs, 113 multimedia resources and 1,074 information and resource centers.

Foundation for Educational, Scientific and Cultural Cooperation (IFESCCO)

The foundation contributes to the further development of humanitarian cooperation and intercultural communication in the Commonwealth of Independent States in the area of education, science, culture, mass communications, information, archives, sport, tourism and youth matters.

iEARN - Uzbekistan

The organization grows out of a collaboration with IREX to conduct professional development workshops for educators and others in Uzbek communities. iEARN-Uzbekistan created an innovative Cyber school for persons with disabilities.

Information-Educational Portal

Managed by the Ministry of Public Education, the portal is the repository for multimedia content, distance learning materials and e-learning course resources for the education system in Uzbekistan.

International Research and Exchanges Board (IREX)

An international nonprofit organization provides leadership and innovative programs to promote positive lasting change globally. They enable local individuals and institutions to build key elements of a vibrant society: quality education, independent media, and strong communities. Their program activities include conflict resolution, technology for development,gender, and youth.

INTERPOL

INTERPOL is the world’s largest international police organization, with 190 member countries. Its mission is to enable police forces to collaborate globally to fight crime in the Internet age. Three areas of focus are crimes against children (with a focus on internet crimes and travelling sex offenders), cybercrime and human trafficking.

Ministry for Development of Information Technologies and Communications

The ministry implements a unified state policy in the field of information technology and communications, “e-government” strategies, and develops and implements comprehensive programs for the implementation and development of the national information and communication system based on world-class information technology development, protection and use of information.

Ministry of Higher and Secondary Specialized Education (MOHSSE)

The ministry implements a unified state policy in the field of higher and secondary specialized vocational education and ensures compliance with the goals and objectives outlined the National Programme for Training.

Ministry of Public Education (MOPE)

The Ministry is responsible for all types of education in the country. Its websites contains information, with sections specifically for parents, teachers and students, as well as more general information.

Tashkent Social Information Center “Istiqbolli Avlod”

A non-governmental, non-profit organisation whose mission is to provide assistance in the improvement citizens quality of life, protection of their rights and interests by implementing informational, social, socio-economic, educational and health-improving programs in society.

Freedom of the Net: Uzbekistan (2014)

Freedom House

Report on the status of internet usage freedom in Uzbekistan.

ICT in Education in Central and West Aisa (2012)

Asian Development Bank

Progerss of implementation of ICT in education sector of Central and West Asian countries

Promotion of the use of Information and Communication Technologies in Technical and Vocational Education and Training in CIS countries (2012)

UNICEF

This analytical report presents the results of a comparative study on current situation and main tendencies in ICT use in TVET in CIS countries: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan. Besides, the report includes recommendations on further development and improvement of the use of modern ICTs in Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET).

Meta-survey on the Use of Technologies in Education in Asia and the Pacific (2003)

Glen Farrell, Cédric Wachholz

This study identifies and analyses the different practices in the use of ICTs in education in Asia and the Pacific. it discusses countries’ policies, challenges and successful ICT integration in the region.

This section contains details of the country’s laws as they relate to sexual offenses, children and the use of the Internet in the commission of criminal activity. Where possible, sentence details have been given, including whether an increased custodial penalty is imposed where the victim is a child.

The age of majority and the age of consent for sexual intercourse in Uzbekistan is sixteen. The legal age of consent for marriage is seventeen.

  • Article 103, Criminal Code. Bringing to Suicide. This Article states that it is a crime to bring someone to suicide by cruel treatment or the persistent degradation of honor and dignity of a person, who was not financially or otherwise connected to the offender. The penalty for this offense is correctional labor for up to three years or imprisonment for up to five years. The same penalties apply to those in a position of responsibility (financial or otherwise) over the victim.
  • Article 104, Criminal Code. Intentional Infliction of Serious Bodily Injury. The infliction of intentional serious bodily injury which endangers life at the moment it was inflicted; or causing a loss of eyesight, hearing, aphasia, or a body part, or physical disability, mental or any other illness, is deemed to be unlawful. Aggravating factors include causing serious disability, interrupting a pregnancy, or disfiguring a body. The punishment for this offense is imprisonment for between three and five years. If the intentional serious bodily injury was inflicted: on a woman known to be pregnant; to a person or his close relatives in connection with his performing a professional or civil duty; with abnormal brutality; during a riot; from mercenary motives; due to hooliganism; due to ethnic or religious hatred; due to religious prejudices; for the purpose of obtaining a transplant; or if it was committed by a group of individuals, it incurs a penalty of imprisonment for between five and eight years. Where the serious bodily injury was: inflicted to at least two people; inflicted repeatedly, by a dangerous recidivist, or by a person who has previously committed an intentional killing defined by Article 97; inflicted by a special dangerous recidivist; inflicted by a member of an organized criminal group in its interests; or where it resulted in the death of a victim, it incurs a penalty of imprisonment for between eight and ten years.
  • Article 105, Criminal Code. Intentional Infliction of Medium Bodily Injury. Defines the crime as the intentional infliction of medium bodily injury which does not endanger life at the moment it was inflicted (and not resulting in consequences defined by Article 104, Criminal Code) but resulting in an ongoing illness which persists from between 21 days and four months, or a significantly stable disability from 10% to 33%. The penalty for this offense is correctional labor for up to three years, or by imprisonment for up to three years. If the injury was inflicted on: two or more people; to a woman known to be pregnant; to a person or his close relatives in connection with his performing a professional or civil duty; with abnormal brutality; during a riot; from mercenary motives; due to hooliganism; due to ethnic or religious hatred; due to religious prejudices; for the purpose of obtaining a transplant; or if it was committed by a group of individuals, it incurs a penalty of imprisonment for between five and eight years. Where the serious bodily injury was: inflicted by at least two people; inflicted repeatedly, by a dangerous recidivist, or by a person who has previously committed an intentional killing defined by Article 97; inflicted by a special dangerous recidivist; inflicted by a member of an organized criminal group in its interests; or where it resulted in the death of a victim, it incurs a penalty of imprisonment for between eight and ten years.
  • Article 106, Criminal Code. Infliction of Serious or Medium Bodily Injury in the Heat of Passion. This Article states that inflicting serious or medium bodily injury in the heat of passion caused by lawless violence or extreme provocation by a victim, as well as by a lawless action by a victim that resulted in or could have resulted in a death or danger to the health of the guilty person or a person close to him, is a crime punishable with correctional labor for up to two years or arrest for up to six months, or imprisonment for up to three years. Article 107, Criminal Code. Infliction of Serious or Medium Bodily Injury in Excess of Self-Defense. The crime of inflicting serious or medium bodily injury in excess of self-defense is punishable by correctional labor for up to two years or arrest for up to six months. Article 108, Criminal Code. Intentional Infliction of Serious or Medium Bodily Injury by Abuse When Apprehending Person Who Committed a Socially Dangerous Act. Defines the offense of inflicting intentional serious or medium bodily injury by abuse when apprehending a person who has committed a socially dangerous act and states that it is punishable with correctional labor for up to two years or arrest for up to six months.
  • Article 109, Criminal Code. Infliction of Trivial Bodily Injury. Where an injury was not serious enough to fall under the previous Articles, the crime will be punishable by a fine of up to twenty five minimal monthly wages or correctional labor for up to one year or arrest for up to three months. More serious temporary injuries are punishable by a fine of between 25 to 50 minimal monthly wages or correctional labor for to two years or arrest for four months.
  • Article 111, Criminal Code. Reckless Inflicting Medium or Serious Bodily Injury. Anyone who recklessly inflicts a medium bodily injury is liable to be punished by a fine of up to 25 minimal monthly wages or correctional labor for up to two years. Anyone who recklessly inflicts a serious bodily injury on another person shall be punished with a fine from between 25 to 50 minimal monthly wages or correctional labor for up to two years, or arrest for up to three months. Anyone who recklessly inflicts a medium or serious bodily injury to at least two persons is liable to be punished with a fine of between 50 to 75 minimal monthly wages or arrest from between four to six months.
  • Article 112, Criminal Code. Threat of Killing or of Violence. If there are reasonable grounds to believe that a threat of killing or violence is credible the offender will be punished with a fine of up to 25 minimal monthly wages or correctional labor for up to one year, or with arrest for up to six months. Where the same crime is committed by: an especially dangerous recidivist or is a member of an organized criminal group, acting in its interests, it is punishable with a fine up to 25 minimal monthly wages or correctional labor from between one and two years, or imprisonment for up to one year. If the action was committed in respect of a person or his close relatives in connection with the performance of a professional or civil duty, it is punishable with correctional labor from between one and three years, or with imprisonment for between one and three years.
  • Article 118, Criminal Code. Rape. Defines rape as being sexual intercourse committed by the use of force, threats, or the abuse of a position of helplessness and states that it is punishable with imprisonment from between three and seven years. If the crime was committed by at least two people; was committed repeatedly, by a dangerous recidivist or a person who has previously committed a crime laid out in Article 119 of this Code; by a group of individuals or where a threat to kill was made, the penalty is imprisonment for between seven and ten years’ imprisonment. If (among other things) the victim was under the age of eighteen, a close relative of the offender or the crime resulted in grave consequences, the sentence increases to between ten and fifteen years. If the crime is knowingly committed against a child under the age of fourteen, the penalty increases to imprisonment for between fifteen and 20 years.
  • Article 119, Criminal Code. Forceful Sexual Intercourse in Unnatural Form. This Article states that sexual intercourse in unnatural form (sodomy) committed by the use of force, threats, or the abuse of a position of helplessness is punishable by imprisonment for between three and seven years. Where the same crime is committed by at least two people; was committed repeatedly, by a dangerous recidivist or a person who has previously committed a crime laid out in Article 118 of this Code; by a group of individuals or where a threat to kill was made, the penalty is imprisonment for between seven and ten years. Where the victim was known to be under eighteen years of age; the offender was a close relative of the offender or the crime resulted in grave consequences, the sentence increases to between ten and fifteen years’ imprisonment. If the crime is knowingly committed against a child under the age of fourteen, the penalty increases to imprisonment for between fifteen and 20 years.
  • Article 120, Criminal Code. Besoqolbozlik (Consensual Homosexual Intercourse). Defines the term ‘Besoqolbozlik’ as meaning voluntary sexual intercourse between two males and states that this is punishable by imprisonment for up to three years.
  • Article 121, Criminal Code. Coercion of a Woman to Sexual Intercourse. The coercion of a woman to engage in sexual intercourse in a natural or unnatural form by a person, on whom the woman was in financial, service, or other dependence is punishable by correctional labor for up to two years or arrest for up to six months. The same actions accompanied with sexual intercourse in a natural or unnatural form will incur an increased penalty of correctional labor for between two and three years or imprisonment for between three and five years.
  • Article 128, Criminal Code. Sexual Intercourse with Person under Sixteen Years of Age. States that it is illegal to engage in sexual intercourse in both natural and unnatural form with a person known to be under sixteen years of age. The penalty for this offense is correctional labor for up to two years or arrest for up to six months, or imprisonment for between three and five years. Where the same act is committed repeatedly or by a dangerous recidivist; by a person, who has previously been convicted of crimes laid out in Articles 118 or 119 of the Code, the penalty increases to imprisonment for between three and five years.
  • Article 129, Criminal Code. Vicious Acts in Respect of Person Aged under Sixteen Years. Anyone who commits unforced vicious acts in respect of a person he knows to be under sixteen years of age will face correctional labor for up to two years or arrest for up to six months. If the same crime is committed by the use of force or threat, the penalty increases to correctional labor for between two and three years or imprisonment for up to five years.
  • Article 130. Production and Dissemination of Obscene Objects. States that the production for the purpose of demonstrating and disseminating, as well as the demonstration and dissemination of obscene objects to persons under the age of 21, committed after the imposing of an administrative penalty for the same actions, is punishable by a fine of between 100 and 200 minimal monthly wages or correctional labor for up to three years.
  • Article 131, Criminal Code. Keeping Disorderly Houses and Procuration. States that it is illegal to establish and keep disorderly houses, as is procuration committed from mercenary or other foul motives. The offense is punishable by a fine of between 100 and 200 minimal monthly wages or correctional labor for up to three years. If the same offense is committed with the involvement of a juvenile; repeatedly by a recidivist or a person, who has previously been convicted of crimes laid out Articles 135 or 137 of this Code, the penalty increases to arrest for up to six months or imprisonment for up to five years.
  • Article 135, Criminal Code. Engagement of People for Exploitation. It is unlawful to engage any person for sexual or any other exploitation by deceit. This offense is punishable by a fine of between 100 and 200 minimal monthly wages or correctional labor for up to three years, or arrest for up to six months. Where the crime is committed repeatedly or by a dangerous recidivist; as part of a conspiracy between a group of individuals working together or in respect of a juvenile, the penalty increases to imprisonment for up to five years. If the crime is committed for the purposes of trafficking such persons outside the Republic of Uzbekistan, the penalty increases to imprisonment for between five and eight years.
  • Article 136, Criminal Code. Forcing or Preventing Marriage. States that it is illegal to forcing a woman to get married or continue cohabitation, or to abduct her with the intent to marry against her will, as well as preventing her to get married. The penalty for this offense is a fine of up to 25 minimal monthly wages or correctional labor for up to three years, or arrest for up to six months, or imprisonment for up to three years.
  • Article 137, Criminal Code. Kidnapping. This Article states that the offense of kidnapping without elements detailed in Article 245 of the Code is punishable by imprisonment for between three and five years. Where the same crime is committed in respect of a juvenile; from mercenary or other foul motives; by a planned act or where it is commented repeatedly or by a dangerous recidivist, the penalty increases to imprisonment for between five and ten years. Where the offense is committed by an especially dangerous recidivist or resulted in grave consequences, an increased penalty of imprisonment for between ten and fifteen years.
  • Article 138, Criminal Code. Forceful Illegal Deprivation of Liberty. The forceful illegal deprivation of liberty is punishable by a fine of up to 50 minimal monthly wages or correctional labor for up to three years, or imprisonment for up to three years. Where the same crime is committed with the infliction of physical suffering, or where the victim was placed in conditions which endangered life or health, the penalty increases to imprisonment for between three and five years.
  • Article 139, Criminal Code. Denigration. Defines denigration as the dissemination of false, defamatory information and states that where this offense is committed after a previous administrative penalty for the same action, it is punishable with a fine of up to 50 minimal monthly wages or correctional labor for up to two years. Where the offense is committed through a printed or otherwise copied text or through mass media the penalty increases to a fine of between 50 to 100 minimal monthly wages or correctional labor for between two and three years, or arrest for up to six months, or imprisonment for up to six years. Where the offense was aggravated by the commission of a serious or especially serious crime that resulted in grave consequences; was committed by an especially dangerous recidivist or from mercenary or other foul motives, the penalty increases to imprisonment for up to three years.
  • Article 140, Criminal Code. Insult. Defines insult as the intentional grievous degrading of the honor and dignity of a person and states that where this offense is committed after a previous administrative penalty for the same actions, it is punishable by a fine of up to 50 minimal monthly wages or correctional labor for up to one year. Where the offense is committed through a printed or otherwise copied text or through mass media, the penalty increases to a fine of between 50 and 100 minimal monthly wages or correctional labor from between one to two years. If the offense was committed in connection with a victim performing his or her professional or civil duty; or by a dangerous recidivist or a person previously prosecuted for denigration, the punishment increases to a fine of between 100 to 150 minimal monthly wages or correctional labor for between two and three years, or by arrest for up to six months.
  • Article 174, Criminal Code. Computer-related Crime. Defines the offense as unauthorized access to information networks or authorized access to information networks without taking the required security measures, or the illegal retrieval of information from such networks, as well as the intended change, loss, removal, or erasure of information during authorized work in an information system. Where this results in significant damage it is punishable by a fine of up to 75 minimum monthly wages, or correctional labor for up to three years. The making of computer viruses or software programs and their dissemination without due authorization, for the purposes of changing data or software programs which are stored in computer systems, as well as the unauthorized access to an information system which has results in the corruption, removal, or erasure of information, or cessation of the operation of said system is punishable with a fine of between 75 and 200 minimum monthly wages, or arrest from between three and six months and the deprivation of certain rights.

Actions of the Convention on the Rights of the Child: Uzbekistan has acceded, with no declarations or reservations to articles 16, 17(e) and 34 (c), to the Convention on the Rights of the Child and to articles 2 and 3, to the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography.

2012 - The Government of Uzbekistan passed a resolution that completely bans the use of mobile phones in the buildings of educational institutions. The aim of such measures is to prevent cheating, digital gaming, and the spread of materials undermining morals and ethics, including promotion of a culture of violence, cruelty and pornography, or promoting “reactionary sectarian, pseudo-religious ideology”.

According to Freedom of the Net Report by the Freedom House, social sites like YouTube, Facebook, Twitter, and LiveJournal remained generally available in 2013–2014, though some individual pages were blocked. To restrain social media’s growing popularity, Uzbek authorities have tried to promote domestic alternatives, including ld.uz (social network), Fikr.uz (blog platform), Utube.Uz (a sort of Uzbek YouTube). Most of these are designed for use only by Uzbekistan residents. Websites permanently blocked in Uzbekistan do not appear on www.uz, the national search engine of Uzbekistan’s government.