Turkey

Population

79,414,269

Population 0‑14

25.5%

Internet Users

59.6%

Facebook Users

41,000,000

Mobile Subscribers

71,100,000
* Statistics provided by CIA.gov, Internet World Stats and GSMA Intellligence

2006 - A protocol has been signed between Ministry of National Education and Türk Telekom, the largest internet provider in Turkey, to block pornography, terror, drug usage, weapons, gambling, violence, or any other harmful content for children through a filter mechanism.

2007 - The Government established the Turkish Information and Communication Technologies Authority in accordance with the law, No. 5651 “On Regulation of Publications on the Internet and Combating Crimes Committed By Means Of Such Publications” to protect mainly children and families from illegal content on the internet.

2008 - Türk Telekom donated free access to Vitamin, an interactive education software, to all primary and secondary public schools and teachers. To enhance teachers’ professionals skills, the company introduced Vitamin Öğretmen Portal, where teachers can participate in lessons, watch educational videos, and exchange educational documents with other teachers using this portal. The Information and Communication Technologies Authority established Safe Web in 2008 to raise awareness among the Turkish population of the dangers of the new technologies and to promote the responsible use of the Internet. In 2010, Safe Web launched Safer Kid where children can learn more about Internet safety and how to avoid online dangers through educational games.

2009 - Intel’s 1:1 technology integration program in Kocaeli began with a rollout of 27,000 PCs to sixth-grade students across the province. By 2013, total of 130,000 PCs with customize software have been provided free to the students and teachers. Turk Telecom completed 72 modern educational facilities, benefiting over 30,000 students, though its Full Support to Education project. Furthermore, through its Internet Houses project, Türk Telekom has commissioned 950 Internet Houses across 81 provinces, equipping each with 20 computers and broadband internet access for citizens to use for fee.

2010 - The Turkish Government has implemented its first ICT Strategy “Information Society Strategy (2006-2010)”, by introducing ICT and skill development in schools’ curriculum. The strategy emphasized the importance of widespread introduction and use of ICT in maintaining sustainable economic growth. The Innovation and Education Technologies Department (YEĞİTEK), a public foundation under the Ministry of National Education (MoNE), began one of the most significant educational projects in the world the FATIH Project (Movement to Increase Opportunities and Improve Technology), which was designed to provide tablet computers and Internet network infrastructure to 42,000 schools and 570,000 classes and ICT training to 680,000 teachers by 2019. As of 2015, 17,362 schools have received broadband Internet access. In 2012, 84,000 interactive whiteboards were introduced to schools and 30,000 more have been provided in 2015.

The Education Information Network (EBA), the world’s largest educational social platform, was established by the Ministry of National Education, which was designed under the component of FATİH Project. The portal is a government resource, which provides wider access to information resources and delivers innovative and equal learning and training opportunities for everyone. The portal provides a vast range of online services and learning materials as well as offering more measurement and evaluation services. Teachers can access Turkish content, former examination questions, as well as set up corporations with other schools to develop Internet-based projects.

2011 - The Ministry of National Education introduced Safe Internet (Guvenli Internet) application, which filters web search from harmful web content for children. Microsoft Turkey held a Family in Information Society Seminar on Internet Safety, in conjunction with the Darussafaka Educational Institutions. Students and their parents, attending the seminar, received expert advice relating to Internet safety and computer use, with a focus on parents and children working together to ensure that everyone has a safe online experience. Microsoft also launched the Open Academy in Turkey, which is the first and only public, online, free-of-charge, and Turkish application development school. The academy trains young people to become IT application developers, thus fulfilling the demand for IT innovators for the FATIH Project and supporting employment of young people. So far, 3,000 students have graduated from the academy, while around 130,000 have been admitted. Microsoft Turkey’s “Those Who Know Computer Teach Those Who Do Not Know” project has trained 150,000 people and opened, 25 Informatics Academies in Turkey.

Turkey hosted the conference on Information and Communication Technologies and the Internet and Communication Technologies Usage of the Children and Youth” as part of National Children’s Forum. The participants discussed issues regarding the children’s usage of secure internet and communication technologies, social developments of the children and youths, and the current policy situation in our country.

2014 - Intel has been conducting Intel® Teach and Intel® Learn programs with the Ministry of National Education since 2005. As of 2014, around 295,000 public school teachers have received training in 21st century technology, and around 95,000 students across 81 provinces received computer-based education outside of school. The Radio and Television Supreme Council (RTUK) in cooperation with the Ministry of National Education Education prepared Media Literacy Teaching Material for the Secondary Schools to be taught in the 2014-2015 academic year. RTUK also provides Internet safety information on its website, aimed at parents and children. Among the usual safety advice given to parents such as having the computer in a public room and using technology to block harmful sites, parents are reminded that it is illegal for their children to enter Internet cafes alone if they are under the age of twelve. This demonstrates the general approach taken by the government, combining legislation and information to convey the message.

The ninth Annual Internet Governance Forum (IGF 2014) was held in Istanbul under a theme ‘Connecting Continents for Enhanced Multistakeholder Internet Governance’. EU Kids Online Turkey participated in discussion, entitled ‘Researching children’s rights in a global, digital age’.

2015 - The Ministry of National Education hosted the FATIH Project Education Technologies Summit to highlight the recent trends and practices in educational technology and see its development and progres in the FATIH Project. The YEĞİTEK plans to buy special devices for students and teachers with visual impairment to transform books into audio files along with recorders and listening devices. The devices will also allow students to listen to over 4,000 audio files and books available on the Education Information Network (EBA). The Ministry of Development adopted Information Society Strategy and Action Plan 2015 - 2018, where building a strong information technology industry, installing broadband infrastructures through a healthy sectoral structure, organization of human resources in line with the needs of information society agenda, increasing effectiveness and reducing inequalities regarding access to information and communication technologies by different segments of the society, ensuring information security and user trust, and benefiting from information and communication technologies supported innovative solutions in societal challenges are some of the main policy pillars of the Strategy.

2016 - Organized by Turkey Safer Internet Day Committee (GIUVENLIWEB) through the Ministry of Communications, Safer Internet Day has been celebrated in Turkey since 2010. In partnership with Facebook and Google, and with support of the Information and Communications Technologies Authority, Turkey observed Safer Internet Day.

British Council

The Council promotes reforms in Turkey’s education sector, improves quality and enables access to high quality education while fostering greater cultural understanding between citizens of the UK and Turkey.

Darussafaka Society

The NGO promotes equal opportunities in education for disadvantaged children and operates a range of projects across Turkey.

EU Kids Online Turkey

A team of researchers works on the EU Kids Online project in Turkey. The website contains reports, posters and other information about various stages of the project, including contact details for the team.

European School Network

This group was founded in 2006 to create an exchange network among nine European schools. ESN arranges one-to-one student exchanges for one to eight weeks, and also provides the possibility of teacher exchanges, group exchanges and student seminars.

GSMA Europe

This industry association represents the interests of European mobile network operators. The group engages in lobbying in areas such as children’s use of mobile phones, privacy, digital inclusion and reducing the digital gender gap. In 2008, the organization formed a mobile alliance against child sexual abuse content.

Happy Children Association

A non-profit organisation that aims to create a better world for kids and tries to guide them to be able to cope with the problems that they may encounter in area of their lives.

Ihbar Web

Managed by the ITCA, this site enables users to report online content prohibited under the Turkish Internet Law, such as the sexual exploitation of children, obscenity or prostitution.

Information Technology and Communications Authority(ITCA)

The Authority is responsible for creating and maintaining the competition in the sector, protecting the rights of subscribers, users, consumers and end users, carrying out dispute resolution procedures between operators, tracking the developments and stimulating the development of the electronic communications sector, and planning and allocation of the frequencies, satellite position and numbering. Part of their mission is to generalize the safe and responsible use of Internet through making all the safer internet activities known by public.

Innovation and Education Technologies Department (YEĞİTEK)

A public foundation under the Ministry of National Education in Turkey that supports teaching and learning using educational technologies in national curriculum, investigating new educational technologies and developments for schools, ensures that educational technology opportunities are used by teachers and students, and organises and develops teacher training activities in ICT use in education.

International Children Center

A non-profit whose mission is to advocate for and support all children to achieve their full potential in health, growth and development within the framework of health and rights in the community.

International Telecommunications Union (ITU) Europe

The ITU is is the UN agency for ICTs. Areas of focus in Europe include improving E-accessibility in Central and Eastern Europe, transitioning Europe to digital broadcasting, and sharing best practices for implementing e-applications.

Internet Governance Forum

The IGF was founded by the UN in 2006 to serve as a discussion platform for internet governance policy issues. It brings together various stakeholders to determine best practices for internet policy. Past areas of focus include cybersecurity, human rights, inclusivity and openness.

INTERPOL

INTERPOL is the world’s largest international police organization, with 190 member countries. Its mission is to enable police forces to collaborate globally to fight crime in the Internet age. Three areas of focus are crimes against children (with a focus on internet crimes and travelling sex offenders), cybercrime and human trafficking.

Ministry of National Education

The ministry is responsible for the supervision of public and private educational system, national curriculum, and managing the e-school portal.

Network against Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children in Turkey

The organization is led by the International Children’s Center Association , it works to fight against the sale of children, child prostitution, child pornography, and to provide for the elimination of all kinds of commercial sexual exploitation.

The Radio and Television Supreme Council (RTUK)

The Turkish state agency for monitoring, regulating, and sanctioning radio and television broadcasts. RTÜK also leads some projects to protect children and to help parents in media environment.

Regional Review of National Activities on Child Online Protection in Europe (2017)

International Trade Union

This document contains a questionnaire developed by the ITU (International Telecommunication Union) that was distributed to national governments that are within the scope of the Regional Initiative for Europe on Building Confidence and Security in the use of ICT.

Country Case Studies : Regional Review of National Activities on Child Online Protection (2017)

Jaroslaw K. Ponder

The Regional Review of National Activities on Child Online Protection was developed in 2016 by the ITU (International Telecommunication Union) in partnership with the Information Technologies Authority of Turkey. This Case study covers the perceptions of online child safety issues, the availability of advice or guidance, the availability of awareness raising and related programs, national focal points, the legal framework/law enforcement resources, and perceptions of the level of co-operation with industry.

How parents of young children manage digital devices at home: the role of income, education and parental style (2015)

Livingstone, Sonia, Mascheroni, Giovanna, Dreier, Michael, Chaudron, Stephane, Lagae, Kaat

The report compares strategies of parental mediation on the internet according to levels of parental education and household income. The aim was to inform policy-makers and practitioners on how to approach parental guidance and awareness raising.

Combatting Child Sexual Abuse (2015)

Petra Jeney

The study provides an overview of existing legislation at European Union, Member State and the international level related to online child sexual abuse, as well as the role of law enforcement agencies in combatting child sexual abuse online and other governmental and private sector initiatives.

The impact of internet and new media on the occurrence of violence against children in Europe and Cyprus (2015)

Rosella Sala

This document demonstrate that countries lack of expertise on child sexual exploitation and struggle combating this issue by their own. It suggests to establish an international legal framework to prosecute offenders and protect children.

Global Research Project: A Global Landscape of Hotlines Combating Child Sexual Abuse Material on the Internet and an Assessment of Shared Challenges (2015)

Melissa Stroebe, Stacy Jeleniewski, PhD

This report examines hotlines combating Internet-facilitated Child Sexual Abuse Material.

Reducing violence against children, with special focus on sexual exploitation of children and child sex tourism. (2014)

The Netherlands, Defence for Children and ECPAT

This is a program by the Netherlands, Defence for Children and ECPAT, which objective is to reduce violence against children, with special attention to child sexual exploitation and child sex tourism.

Reducing violence agains children, with special focus on sexual exploitation of children and child sex tourism. (2014)

The Netherlands, Defence for Children and ECPAT

This is a program by the Netherlands, Defence for Children and ECPAT, which objective is to reduce violence against children, with special attention to child sexual exploitation and child sex tourism.

Global Alliance Against Child Abuse Online: Turkey (2014)

European Comission

Report on Turkey's commitment to stop Child Sexula Abuse Online

Children’s Rights in the Digital Age (2014)

A. Third, D. Bellerose, U. Dawkins, E. Keltie, K. Pihl

This study found unequal access to digital media among youth from 16 countries, among other key findings on children's digital usage.

Final recommendations for policy (2014)

O’Neill, B., Staksrud, E

Combining all the EU Kids Online policy guidance into one resource, this report provides more than 30 proposed actions for making the Internet safer for children.

Microsoft Computing Safety Index (2014)

Microsoft

This annual survey of more than 10,000 adults in 20 countries around the world creates the data for the MCSI, which measures the actions that consumers take to help keep themselves and their families safe online.

Internet Habits and Safe Internet Use of Children in Turkey and Europe (2014)

EU Kids Online - Turkey

This study as a part of EU Kids Online research project aims to identify children’s and parents’ Internet use and activities and risks of the Internet that children faced with in Europe.

Children's Use of Online Technologies in Europe (2014)

K. Ólafsson, S. Livingstone, L. Haddon

This report reviews recent research on children’s use of internet and mobile technologies identified by the EU Kids Online network.

Country classification: opportunities, risks, harm and parental mediation (2013)

Helsper, E.J., Kalmus, V., Hasebrink, U., Sagvari, B., and de Haan, J.

This report explores the range and type of online opportunities and risks experienced by children in each country. The ways in which parents mediate or regulate their children’s internet use is also examined.

Microsoft Computing Safety Index (MCSI). (2013)

Microsoft

This annual survey of more than 10,000 adults in 20 countries around the world creates the data for the MCSI, which measures the actions that consumers take to help keep themselves and their families safe online.

Zero to Eight - Young Children and Their Internet Use (2013)

Holloway, D., Green, L., and Livingstone, S. with members of the EU Kids Online network,

This report reviews a number of other studies and provides recommendations as to how younger children can be protected from online risks.

Risks and safety on the internet: Comparing Brazilian and European children (2013)

Barbosa, A., O’Neill, B., Ponte, C., Simões, J.A., Jereissati, T.,

This study compares the results of the survey of Brazilian children and their parents/guardians, carried out by the Brazilian Internet Steering Committee. Using the same methodology as the EU Kids Online research, the results from Brazil are compared with those from Europe.

Country Classification: Opportunities, Risks, Harm and Parental Mediation (2013)

Helsper, E. J., Kalmus, V., Hasebrink, U., Sagvari, B. and De Haan, J. with members of the EU Kids Online network

With data from 25 of the European countries surveyed in EU Kids Online, the report examines the range and type of online opportunities, risks and harm which children from each country experience, as well as looking at ways in which parents control or mediate their children’s Internet use.

In their own words: what bothers children online? (2013)

Livingstone S., Kirwil, L., Ponte C. and Staksrud E., with the EU Kids Online network

The results of a survey of nearly 10,000 children in 25 countries across Europe, this report details what children say upsets them and their friends online

Microsoft Computing Safety Index (MCSI) (2013)

Microsoft

The survey, Computing Safety Index, measures the steps people report taking to protect their computers, mobile phones, and info online in the categories of foundational, technical and behavioral.

Turkey’s Fatih Project: A Plan to Conquer the Dıgıtal Dıvıde or a Technologıcal Leap of Faıth? (2013)

RTI International

A study on implementation of of Turkey’s FATIH project.

Overview and Analysis of 1:1 Learning Initiatives in Europe (2013)

Intel

Intel 's report on the status of 1:1 Learning Initiative in Europe

EU Kids Online: National perspectives (2012)

Leslie Haddon, Sonia Livingstone and the EU Kids Online network

This report summarizes the Internet experiences of children in the 33 participating EU Kids Online countries and includes eight countries which have not appeared in previous reports

Global Digital Communication: Texting, Social Networking Popular Worldwide (2012)

J. Menasce Horowitz, K. Simmons, J. Poushter, C. Barker

The report is a part of the Pew Research Center's Global Attitudes Project, which conducts opinion surveys on subjects ranging from people's assessments of their own lives to their views about the current state of the world and important issues of the day.

The Protection of Children Online (2012)

Kristina Irion

The report provides key findings and policy recommendations to keep children safe online as a follow up to the 2008 Seoul Ministerial Declaration on the Future of the Internet Economy.

Worldwide Online Bullying Survey (2012)

Microsoft

This survey explored children’s experience of online bullying in 25 countries across the globe.

EU Kids Online: National perspectives (2012)

Haddon, L., Livingstone, S., EU Kids Online Network

This report summarizes the Internet experiences of children in the 33 participating EU Kids Online countries and includes eight countries which have not appeared in previous reports.

Worldwide Online Bullying Survey. (2012)

Microsoft

This survey explored children’s experience of online bullying in 25 countries across the globe.

EU Kids Online: Excessive Internet Use among European Children (2012)

Smahel, D, Helsper, E, Green, L, Kalmus, V, Blinka, L, Ólafsson, K,

This report uses the data from the EU Kids Online study to examine excessive use of the Internet by children in the 25 participating countries.

Excessive Internet Use by European Children (2012)

D. Smahel, E. Helsper, L. Green, V. Kalmus, L. Blinka, K. Ólafsson

This report presents new findings and further analysis of the EU Kids Online 25-country survey regarding excessive use of the internet by children.

Youth of Turkey on Line (2011)

UNICEF

An exploratory study of the Turkish digital landscape.

Risks and safety on the internet: The perspective of European children. Full Findings (2011)

Livingstone, S., Haddon, L., Görzig, A., Ólafsson, K

Building on the original study, EU Kids Online I, this second piece of research includes the findings from research which took place in 25 countries. Children in the 9 – 16 age group were surveyed on their experiences of online use, risk and safety

ICT in the Education of the Balkan Countries (2010)

Dr. Rossita Penkova, Dr. Violeta Mircheva, Nikolina Tsvetkova, Mirena Legurska

This is a comprehensive document on the situation of the ICT in education in the Balkan countries.

Education on Online Safety in Schools in Europe (2009)

Eurydice

The study covers 30 European countries and provides information on whether online safety is taught and how it is taught in schools within the participating countries.

ECPAT Global Monitoring Report: Turkey (2008)

ECPAT

Status of action against commercial sexual exploitation of children inTurkey

This section contains details of the country’s laws as they relate to sexual offenses, children and the use of the Internet in the commission of criminal activity. Where possible, sentence details have been given, including whether an increased custodial penalty is imposed where the victim is a child. The age of majority in Turkey is eighteen, legal age of consent is fifteen, and the legal age of consent for marriage is seventeen.

2004 - The Ministry of National Education issued a Circular on Internet Ethics (No.2004/61) whereby teachers and administrators are deemed responsible for ensuring safe Internet use among students by introducing guidelines for this purpose. The Ministry of Interior issued a Circular on Internet Cafés (No.2006/38), with regulations as to how they should be run, with a view to promoting a healthy environment and protecting children from accessing harmful Internet content. However, enforcement of the circular is insufficient.

2005 - Turkey established its first legal framework aimed at safeguarding the rights and well-being of both children in need of protection and children under legal investigation or who have been convicted of crimes. The Law on the Protection of Children was adopted in July 2005. Under the umbrella of Children First, technical support was provided by UNICEF with funding from the EU. The project aims to improve the capacities of professionals as well as policy and decision makers at legal, policy and institutional levels to establish a protective environment for children in contact with the law and vulnerable children. Training sessions and seminars have been conducted with the support of Children First in order to increase knowledge, practice and understanding of the new Child Protection Law among involved institutions. Thanks to the new law, there is now an option of applying alternative measures to children under fifteen years of age instead of imposing a prison sentence.

2007 - The Turkish Government passed Law No: 5651 to regulate internet content. Information Communication Technology Authority was chosen as the organization responsible for execution of this law.

Turkey has signed, ratified and entered into law the Council of Europe’s Convention on Cybercrime. (January 2015)

  • Article 4, Law No: 5651. Content Providers. States that content providers are responsible for the content they create and publish through their own websites. They are not liable for any third party content to which they provide linkage.
  • Article 5, Law No: 5651. Hosting Providers. States that there is no obligation to monitor the information hostage providers store, nor do they have to actively seek facts indicating illegal activity. However, they are required to take down illegal content.
  • Article 6, Law No: 5651. ISPs. This article states that access providers do not have to monitor the information that goes through their networks, nor do they have to actively seek circumstances that indicate illegal activity. They are obliged to take down any illegal content published by any of their customers once they have been made aware of this content through the Ihbar Web.
  • Article 8, Law No: 5651. The Fulfillment of Decisions and Blocking Access. States that access to websites is subject to blocking if there is sufficient suspicion that certain crimes are being committed on a particular website. The eight specific crimes mentioned in this article are: encouragement and incitement of suicide, sexual exploitation and abuse of children, facilitation of the use of drugs, provision of dangerous substances for health, obscenity, prostitution, gambling, and crimes committed against Atatürk (Law No. 5816, dated 25/7/1951).
  • Article 80, Penal Code. Trafficking Protocol. Those who recruit, abduct, transport or transfer or harbour persons for the purpose of subjecting to forced labour or service, prostitution, enslavement or for removal of body organs, by getting their consent by means of threat, oppression, coercion or using violence, of abusing influence, of deceit or of abusing their control over or the vulnerabilities of these persons shall be sentenced to imprisonment between eight to twelve years and a fine corresponding to 10,000 days; 2) The consent of the victim shall be irrelevant in cases where the acts that constitute a crime are attempted with the intentions described in paragraph 1; 3) In cases where minors below the age of 18 are procured, abducted, transported or transferred, or harboured with the intentions specified in paragraph one, the penalties foreseen in paragraph 1 shall still be applied to the perpetrator, even when no intermediary actions relating to the crime are committed; 4) Legal entities shall also be subject to security measures for such crimes.
  • Article 102, Penal Code. Sexual Abuse. States that it is an offense to violate the physical integrity of another person by means of sexual behavior. Upon complaint, the offense is punishable by imprisonment for between two to seven years. The article also states that where an organ or similar objects are inserted into the victim’s body, the punishment increases to imprisonment for between seven and twelve years. The penalty also increases by one half where the offense is committed against a person who is physically or mentally unable to defend themselves; by breach of duty and/or abuse of official status; by a blood relation or a relative by marriage; by using a weapon or jointly by more than one person. The article also states that if the offender applies force and violence greater than necessary to overcome the victim’s resistance, the perpetrator will additionally be punished for deliberate wounding. A sentence of imprisonment for life will be imposed if the offense results in damage to the physical or mental health of the victim. Where the victim enters a vegetative state or dies as a result of the attack, the sentence will be aggravated life imprisonment.
  • Article 103, Penal Code. Sexual Abuse of Minors. Defines the crime of sexually abusing a child as being any acts of a sexual nature committed against (a) a minor who has not reached fifteen years of age or who, in spite of having reached fifteen years of age, lacks the competence to understand the legal significance and consequences of such acts, or (b) sexual acts against other minors by means of force, threat, deception or any other means that influences the will of the child. The offense is punishable by imprisonment for between three and eight years. The article also states that where the sexual assault is committed against a minor as indicated in section (a) above as a result of force or threat, the penalty will be increased by half. In the case of sexual abuse by an relative, stepfather, adoptive parent, guardian, tutor, trainer, caretaker, persons providing health care services or persons who are responsible for protecting and caring for the child, or by abusing the influence gained through a service relationship, or jointly by more than one person, the penalty imposed increases by half. The article also states that where the force and compulsion used in the course of the sexual assault is aggravated by deliberate wounding, the perpetrator will additionally be punished for deliberate wounding. The offender will be liable to a sentence of strict imprisonment for life where the offense results in damage to the physical or mental health of the victim. Where the victim enters a vegetative state or dies as a result of the attack, the sentence will also be strict life imprisonment.
  • Article 104, Penal Code. Sexual Intercourse with a Juvenile. This article states that it is a criminal offense to have sexual intercourse with a juvenile over fifteen years of age, without the use of force, threats or deceit. The offender is liable to imprisonment for between six and 24 months upon complaint. This section also states that where the offender is more than five years older than the victim, the penalty will be doubled, irrespective of whether or not a complaint has been made. What this effectively means is that a consensual sexual relationship between young people can be prosecuted upon complaint.
  • Article 105, Penal Code. Sexual Harassment. States that anyone who sexually harasses a person is liable to imprisonment for between three and 24 months, or a judicial fine, upon complaint filed by the victim. The article also states that in cases where these acts are committed through the abuse of a position of influence arising from a hierarchical relationship, a relationship of service, training or education provision, or due to intra-family relations, or by taking advantage of a shared workplace, the penalty shall be increased by one half. Where the victim has been forced to leave their job, school or family, the penalty shall be no less than one year.
  • Article 125, Penal Code. Insult. States that it is an offense to undermine the honor, dignity or respectability of another person or to attack a person’s honor by attributing to them a concrete act or a fact, or by means of an insult. The offense is punishable by imprisonment for between three months and two years, or a judicial fine. In order to convict for an insult made in the absence of the victim, the act must have been witnessed by at least three persons. The article also states that the act is punishable as above if it is committed by means of a spoken, written or visual message addressing the victim. If the offense of insult is committed against a public official in connection with their duty; in response to the expression of religious, political, social, or philosophical beliefs, thoughts and opinions; in response to an individual’s changing or attempting to propagate their religious, political, social, philosophical beliefs, thoughts and opinions, or in response to an individual’s compliance with the requirements and prohibitions of their religion; by reference to the holy values of a person’s religion, the penalty shall be not less than one year. Where the offense of insult was committed in public, the penalty shall be increased by one sixth.
  • Article 126, Penal Code. Determination of the Victim. States that where there is no doubt or hesitation as to the character of the offense and the target of the insult, it shall be deemed that the target of the insult was named and insulted, even if their name was not openly mentioned when committing the offense of insult or where the accusation was disguised.
  • Article 225, Penal Code. Indecent Acts. This article states that anyone who has sexual intercourse in public, or who performs exhibitionism, will be sentenced to between six and twelve months’ imprisonment.
  • Article 226, Penal Code. Obscenity. States that imprisonment for a term of six months to two years and a judicial fine of up to 5,000 days will be imposed on anyone who gives or displays to a child products containing obscene visual, printed or audio material, or reads to a child or allows the child to read or listen to such material; anyone who openly shows the content of such material in places accessible or visible to children, or who openly displays them, who exhibits them in a visible manner, who reads or talks about them to children, or who makes children read or talk about the content of such material; anyone who presents such products for sale or rental in a manner that reveals the content of the material; anyone who offers for sale, sells or rents out such products other than at dedicated sales points; anyone who gives or distributes such products along with other commercial products or services, and who therefore gives them free of charge; anyone who advertises such products. A sentence of imprisonment of between six months and three years and a judicial fine of up to 5,000 days will be imposed on anyone who broadcasts or publishes obscene images, printed or audio material or who acts as an intermediary for this purpose. The article also states that it is a criminal offense to exploit children in the production of products including obscene images, printed or audio material. This offense is punishable by imprisonment for between five and ten years and a judicial fine of up to 5,000 days. In addition, anyone who imports such material, who duplicates, offers for sale, sells, transfers, stores, exports, holds in possession or submits it to the use of others will be sentenced to imprisonment for a term of between two and five years and a judicial fine of up to 5,000 days. The article also states that a sentence of imprisonment for between one and four years and a judicial fine of up to 5,000 days will be imposed on anyone who produces, imports, offers for sale, sells, transfers, stores, exports, provides for the use of others, or stores products containing written material, audio recording or images of sexual acts performed by use of force, with animals, on human corpse, or in other unnatural manners. Moreover, anyone who broadcast or publishes the content of such products as described in this paragraph through the press and other media, or who acts as an intermediary for such purpose or who allows children to see, hear or read such material, will be sentenced to imprisonment for between six and ten years and a judicial fine of up to 5,000 days.
  • Article 228(3), Penal Code. It provides that anyone who “employs children in the production of obscene materials shall be sentenced to 10 years in prison, and a person who imports into the country, reproduces, sells, keeps, or makes available to other people’s use such obscene materials shall be sentenced to two to five years in prison, and fined.
  • Article 135, Criminal Procedure Code No. 5271. Location, Listening and Recording of Correspondence. States that in the event that the sexual abuse of children is committed, the provisions related to listening, recording and evaluating the information about the signals may be applied.
  • Article 150, Criminal Procedure Code No. 5271. States that if the suspect or accused child has no defence counsel, a defence counsel shall be appointed without his request. If the child is a victim or complainant, an attorney shall be appointed without his request.
  • Article 236, Criminal Procedure Code No. 5271. During the hearing as a witness of a child victim or other victim who has suffered psychological damages in relation to the committed crime, there shall be an expert present who has expertise in the fields of psychology, psychiatry, medicine or education.

Actions of the Convention on the Rights of the Child: Turkey has acceded, with no declarations or reservations to articles 16, 17(e) and 34 (c), to the Convention on the Rights of the Child and to articles 2 and 3, to the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography.

2007 - Under the Law No: 5651, the Information and Communication Authority established the Ihbar Web hotline, where Internet users can report illegal material, including child sexual exploitation, gambling, substance abuse, pornography, and self-harm material. The hotline works closely with law enforcement, Internet Service Providers, policy makers and community organizations to provide safe internet environment for children. In 2014, the hotline received more than 9,000 reports on child sexual abuse material (CSAM), and since its launch the hotline has processed almost one million reports on the material that is prohibited under the Law No: 5651. Inhab Web Hotline is an active member of INHOPE since 2011.

2008 - Seven ‘Gendarme Child Centers’ have been operating in the big cities of Turkey. The Centers take measures to prevent sexual abuse of children in prostitution and pornography and are supported by the Ankara Bar Association and NGOs.

2012 - Along with 54 countries, Turkey has joined the Global Alliance against Child Sexual Abuse Online. The Alliance unites Ministers of the Interior and of Justice from each country to fight against Child Sexual Abuse Online, to rescue victims, to develop more effective prosecution, and to reduce the amount of child sexual abuse images available online.

2013 - Turkey has officially recognized national cybersecurity frameworks for implementing internationally recognized cybersecurity standards through the National Cyber Security Strategy and Action plan 2013-2014 implemented by the Cybersecurity Board. The Information and Communications Technologies Authority established National Cyber Security Incident Response Team (TR-CERT) to fight against cyber incidents in Turkey.