2003 - Tanzania published its National ICT Policy in 2003, which recognized the importance of ICT integration in education, stating that ‘there are new opportunities in applying ICT to enhance education, including curriculum development, teaching methodologies, simulation laboratories, life-long learning and distance education’. The policy calls for the teaching of ICT at all levels of education and training, the development of a nationwide e-education system, and the use of ICT to improve the quality of delivery of education.
2005 - The MoEVT has established a curriculum for ICT in primary and pre-primary education. However, in 2007, as very few schools had computers or access to the internet, ICT was taught only in a limited number of schools, mainly located at district headquarters. In addition, the Ministry has also developed a syllabus of ICT for primary education for teacher training, which includes modules on computer communication, namely Internet and email.
2005 - The Government of Tanzania, in collaboration with the Swedish Government, initiated a three year project ICT in Teachers’ Colleges, which provided ICT training and equipment to all 32 teacher education colleges in the country. Through the provision of up-to-date ICT equipment and broadband Internet connections, the project’s objective was to improve the quality of teacher education by using ICT. After completing the course, principals, tutors and students were comprehensively trained in ICT and were able to use it as a tool for teaching and learning, as well as for management and administration. In 2014, the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida) carried out evaluation on the implementation of the project. It concluded in a need for a further development of internet connection and infrastructure in primary and secondary schools so that the teachers can be effective in providing quality teaching and learning to students.
The same year, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Media Lab launched the now-famous nonprofit organization, One Laptop per Child (OLPC). The aim of the project is to provide a basic laptop to all the poorest children in the world, especially in developing countries. The East African Community (EAC), organization representing the governments of Tanzania, Rwanda, Kenya, Uganda and Burundi, partnered with OLPC in April 2010. The project now needs to partner with various people and institutions to find the financial resources necessary to reach their ambitious goal of delivering 30 million laptops in the region by 2015.
2006 - The ICT for Rural Development (ICT4RD) pilot project was launched to expand broadband into rural areas, including establishing internet connections in secondary schools of Bunda, Serengeti, and Bagamoyo districts. The project’s objectives are to establish sustainable broadband markets in rural areas offering connectivity, system integration and capacity building programs.
The same year, Viafrica (A social enterprise working for sustainable development in Africa through ICT) ships containers of computer systems from the Netherlands several times a year to benefit their CLASSworks Infrastructure program. Since 2007 the hardware has been provided by the Delft University of Technology, who partnered with Viafrica as part of their theme of ‘sustainable solutions, focus on Africa’.
2007 - The Ministry of Education and Vocational Training (MoEVT) published the ICT Policy for Basic Education for pre-primary, primary, secondary and teacher education. The Policy’s mission is to integrate ICT to enhance access, equity, quality and relevance of basic education, while stimulating and improving teaching and lifelong learning. Six key areas have been identified, namely Curriculum and Content; Infrastructure and Technical Issues; Training and Capacity Building; Planning, Procurement and Administration; Management, Support and Sustainability; and Monitoring and Evaluation. With regard to the curriculum and content statement, the MoEVT provides plans to integrate ICT as a pedagogical tool into the teaching process, as well as introduce ICT as a subject of its own. Furthermore, the Ministry states that it will introduce provision to enable students and teachers to respond appropriately to harmful online content and other Internet-related risks, such as privacy protection and content verification. To this end, guidelines for the ethical use of the Internet will be developed.
2010 - Ericsson (a global provider of telecommunications equipment and services) has joined with the Earth Institute at Columbia University and Millennium Promise to create the ‘Connect to Learn’ initiative. It uses technology with the three primary aims of: implementing low-cost and easy-to-use ICT for schools through mobile broadband and cloud computing; enabling access for students and teachers to information and educational resources, and connecting schools to others around the world in order to foster collaborative learning, cross-cultural understanding, and global awareness. The initiative is currently focused on countries in the sub-Saharan region and a primary focus is to educate girls, many of whom would not otherwise receive an education past the primary level, if at all. Programs currently operate in Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Mali, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Tanzania and Uganda. In addition, schools in Brazil and Chile have benefited from the program.
2011 - Through their Badiliko project, the British Council and Microsoft are working together to introduce ICT to children across Africa. The project aims give teachers, students and the wider community access to ICT, as well as professional development training for teachers. Currently, the project has trained over 20 000 educators and set up 80 digital hubs in six countries, including Tanzania.
2012- Worldreader started 7 different programs to bring E-reader devices to classrooms in different areas in Tanzania. With the help of partners and donors, the organization has provided digital books and E-reader devices to 11,020 students in Tanzania.
2012 - Seeds of Empowerment, a non-profit organization in California, implemented the Stanford Mobile Inquiry-based Learning Environment (SMILE) in the world’s developing regions. In Tanzania, SMILE partners with local organizations to distribute high-quality open source education contents to secondary school students. GLOBAL SMILE is a software that enables students from different countries to exchange questions and answers, so that students in Tanzania can connect with students in Ghana, and the U.S.
2013 - TunaPanda, a non-profit organization focused on technological literacy to low-income communities in Africa, launched a project to create and share “an education on a hard drive”. They have set up learning centers in Tanzania, Kenya, and Uganda in both urban and rural settings, using FOSS software combined with a hard drive with lots of educational content to be duplicated. One of their partners won a large format 3D printer and they are currently developing a 3D printing educational curriculum.
The same year, the initiatives taken by the Tanzanian government are making a better environment for ICT in the education sector. Several projects at the national level have been included in the national ICT policy for education. ICT has been part of the curriculum at primary schools in Tanzania, but at secondary schools it has started being taught as a different subject due to lack of infrastructure.
World Vision started a multi-year effort to apply ICT4E to schools in Sub-Saharan countries in order to improve student learning and job readiness. In support of this, Microsoft, the British Council, and Intel created an innovative partnership called Spark a Child’s Digital Future. SCDF creates education technology programs with proven impacts on student learning, and involves the ministry of education at the national and local level.
Furthermore, the Global e-Schools and Communities Initiative (GeSCI) launched a blended learning model to provide teacher training to 60 teachers in Tanzania. The focus of the training is to provide student-centered and ICT based approaches for STEM subjects, and the program seeks to integrate ICT into all aspects of teaching and learning.
2014 - Ubongo Kids is an interactive educational T.V. program that gives math and science lessons to students and allows them to use their mobile phones to ask or answer questions based on the show. This show tries an alternative route to delivering educational content on existing platforms, rather than providing hardware or systems for schools to use.
The same year, partner organizations working in various countries have joined together to launch a new network, named Network for ICT in Education. Two of the education projects from network members focus on Tanzania, aiming to improve ICT capacity and give ICT capabilities to libraries for training girls.
2015- Camara Education provided an online interactive learning platform for teachers in 250 schools across Tanzania. This is known as the iKnowledge project, which is a sustainable education platform that provides rural and underserved areas of Tanzania with ICT infrastructure and satellite internet connectivity for classrooms. This year-long project set out to improve levels of teaching in core curriculum subjects, as well as improve digital literacy skills of teachers.
The same year, the University of Dodoma, located in central Tanzania, began a change project titled: Development of Digital content for Teaching ICT subject in Secondary Schools in Tanzania. This project seeks to develop interactive local digital contents that can be used to teach ICT subjects to Secondary Schools in Dodoma Municipality.
2016 - The African Digital Schools Initiative (ADSI) is a program to implement digital school development in secondary schools and build secondary level students 21st century skills. ADSI will reach out to 140 schools in Tanzania, Kenya, and Cote d’Ivoire to train 4,200 teachers as well as 210,000 students, including 70,000 STEM students.
Additionally, the Education and Skills for Productive Jobs (ESPJ) Project for Tanzania was designed to strengthen the ability of schools to teach students new skills, and promote the expansion and quality of labor in select economic sectors. It is expected that at least 30,000 youth will benefit from this program and a bulk of employment opportunities for these youth will be generated by the private sector.
The same year, the Computing and Information Association (CIA) conducted a baseline survey which intended to give insight into how Tanzanian secondary school students behave online and the risks they encounter. During Safer Internet Day the CIA proposed strategies to enable these students to use the internet safely and responsibly.
Affordable Computers and Technology for Tanzania
ACTT is a project is run by Mkombozi , selling computers that have been refurbished by street youth who live at Mkombozi and have been trained as hardware and software technicians
An international charity and social enterprise that uses technology to deliver 21st century skills, and as such improve education in disadvantaged communities in Tanzania and around the world
Organization that seeks to develop innovative education, health, and environmental programs across most regions of the country
Caucus for Children’s Rights
CCR is a national NGO network that promotes the protection of Tanzania’s children by campaigning for an end to violence towards children, modeling innovative ways to protect children.
Computing and Information Association (CIA)
A voluntary organization of young professionals in the ICT sector and related disciplines in Tanzania that focus on ICT public awareness activities, promoting the use of ICT applications for sustainable development, and advocacy on ICT policies and practice across sectors
Global e-Schools and Communities Initiative (GeSCI)
Part of the UN ICT task-force, focused on ICT education across Africa and the developing world. Provides technical and research assistance to e-learning programs.
INTERPOL is the world’s largest international police organization, with 190 member countries. Its mission is to enable police forces to collaborate globally to fight crime in the Internet age. Three areas of focus are crimes against children (with a focus on internet crimes and travelling sex offenders), cybercrime and human trafficking.
INTERPOL Dar-es-Salaam is the exclusive platform for international investigations requiring input from Tanzanian law enforcement partners
ITU Development Sector, Africa
ITU-D fosters international cooperation and solidarity in the delivery of technical assistance and in the creation, development and improvement of telecommunication and ICT equipment and networks in developing countries.
Ministry of Education and Vocational Training
MoEVT is the government agency responsible for all primary and secondary education in Tanzania
Mkombozi is the leading child-focused agency in Tanzania’s Kilimanjaro and Arusha regions, using education, research, advocacy, and outreach to help vulnerable children and youth
Tanzania Communications Regulatory Authority
Established under the Tanzania Communications Regulatory Act No.12 the Tanzania Communications Regulatory Authority is responsible for regulating the communications and broadcasting sectors in Tanzania
Tanzania Computer Emergency Response Team
The Tanzania Computer Emergency Response Team is responsible for monitoring the production of “racist and xenophobic” content online, child pornography, and online impersonations made illegal under the CyberCrimes Act
Terre des Hommes Netherlands
This NGO focuses on stopping child sexual exploitation, child labor, child abuse and child trafficking in Asia, East Africa and Europe.
A non-profit organization that builds skills in digital technology, collaboration, problem solving, and creative self-expression. The ultimate goal was to bring low-income communities to technological literacy in the most rapid, cost efficient way possible
A non-profit organization trying to transform the lives of people in the developing world through e-books, reading, and literacy
Committee on the Rights of the Child reviews report of Tanzania (2015)CRC
Report of Tanzania's implementation of the provisions of the CRC
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Education in Sub-Saharan Africa (2015)Peter Wallet
This documents presents the current status of the Information and communication technologies in Education in the Sub-Saharan region.
Committee on the Rights of the Child Reviews 12 countries’ Child Rights Records (2015)OHCHR
This report reviews 12 States’ actions based on the obligations to the Convention of the Rights of the Child and its optional protocols
Tanzania Minimal Advancement (2014)United States Department of Labor's Bureau of International Labor Affairs
Findings on the worst forms of child labor in Tanzania
ECPAT Global Monitoring Report: Tanzania (2013)ECPAT
Report on the status of action against commercial sexual exploitation of children in Tanzania
Tanzania Moderate Advancement (2012)United States Department of Labor's Bureau of International Labor Affairs
Findings on the worst forms of child labor in Tanzania
Small World, Big Responsibility: The UK’s role in the global trade in children (2012)Erika Hall, Phillippa Lei
This report preset information on the different forms of child exploitation. Its purpose is to raise awareness to this global issue.
Child sexual abuse in urban Tanzania: Possibilities and barriers for prevention (2012)Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine Umeå University
Dissertation on the social context of child sexual abuse in urban Tanzania
Tanzania: Child Rights References in the Universal Periodic Review (2011)CRIN
A compilation of extracts featuring child-right issues from the reports submitted to the Universal Periodic Review
Tanzania: ICT in education situational analysis (2010)Dr. Patti Swarts, Ms. Esther Mwiyeria Wachira
Analysis of the ICT in education within Tanzania and indentification of problems
Developing the Use of Information and Communication Technology to Enhance Teaching and Learning in East African Schools: Review of the Literature (2010)Sara Hennessy, Brown Onguko, David Harrison, Enos Kiforo Ang’ondi, Susan Namalefe, Azra Naseem and Leonard Wamakote
Review of the use of ICT in primary and secondary schools in Sub-Saharan Africa
National Action Plan For The Elimination Of Child Labor (2009)Ministry of Labor, Employment, and Youth Development
Plan of action designed for use in the prevention and responses to worst forms of child labor in Tanzania
State Party Examination Of Tanzania's Initial Periodic Report On The Optional Protocol On The Sale Of Children, Child Prostitution And Child Pornography (2008)NGO group for the CRC
An examination of the United Republic of Tanzania's initial report on the implementation of the OPSC
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Policy for Basic Education (2007)Ministry of Education and Vocational Training (MoVET)
Policy for the future of ICT in education within Tanzania
ICT in Education in Tanzania (2007)InfoDev
Report on implementation of ICT in Tanzanian eduation sector
An Approach to ICT based school education in Tanzania (2003)JP Senzige, K. Sarukesi
A suggested approach for the use of ICT in schools, both primary and secondary, in Tanzania
Concluding Observations of the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Tanzania (2001)CRC
Observations by the CRC of the reports submitted by the states parties
Tanzania Children in Prostitution: A Rapid Assessment (2001)E. Kamala, E. Lusinde, J. Millinga, J. Mwaitula, M. J. Gonza, M. G. Juma, H. A. Khamis
An assesment of the research carried out in Tanzania over the worst forms of child labor
This section contains details of the country’s laws as they relate to sexual offenses, children and the use of the Internet in the commission of criminal activity. Where possible, sentence details have been given, including whether an increased custodial penalty is imposed where the victim is a child.
In 1998, the Tanzanian Penal Code was amended by the Sexual Offences Special Provisions Act, making provisions with regard to sexual and other offenses to further safeguard the personal integrity, dignity, liberty and security of women and children.
Any person under the age of eighteen years is considered to be a minor, as determined by Section 138B of the Penal Code. The age of consent for sexual activity is eighteen years, according to Section 130 of the Penal Code, however, the age of consent for sexual activity under the Law of Marriage Act N°4 of 1971, Section 13, is determined as being fifteen.
- Section 130, Penal Code. Rape. This section states that it is an offense for a male person to rape a girl or a woman and defines the crime of rape as sexual intercourse with a girl or a woman under one of the following circumstances: the offender is not married to the victim; the victim’s consent has been obtained by the use of force, threats or intimidation, by putting her in fear of death or hurt; the girl’s consent has been obtained at a time when she was of unsound mind or was in a state of intoxication induced by any drugs, matter or thing, administered to her by the offender or by some other person unless proved that there was prior consent between the two; with her consent which has been obtained by deceit, namely by the offender pretending to be the victim’s husband; with or without her consent when she is under eighteen years of age, unless the victim is the offender’s wife who is fifteen years or older and is not separated from the man. The section also states that for the purpose of proving rape under this section, any sign of penetration, however slight, is sufficient to constitute sexual intercourse, and evidence of resistance, such as physical injuries to the body is not necessary to prove that sexual intercourse took place without consent.
- Section 131, Penal Code. Punishment for Rape. States that anyone who commits rape is liable to a sentence of imprisonment for life, and, in any case, imprisonment for a minimum of than thirty years with corporal punishment, and to a fine. In addition, for the injuries caused, the offender has to pay the victim compensation of an amount determined by the court. This section also states that where the offender is aged eighteen or below, he will be liable to corporal punishment without imprisonment if this is his first offense; imprisonment for a term of twelve months with corporal punishment for his second offense; and imprisonment for life for the third offense. In addition, regardless of the age of the offender, if the victim is under the age of ten years, the offender will be liable to imprisonment for life.
- Section 131A, Penal Code. Punishment for Gang Rape. This section states that where the offense of rape is committed by one or more persons in a group of persons, each person in the group is guilty of gang rape. Every person who is convicted of gang rape will be sentenced to imprisonment for life, regardless of the actual role he played in the rape. Any person under the age of eighteen involved in a gang rape will, in lieu of imprisonment, be sentenced to corporal punishment based on the actual role played in the rape.
- Section 132, Penal Code. Attempted Rape. This section states that anyone who attempts to commit an act of rape is liable to imprisonment for life, and in any case will be liable to imprisonment for a minimum of thirty years, with or without corporal punishment. The attempt to commit rape is defined as the intent to procure prohibited sexual intercourse with any girl or woman, together with threat, intimidation, false representations for the purpose of obtaining the victim’s consent, or deceit – namely, pretending to be the victim’s husband. The section also states that anyone who attempts rape by virtue of manifesting his intention by false representation or deceit will be liable to imprisonment for life and in any case for imprisonment for a minimum of ten years.
- Section 133, Penal Code. Abduction. Defines the offense of taking away or detaining a woman of any age against her will, with the intent to marry or have sexual intercourse with her, or cause her to be married or to have sexual intercourse with another person. The offense is punishable by imprisonment for seven years.
- Section 134, Penal Code. Abduction of Girls under Sixteen. This section states that anyone who unlawfully takes an unmarried woman under the age of sixteen years out of the custody or protection of her parent or guardian (and against the will of the parent or guardian) commits an offense.
- Section 135, Penal Code. Sexual Assault on Persons and Indecent Assault on Women. Defines the offense of sexual assault, which is described as uttering any word or sound, making any gesture or exhibiting any word or object with the intention to cause any sexual annoyance to any person. The offense is punishable by imprisonment for a maximum of five years, or by a fine not exceeding 300,000 shillings, or both. Where a charge for sexual assault relates to a boy or girl under the age of eighteen, it is no defense that the boy or girl consented to the act constituting the assault.
- Section 138A, Penal Code. Acts of Gross Indecency between Persons. States that anyone who, in public or private, commits or is party to the commission of, or procures or attempts to procure the commission by any person of, any act of gross indecency with another person, commits an offense and is liable to imprisonment for between one to five years, or to a fine between 100,000 and 300,00 shillings. This article also states that if the offender is eighteen years of age or more and the victim is under eighteen years of age, a pupil of a primary school or a student of a secondary school, the offender will be liable to an increased sentence of imprisonment for a minimum of ten years, with corporal punishment, and will also be ordered to pay compensation of an amount determined by the court to the victim for any injuries caused.
- Section 138B, Penal Code. Sexual Exploitation of Children. In this section, “child” means a person under the age of eighteen years. The section states that someone is guilty of the crime of sexual exploitation of children if the offender: knowingly permits a child to remain in premises for the purposes of causing the child to be sexually abused, or to participate in any form of sexual activity or in any obscene or indecent exhibition or show; acts as a procurer of a child for the purposes of sexual intercourse or for any form of sexual abuse, or indecent exhibition or show; induces a person to be a client of a child for sexual intercourse or for any form of sexual abuse, or indecent exhibition or show, by means of print or other media, oral advertisements or other similar means; takes advantage of his influence over, or his relationship to, a child, to procure the child for sexual intercourse or any form of sexual abuse or indecent exhibition or show; threatens, or uses violence towards, a child to procure the child for sexual intercourse or any form of sexual abuse or indecent exhibition or show; gives monetary consideration, goods or other benefits to a child or his parents with intent to procure the child for sexual intercourse or any form of sexual abuse or indecent exhibition or show The offense is punishable by imprisonment for between five to twenty years.
- Section 138C, Penal Code. Grave Sexual Abuse. Defines the offense of committing any act (which does not amount to rape) that involves the use of the genitals or any other part of the human body, or any instrument, or orifice or part of the body of another person, for sexual gratification under any of the following descriptions: without the victim’s consent; with the consent of the victim’s consent where it has been obtained by the use of force, threat, or intimidation, or by putting the victim in fear of death or of hurt; with the victim’s consent where it has been obtained at a time where the victim was of unsound mind or in a state of intoxication induced by alcohol or any drugs, matter or thing. The offender is liable to imprisonment for between fifteen to 30 years, with corporal punishment, and will also be ordered to pay compensation of an amount determined by the court to the victim for the injuries caused. Where the victim is under fifteen years of age, the offender will be sentenced to an increased sentence of imprisonment for between twenty to 30 years, plus compensation.
- Section 138D, Penal Code. Sexual Harassment. This section states that anyone who intentionally assaults, or sexually harasses another person by use of criminal force, causes sexual annoyance or harassment by the use of words or actions, is guilty of the offense named sexual harassment and is liable to imprisonment for up to five years or to a fine of up to 200,000 shillings, or to both. The offender may also be ordered to pay compensation of an amount determined by the court to the victim. In addition, this section states that the offense of sexual harassment also includes uttering any word or sound, making any gesture or exhibiting any object including any organ, whether male or female, with the intention to insult the modesty of any woman.
- Section 139, Penal Code. Procuring Prostitution. States, among other things, that it is an offense to procure or attempt to procure any person, with or without their consent, to become a prostitute within or outside the United Republic, or to procure a person to leave the country, or remove the person from the Republic, with the intent to make the victim an inhabitant of a brothel elsewhere. It is also unlawful to procure, or attempt to procure, a person under the age of eighteen to leave the country, or to remove or attempt to remove from the United Republic, whether with or without their consent, with a view to the facilitation of prohibited sexual intercourse with any person outside the country. In addition, bringing a person under the age of eighteen into the Republic with a view to prohibited sexual intercourse with any other person, inside or outside the country, is also deemed an offense. The offender will be liable to imprisonment for a term of between ten and 20 years, or to a fine of 100,000 to 300,000 shillings, or to both.
- Section 140, Penal Code. Procuring Rape. This section states that it is a criminal offense to procures or attempts to procure any girl or woman to have any prohibited sexual intercourse by any threats or intimidation. It is also unlawful to use false pretences or false representations, or to apply, administer to, or cause to be taken any drug, matter or thing with the intent to stupefy or overpower the victim so as enable a man to have prohibited sexual intercourse with her. The offense is punishable by a fine of between 100,000 to 300,000 shillings, or by imprisonment for between ten to 20 years.
- Section 143, Penal Code. Detention in any Premises with Intent, or in Brothel. Defines the crime of detaining a woman against her will in or upon any premises or in a brothel with intent that she may have unlawful sexual intercourse with any man.
- Section 145, Penal Code. Male Person Living on Earning of Prostitution or Persistently Soliciting. States that any man who knowingly lives wholly or in part on the earnings of prostitution, or in any public place persistently solicits or importunes for immoral purposes, is guilty of an offense and in the case of a second or subsequent conviction under this section the court may, in addition to any term of imprisonment awarded, sentence the offender to corporal punishment.
- Section 146A, Penal Code. Woman Living on, or Aiding, Prostitution. This section states that a woman who knowingly lives wholly or in part on the earnings of prostitution, or who, for the purpose of gain, has exercised control, direction or influence over the movements of a prostitute in such a manner as to show that she is aiding, abetting or compelling her prostitution, commits an offense.
- Section 149, Penal Code. Conspiracy to Induce Unlawful Sexual Intercourse. This section states that anyone who conspires with another to induce any woman, by means of any false pretence or other fraudulent means, to permit a man to have unlawful sexual intercourse with her commits an offense and is liable to imprisonment for three years.
- Section 153, Penal Code. Knowledge of Age of Female Immaterial. States that, in the case of any of the offenses committed with respect to a woman or girl under a specified age it is irrelevant that the accused person did not know that the woman or girl was under that age, or believed that she was not under that age, except as otherwise expressly stated.
- Section 154, Penal Code. Unnatural Offenses. This section states that anyone who has anal intercourse with another person, or permits a male person to have such intercourse with him/her, is guilty of a felony and liable to imprisonment for life, and in any case for a minimum of 30 years. Anal intercourse with a child under the age of ten is also a felony and the offender is liable to an increased sentence of imprisonment life.
- Section 155, Penal Code. Attempt to Commit Unnatural Offenses. States that anyone who attempts to commit any of the unnatural offenses specified under section 154 commits an offense and is liable to imprisonment for a term of not less than twenty years.
- Section 156, Penal Code. Indecent Assault of Boys under Fourteen. This section states that anyone who unlawfully and indecently assaults a boy under the age of fourteen years commits an offense and is liable to imprisonment for life. The section also states that where a charge for indecent assault under this section relates to a boy under the age of fifteen, it is no defense to the charge that he consented to the act of indecency.
- Section 157, Penal Code. Indecent Practices Between Males. This section states that it is illegal for a man, whether in public or private, to commit any act of gross indecency with another man, to procure another man to commit any act of gross indecency with him, or to attempt to procure the commission of any such act by any male person with himself or with another male person. The offender is liable to imprisonment for five years.
- Section 169, Penal Code. Child Stealing. States that anyone who, with intent to deprive a parent or guardian of a child under the age of fourteen years of the possession of such child, forcibly or fraudulently takes or entices away, or detains the child, or receives or harbors the child, knowing that it has been taken, enticed away or detained, commits an offense and is liable to imprisonment for seven years.
- Section 175, Penal Code. Traffic in Obscene Publications. Defines the offense of, for the purpose of trade, making, producing or possessing obscene writings, drawings, prints, paintings, printed matter, pictures, posters, emblems, photographs, cinematograph films or any other object tending to corrupt morals. The offender will be punished by imprisonment for two years or with a fine of 200,000 shillings. The same sentence applies where the offender imports, conveys, or exports, or causes to be imported conveyed or exported any such matter, or in any manner whatsoever puts any of them in circulation. It is also an offense to carry on or take part in any business concerned with any such matter; to distribute or exhibit any of them publicly; to make a business of lending any of them; to advertise or make know by any means whatsoever with a view to assisting the circulation of, or traffic in, any such matter or things; to publicly exhibit any indecent show or performance or any show intended to corrupt morals. Upon conviction, the obscene matter or things may be confiscated or destroyed.
- Section 245, Penal Code. Definition of Kidnapping from Guardianship. Defines the offense of taking or enticing a person under fourteen years of age (if a male) or under sixteen years of age (if a female) or any person of unsound mind, out of the keeping of the lawful guardian of the victim, without the consent of the guardian.
- Section 246, Penal Code. Abduction. States that a person who by force compels, or by deceitful means induces, any person to go from any place is said to abduct that person.
- Section 247, Penal Code. Punishment for Kidnapping. This section constitutes that anyone who kidnaps any other person from Mainland Tanzania or from lawful guardianship is liable to imprisonment for seven years.
- Section 248, Penal Code. Kidnapping or Abducting in order to Murder. States that anyone who kidnaps or abducts a person in order to murder the victim, is guilty of an offense and liable to imprisonment for ten years.
- Section 249, Penal Code. Kidnapping or Abducting with Intent to Confine. Constitutes that it is an offense to kidnap or abduct a person with intent to cause that person to be secretly and wrongfully confined. The offense is punishable by imprisonment for seven years.
- Section 250, Penal Code. Kidnapping or Abducting with Intent to do Harm. This section states that anyone who kidnaps or abducts another in order that that other person may be subjected to grievous harm, or slavery, or to the unnatural lust of any person, commits an offense and is liable to imprisonment for ten years.
- Section 252, Penal Code. Kidnapping of Abducting Child with the Intent to Steal. Defines the crime of kidnapping or abducting a child under the age of fourteen years with the intention of taking dishonestly any movable property from the child. The offense is punishable by imprisonment for seven years.
- Section 38, Newspaper Act. Definition of Libel. Defines the offense of libel, which is described as unlawfully publishing any defamatory matter concerning another person with the intent to defame that other person, by print, writing, painting, effigy or by any means other than solely by gestures, spoken words or sound.
- Section 39, Newspaper Act. Definition of Defamatory Matter. Constitutes that defamatory matter is matter likely to injure the reputation of any person by exposing him to hatred, contempt or ridicule, or likely to damage any person in his profession or trade by an injury to his reputation.
- Section 40, Newspaper Act. Definition of Publication. This section states that a person publishes a libel if he causes the print, writing, painting, effigy or other means by which the defamatory matter is conveyed, to be dealt with, either by exhibition, reading, recitation, description, delivery or otherwise, so that the defamatory meaning becomes known or is likely to become known to either the person defamed or any other person. This section also states that it is not necessary for libel that the defamatory meaning should be directly or completely expressed; and it suffices if such meaning and its application to the defamed can be collected either from the alleged libel itself or from any extrinsic circumstances, or partly from the one and partly from the other.
- Section 41, Newspaper Act. Definition of Unlawful Publication. States that any publication of defamatory matter concerning a person is unlawful, unless the matter is true and it was for the public benefit that it should be published; or it is privileged on one of the grounds mentioned in this Part.
- Section 47, Newspaper Act. Penalty for Libel. States that anyone convicted of the offense of libel under this Act shall be liable to a fine of up to 10,000 shillings or to imprisonment for a maximum of two years, or both.
Actions of the Convention on the Rights of the Child: Tanzania has acceded, with no declarations or reservations to articles 16, 17(e) and 34 (c), to the Convention on the Rights of the Child and to articles 2 and 3, to the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography.
The Tanzania Communications Regulatory Authority provides an online complaint form which you can use to report anything regarding online child sexual exploitation.
2010 - Representatives from Tanzania attended a three-day regional workshop organized by ECPAT International and ECPAT Uganda on the Make-IT-Safe campaign. This campaign is used to promote internet safety, and the meeting provided an opportunity to discuss trends and patterns in the sexual exploitation of children in Tanzania.
2011 - Zanzibar, a semi-autonomous part of Tanzania located just off the coast, signed into law a comprehensive Children’s Act. The development of the Children’s Act involved a broad national consultation process throughout the islands that was involved an innovative program of child participation, which aimed to provide children with an understanding of the content of the Children’s Act and the legislative reform process, and an opportunity to make critical suggestions on issues that affect their lives. In 2015, the act received the Gold Future Policy Award for its effectiveness in spreading awareness of children’s rights and strengthening child protection.
2015 - The Cybercrimes Act passed in Tanzania focused on protecting Tanzanians against cybercrimes. This bill was assented by the President of United Republic of Tanzania and illegalized the access and possession of illegal computer systems, as well as the publishing of materials in computer systems.
The same year, the Tanzanian Computer Emergency Response Team (TCERT) was created to monitor the production of “racist and xenophobic” content online, child pornography, and online impersonations, which were made illegal under the Cybercrimes Act.