South Korea

Population

49,115,196

Population 0‑14

13.7%

Internet Users

92.3%

Facebook Users

16,000,000

Mobile Subscribers

56,900,000
* Statistics provided by CIA.gov, Internet World Stats and GSMA Intellligence

In South Korea, children are taught about responsible and safe use of the Internet, as well as netiquette, in schools from the second grade. In this documentary, netiquette is seen being taught taught in the form of a song, stressing the importance of good manners and online accountability.

Microsoft Korea has an IT Education program for North Korean refugee youth that provides IT training and other skills training to North Korean refugee youth and their families living in South Korea to help them overcome educational deficiencies. Microsoft Korea started helping North Korean refugee students in 2008, and continues to do so through programs such as its recent new YouthSpark Initiative started in 2013.

South Korea faces some significant challenges related to internet addiction. Following the death of a baby in March 2010, who starved while her parents spent up to twelve hours a day in Internet cafes raising a virtual child in an online game, the South Korean government announced that gamers and Internet addicts would be offered free software to help keep their online use within safe limits. The government estimates that some two million Internet users are actually Internet addicts – nearly 9% of the population of the country,and some 26% of teenage gamers are considered to be Internet addicts. The new initiatives form part of the i-ACTION 2012 program (an acronym that stands for for Attention, Counseling, Training, Institution, Outcome and Networks). In addition to the methods outlined above, the government already operates over 200 Internet addiction treatment centers, including Internet Rescue Camps. A cross between a summer camp and boot camp for kids, these facilities offer intensive treatment over twelve-hour days, aiming to reduce children’s reliance on technology and help them rediscover more normal physical activities such as outdoor play.

In honor of Safer Internet Day 2016, Korea launched an internet ethics education portal iCulture. The portal receives requests from schools for internet ethics education and provides various educational materials to be used in schools.

INTERPOL

INTERPOL is the world’s largest international police organization, with 190 member countries. Its mission is to enable police forces to collaborate globally to fight crime in the Internet age. Three areas of focus are crimes against children (with a focus on internet crimes and travelling sex offenders), cybercrime and human trafficking.

Korea Communications Standards Commission

The Commission has responsibility for assessing and ruling on requests for the correction of harmful or illegal content on the Internet. It is also responsible for monitoring the progress of correction/removal requests as they relate to information which could be harmful to children. The Commission is responsible for content labeling of anything considered to be harmful to children and the blocking of sites hosted abroad which contain harmful information. In addition, it aims to encourage self-regulation by content providers and encourages them to use its SafeNet content labeling system. In 2008, the KCC was created to consolidate the Ministry of Information and Communication (MIC) and the Korean Broadcasting Commission (KBC).

Korea Education and Research Information Service (KERIS)

It is responsible for improving the quality of public education and human resources through e-learning, and is responsible for operating the country’s EDUNET National Teaching and Learning Center, among other functions.

Korean Internet and Security Agency

Established in 2009, The Agency houses the country’s primary cybersecurity centers. In addition to goals relating to cybersecurity, KISI states the goal of communicating with citizens to create a “healthy internet culture” by improving reliability of Internet and building a future society of healthy, productive netizens and internet companies.

llegal & Harmful Information Report Center

The country’s reporting node for suspected illegal and harmful content and is a member of INHOPE. The center also operates a ‘Cyber Patrol’, a network of volunteers who monitor suspected harmful content and who participate in the sharing of best practice and public awareness-raising activities. The center is operated by the Korean Communication Standards Commission.

Ministry of Gender, Equality, and Family

The Ministry takes on some of the role of educating and protecting children from victimization through programs, victim centers, etc.

Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning

The Ministry establishes, supervises, and evaluates scientific and technological policies, such as on information security and information culture. It also monitors and coordinates the implementation of a national cybersecurity strategy, policy and roadmap.

National Information Society Agency

The Agency is responsible for national and local IT policy-making. The organization is also involved in the planning of South Korea’s Safer Internet Day festivities.

SafeNet

The country’s Internet content rating service that is operated by the Korea Communications Standards Commission. The visitors to the site can download free filtering software and learn about how and why content is labeled.

Virtual Global Taskforce (VGT)

This international partnership was formed in 2003 by law enforcement agencies, NGOs and industry leaders. It aims to protect children from online sexual abuse, with the objectives of making the Internet safer, locating and helping at-risk children and holding perpetrators to account.

Factors Affecting Adolescents' Involvement in Cyberbullying: What Divides the 20% from the 80%?

Shin, Namin; Ahn, Hwasil

This study aims to provide an accurate model that can predict the occurrence of involvement in cyberbullying among youth, based on data ollected from a questionnaire survey administered to 1,036 students in South Korean secondary schools.

Global Research Project: A Global Landscape of Hotlines Combating Child Sexual Abuse Material on the Internet and an Assessment of Shared Challenges (2015)

Melissa Stroebe, Stacy Jeleniewski, PhD

This report examines hotlines combating Internet-facilitated Child Sexual Abuse Material.

Microsoft Computing Safety Index (2014)

Microsoft

This annual survey of more than 10,000 adults in 20 countries around the world creates the data for the MCSI, which measures the actions that consumers take to help keep themselves and their families safe online.

Microsoft Computing Safety Index (MCSI) (2013)

Microsoft

The survey, Computing Safety Index, measures the steps people report taking to protect their computers, mobile phones, and info online in the categories of foundational, technical and behavioral.

Microsoft Computing Safety Index (MCSI). (2013)

Microsoft

This annual survey of more than 10,000 adults in 20 countries around the world creates the data for the MCSI, which measures the actions that consumers take to help keep themselves and their families safe online.

Vulnerabilities and Countermeasures of Commercial Online Music Streaming Services in Korea (2013)

Sangsik Lee, Donghyun Choi, Dongho Won, Seungjoo Kim

This paper examines the online music downloading behaviors of Koreans and the hacking and infromation security issues associated with it.

A Study on Improving Support for Victims of Cyber-Violence (2012)

Jong-Ryeol Park*

This article addresses possible ways to address online victimization and help victims of online violence.

Report on risks faced by children online and policies to protect them (2012)

Kristina Irion

The report provides key findings and policy recommendations to keep children safe online as a follow up to the 2008 Seoul Ministerial Declaration on the Future of the Internet Economy.

Children’s Use of Mobile Phones and Personal Relationships – An International Comparison 2010 (2010)

Society Research Institute and the GSMA

Society Research Institute and the GSMA jointly conducted an international research study examining the ways in which children communicate through mobile phones

Internet Safety for Children: A Study of Policy Responses in China, Japan and South Korea (2010)

Sun Lim

This study reviews efforts to promote children’s Internet safety by examining regional trends and paying special attention to policies and initiatives unique to each country

Is Privacy at Risk when Commercial Websites Target Primary School Children? A Case Study in Korea. (2010)

Kim, Sora, Yi, Soon-Hyung

This study discusses privacy risk factors when web sites target primary school children in Korea.

Children’s une of mobile phones - An international comparison 2011 (2010)

GSM Association and the Mobile Society Research Institute within NTT DOCOMO Inc.

A comparative document of the statistics and facts of the usage of mobile phones by children across the globe.

Meta-survey on the Use of Technologies in Education in Asia and the Pacific (2003)

Glen Farrell, Cédric Wachholz

This study identifies and analyses the different practices in the use of ICTs in education in Asia and the Pacific. it discusses countries’ policies, challenges and successful ICT integration in the region.

Meta-survey on the Use of Technologies in Education in Asia and the Pacific (2003)

Glen Farrell, Cédric Wachholz

This study identifies and analyses the different practices in the use of ICTs in education in Asia and the Pacific. it discusses countries’ policies, challenges and successful ICT integration in the region.

This section contains details of the country’s laws as they relate to sexual offenses, children and the use of the Internet in the commission of criminal activity. Where possible, sentence details have been given, including whether an increased custodial penalty is imposed where the victim is a child.

The Act on the Protection of Children and Juveniles from Sexual Abuse defines “children or juveniles” to mean persons under 19 years of age, while the age of consent for sexual intercourse or indecent acts is specified to be 13 years of age for females.

  • Article 242, Criminal Act. Arranging for Prostitution. States that anyone who, for the purpose of profit, induces a minor female or such a female as has not been habitually immoral, to engage in sexual intercourse will be punished by imprisonment for up to three years or by a fine not exceeding fifteen million won.
  • Article 243, Criminal Act. Distribution, etc. of Obscene Pictures. States that anyone who distributes, sells, lends, openly displays or shows any obscene documents, drawing, pictures, films or other things, shall be punished by imprisonment for up to one year or by a fine not exceeding five million won.
  • Article 244, Criminal Act. Manufacture, etc. of Obscene Pictures. States that anyone for the purpose of accomplishing the acts as prescribed in Article 243, manufactures, possesses, imports or exports obscene goods, shall be punished by the same punishments described above.
  • Article 287, Criminal Act. Kidnap of a Minor. States that anyone who kidnaps a minor by force or inveiglement shall be punished by imprisonment for up to ten years.
  • Article 288, Criminal Act. Kidnapping and Trading for Gain. States that anyone who kidnaps another by force or inveiglement for the purpose of engaging in an indecent act or sexual intercourse, or for gain, will be punished by limited imprisonment for a minimum of one year, which includes buying or selling a female for the purpose of prostitution. A person who habitually commits the preceding crimes will be punished by limited imprisonment for a minimum of two years.
  • Article 297, Criminal Act. Rape. States that anyone who has sexual intercourse with a female through violence or intimidation will be punished by limited imprisonment for a minimum of three years.
  • Article 298, Criminal Act. Indecent Act by Compulsion. States that anyone who commits an indecent act on another through violence or intimidation will be punished by imprisonment for up to ten years or by a fine not exceeding fifteen million won.
  • Article 299, Criminal Act. Quasi-Rape, Quasi-Indecent Act by Compulsion. States that anyone who has sexual intercourse with a female or commits an indecent act on another by taking advantage of the other’s condition of unconsciousness or inability to resist, shall be punished in accordance with the preceding two Articles.
  • Article 300, Criminal Act. Attempts. States that attempts to commit the crimes of the preceding three Articles will also be punished.
  • Article 302, Criminal Act. Sexual Intercourse with Minor. States that anyone who A person has sexual intercourse or commits an indecent act on a minor or feeble-minded person through fraudulent means or by the threat of force will be punished by imprisonment for up to five years.
  • Article 303, Criminal Act. Sexual Intercourse by Abuse of Occupational Authority. States that anyone who, through fraudulent means or by the threat of authority, has sexual intercourse with a female who is under his protection or supervision by reason of his business, employment or other relationship will be punished by imprisonment for up to five years or by a fine not exceeding fifteen million won. Additionally, anyone who has sexual intercourse with a female held in his legal custody will be punished by imprisonment for up to seven years.
  • Article 305, Criminal Act. Sexual Intercourse or Indecent Act with Minor. States that anyone who has sexual intercourse with or commits an indecent act on a female under thirteen years of age will be punished in accordance with Article 297, 298, 301 or 301-2. Article 305-2.
  • Article 309, Criminal Act. Defamation through Printed Materials. States that anyone who commits the crime of defamation by means of newspaper, magazine, radio, or other publication with intent to defame another will be punished by imprisonment or imprisonment without prison labor for up to three years or by a fine not exceeding seven million won.
  • Article 347-2, Criminal Act. Fraud by Use of Computer, etc. States that anyone who acquires any benefits to property or has a third person acquire them, by making any data processed after inputting a false information or improper order, or inputting or altering the data without any authority into the data processor, such as computer, etc., shall be punished by imprisonment for up to ten years, or a fine not exceeding twenty million won.

Act on the Protection of Children and Juveniles from Sexual Abuse:

  • Article 7. Rape, Molestation, etc. of Children or Juveniles. States that 1) anyone who commits an offense as prescribed in Article 297 of the Criminal Act against a female child or juvenile shall be punished by imprisonment for a minimum of five years; 2) Anyone who commits any of the following acts by means of threatening or assaulting a child or juvenile will be punished by imprisonment for a minimum of three years: 1. To put genitals into a part of the body (excluding genitals), such as the mouth or anus; 2. To put a part of the body (excluding genitals), such as fingers, or implements into the genitals or anus; 3) Anyone who commits an offense as prescribed in Article 298 of the Criminal Act against a child or juvenile will be punished by imprisonment for a minimum of one year or by a fine of five million to 20 million won; (4) Anyone who commits an offense as prescribed in Article 299 of the Criminal Act against a child or juvenile will be punished in the same manner as prescribed in paragraphs (1) through (3); (5) Anyone who rapes or molests a female child or juvenile by a deceptive scheme or by force will be punished in the same manner as prescribed in paragraphs (1) through (3); (6) Anyone who attempts to commit an offense as prescribed in paragraphs (1) through (5) will also be punished.
  • Article 8. Production, Distribution, etc. of Child or Juvenile Pornography. States that anyone who produces, imports or exports child or juvenile pornography will be punished by imprisonment for a limited term of not less than five years. Anyone who sells, lends or distributes child or juvenile pornography for commercial purposes, or possesses or transports child or juvenile pornography for the said purposes, or publicly exhibits or shows child or juvenile pornography will be punished by imprisonment with prison labor for up to seven years. Anyone who distributes, publicly exhibits or shows child or juvenile pornography will be punished by imprisonment with prison labor for up to three years or by a fine not exceeding 20 million won. Anyone who possesses child or juvenile pornography will be punished by a fine not exceeding 20 million won. (5) Any person who recruits a child or juvenile for a child or juvenile pornography producer, knowing that they are to be used for producing child or juvenile pornography, will be punished by imprisonment with prison labor for one to ten years. Attempts to commit an offense as prescribed in this Article will also be punished.
  • Article 9. Child or Juvenile Sex Trafficking. Anyone who deals in or sends a child or juvenile to a foreign country or brings a child or juvenile living in a foreign country into Korea, knowing that they will become an object of an act of purchasing child or juvenile sex or producing child or juvenile pornography, will be punished by imprisonment with prison labor for a minimum of five years. Attempts at this crime will also be punished.
  • Article 10. Act of Purchasing Child or Juvenile Sex, etc. Anyone who purchases child or juvenile sex shall be punished by imprisonment with prison labor for up to five years or by a fine not exceeding 30 million won. Additionally, anyone who entices a child or juvenile for purchasing their sex or solicits a child or juvenile to prostitute shall be punished by imprisonment with prison labor for up to one year or by a fine not exceeding ten million won.
  • Act on the Prevention of and Countermeasures against Violence in Schools. Defines cyber-bullying as “any form of constant or repeated actions whereby students inflict emotional harm on other students by using the Internet, cell phones, or other information and communications devices to reveal personal information about a specific student or to spread lies or rumors about a specific student, and then inflict pain thereon.”

Act on Special Cases concerning the Punishment, etc. of Sexual Crimes.

  • Article 14, Lewd Act using Communication Media. States that anyone who makes any words, sounds, writings, drawings, pictures, images or things, which may cause any sense of sexual shame or aversion, arrive at the other party, through a telephone, mail, computer, or other communication media, with the intention of provoking or satisfying his or another person’s sexual appetite, will be punished by imprisonment for up to one year, or a fine not exceeding three million won.
  • Article 14-2. Taking Pictures by Using Camera or other Apparatuses. Anyone who takes pictures of the bodies of other persons against their will by using a camera or any other similar apparatus, which are liable to cause sexual stimulus or shame shall be punished by imprisonment for up to 5 years or a fine not exceeding 10,000,000 won.

2001 - Since the 2001 Internet Content Filtering Ordinance, schools, public libraries, and Internet cafes have been required to filter and block content that would be considered harmful to minors. The Ordinance also instituted a content rating system to protect minors online.

2003 - Real-name registration requirements have been a part of the South Korean internet since 2003, when the Ministry of Information and Communication sought the cooperation of Korea’s four major Web portals in developing real-name systems for their users. According to analysis conducted by the OpenNet Initiative, the sites/content primarily regulated other than information regarding North Korea are online dating, gambling, and pornography sites that threaten minors.

2004 - The Republic of Korea acceded to the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography.

2006 - The Republic of Korea passed the Act on the Protection of Children and Juveniles from Sexual Abuse, which, in addition to detailing penalties for sexual crimes against children (see Legislation section), it also established centers for victims of sexual crimes.

2010 - South Korea hosted the Asia-Pacific Computer Emergency Response Team (APCERT) conference in 2010. Korea has an officially recognized national CIRT (KrCERT/CC) and a private CERT (CONCERT) that address online safety by preventing incidents in the domestic information and communications network and providing cyber safety education to the public.

2012 - The Republic of Korea passed a Youth Sex Protection Law that makes it a crime to download files that imply sexual acts with minors (even if there are no minors actually present). The law aims to address the prevalence of child pornography, but received criticism from people who think criminalizing fetishism (such as “school girl” style sexual animations and video games) is violation of freedom of expression rather than a crackdown on child porn.

2016 - The 28th annual Forum of Incident Response and Security Teams (FIRST) conference will be hosted in Seoul, South Korea this year,with numerous speakers on cyber safety and cyber crime, among other topics.