Slovakia

Population

5,445,802

Population 0‑14

15.1%

Internet Users

83.1%

Facebook Users

2,300,000
* Statistics provided by CIA.gov, Internet World Stats and GSMA Intellligence

2004 - The project “Development and initial implementation of an educational strategy on Internet safety for multipliers, teachers and parents” was carried out by several consumer associations from different EU member states, including Association of Consumer Organizations in Slovakia. The project explored the needs of parents and teachers, to create a strategy for effective protection of the internet users, to developed educational materials, to empower teachers to fight against children abuse on the internet, and to prevent harmful effects (violence, racism, pornography, etc.) from being posted online.

Also in 2004, Microsoft Slovakia and the MoE signed a Memorandum of Understanding to jointly ‘stimulate further development of the educational programs in academic institutions in Slovak Republic by adopting the latest software innovations in the information technology (IT) industry’. Furthermore, the Memorandum’s aim is to create an advanced learning environment in schools and promote digital literacy as part of the curriculum.

2007- Back in April of 2007, the Ministry of Education integrated ICT into the educational process by establishing an ICT council as an advisory body to the ministry.

Also in 2007, the project ‘Internet Safely’ commenced. Within the framework of the project, 15,000 primary school pupils and 500 teachers were educated in Internet safety in the first year alone. The training of pupils, teachers and parents is still ongoing.

2008-In an amendment to the Education Act , the government encourages the integration of ICT to enable children to acquire ICT skills at school. This was first mentioned in the National Strategy for Digital Integration (e-Inclusion) from 2008, which discusses issues such as ICT accessibility, reducing the geographical digital divide and enhancing digital literacy and ICT skills.

Also in 2008, the ‘Strategy for Information of the Regional Education System’ was approved, of which the main objective is to bring the Slovak education system more into line with modern European schools, preparing pupils for life in a knowledge-based society, over the course of four years. The strategy is built on three pillars: content, human resources and infrastructure. It proposes steps to ensure access to education featuring ICT for every student, and aims to equip schools with computers as well as broadband Internet access, whilst teacher training will ensure the ICT literacy of educators will improve substantially. In terms of content, curricula and textbooks will be updated to include Informatics in the primary and secondary curriculum, as well as integrate ICT as a cross-curricular subject.

The MoE has set up a Department of Information Development for Regional Education to promote the informatization of schools.

2009-In Slovakia’s ‘Information Society Strategy for 2009 – 2013’, the Ministry of Finance (the national body responsible for the Information Society) states that the nation’s current education system has an inadequate ICT

2016- Education and Training Monitor 2016 highlights the changes being made to education in Slovakia. It tackles infrastructure and institutions that are ill-equipped with educational software and corresponding literature, in addition to a lack of a central educational portal and national digital resources. The new Government has embarked on ambitious reforms at all education levels and begun preparing a 10-year education strategy. It has also committed to engaging in wide consultations to support these processes. Making the teaching profession more attractive to talented young people and strengthening all phases of teacher education will be key to improving educational outcomes and reducing educational inequity. The higher education sector is subject to a wide reform covering accreditation, funding, cooperation with employers and widening the social makeup of the student population.

Canee.net

An interactive center for professionals working in the field of child abuse and neglect prevention and intervention in Eastern Europe. It was created in 2001, the website was designed to build upon and promote the professional networks established by the Eastern European Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Program.

eSlovensko – Slovakian Insafe Awareness Centre

This website was launched as part of the Safer Internet Plus program and provides information for children, parents and teachers on Internet safety issues. For the past 8 years, the organization has established a strong position on protecting the youth in the virtual space through their 1,856 tools they’ve developed. eSlovensko has trained over 50,000 adults and 123,000 children/youth as well as empowered over 1 million children/youth. Within the Hotline operation work there have been received over 11,000 reports. The organization is also very active in the legislation process concerning the safer internet issues and has received over 20 awards proving of outstanding reach of activities and tools delivered.

GSMA Europe

This industry association represents the interests of European mobile network operators. The group engages in lobbying in areas such as children’s use of mobile phones, privacy, digital inclusion and reducing the digital gender gap. In 2008, the organization formed a mobile alliance against child sexual abuse content.

Informatizacia.sk

The Ministry of Finance established this portal in 2007 to provide the public with up-to-date information about the current state-of-play regarding the development of an Information Society in the Republic.

International Telecommunications Union (ITU) Europe

The ITU is is the UN agency for ICTs. Areas of focus in Europe include improving E-accessibility in Central and Eastern Europe, transitioning Europe to digital broadcasting, and sharing best practices for implementing e-applications.

Internet Governance Forum

The IGF was founded by the UN in 2006 to serve as a discussion platform for internet governance policy issues. It brings together various stakeholders to determine best practices for internet policy. Past areas of focus include cybersecurity, human rights, inclusivity and openness.

INTERPOL

INTERPOL is the world’s largest international police organization, with 190 member countries. Its mission is to enable police forces to collaborate globally to fight crime in the Internet age. Three areas of focus are crimes against children (with a focus on internet crimes and travelling sex offenders), cybercrime and human trafficking.

Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Sport of the Slovak Republic

The Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Sport of the Slovak Republic is the central body of the state administration of the Slovak Republic for elementary, secondary and higher education, educational facilities, lifelong learning, science and for the state’s support for sports and youth. The Ministry manages schools and school facilities at the territory of the Slovak Republic through generally binding rules, by providing vocational guidance to all founders, it administers the network of school and school facilities in the Slovak Republic. Though regional school authorities it provides for realization of the state administration. The competences of the Ministry are set out by law.

Pomoc Helpline- Associated Hotline

The Associated Helpline is part of the Zodpovedne.sk project supported by the European Commission under the Connecting Europe Facility. The same lines can be found in most European countries, with the aim of coordinated assistance, advice on responsible use of the Internet, mobile communications, and new technologies. Help.cz was created by the Association of Children’s Safety, help lines Zodpovedne.sk, and Children’s Trust Lines. Help.sk also aims to cover other projects that run or plan to launch phone, chat, or email counseling to improve and streamline service provision.

Stopline.sk

Stopline.sk fights child abuse, child pornography, child prostitution, child trafficking, online grooming, racism, xenophobia, and other online criminal content. Internet users can report suspicious activity via a simple online form.

The Sheeplive Project

The Sheeplive Project was initiated by the civic association eSlovensko. The project partners include the Slovak Ministry of the Interior and the Slovak Committee for UNICEF. The main goal of the project is to create a series of cartoons for children and an international internet portal. The project focuses on the safety of children and youth, in particular the risks related to the internet, mobile phones and new technologies. The project serves as a prevention tool for children, shows teenagers a mirror of their improper behavior, and gives adults an opportunity to learn.

Country Case Studies : Regional Review of National Activities on Child Online Protection (2017)

Jaroslaw K. Ponder

The Regional Review of National Activities on Child Online Protection was developed in 2016 by the ITU (International Telecommunication Union) in partnership with the Information Technologies Authority of Turkey. This Case study covers the perceptions of online child safety issues, the availability of advice or guidance, the availability of awareness raising and related programs, national focal points, the legal framework/law enforcement resources, and perceptions of the level of co-operation with industry.

Slovakia 2016 Crime & Safety Report (2016)

Research and Information Support Center

The Slovakia 2016 Crime and Safety Report provides a general overview of common security threats, and various numbers to call to support victims in specific crime scenarios.

A Survey on the Transposition of Directive 2011/93/EU on Combating Sexual Abuse and Sexual Exploitation of Children and Child Pornography (2016)

Together Against Sexual Exploitation of Children

The study examines how seven key provisions of Directive 2011/93/EU on the fight against sexual abuse and sexual exploitation of children and child pornography have been adopted by the 27 European Union (EU) Member States bound by the Directive.

Global Research Project: A Global Landscape of Hotlines Combating Child Sexual Abuse Material on the Internet and an Assessment of Shared Challenges (2015)

Melissa Stroebe, Stacy Jeleniewski, PhD

This report examines hotlines combating Internet-facilitated Child Sexual Abuse Material.

How parents of young children manage digital devices at home: the role of income, education and parental style (2015)

Livingstone, Sonia, Mascheroni, Giovanna, Dreier, Michael, Chaudron, Stephane, Lagae, Kaat

The report compares strategies of parental mediation on the internet according to levels of parental education and household income. The aim was to inform policy-makers and practitioners on how to approach parental guidance and awareness raising.

Combatting Child Sexual Abuse (2015)

Petra Jeney

The study provides an overview of existing legislation at European Union, Member State and the international level related to online child sexual abuse, as well as the role of law enforcement agencies in combatting child sexual abuse online and other governmental and private sector initiatives.

The impact of internet and new media on the occurrence of violence against children in Europe and Cyprus (2015)

Rosella Sala

This document demonstrate that countries lack of expertise on child sexual exploitation and struggle combating this issue by their own. It suggests to establish an international legal framework to prosecute offenders and protect children.

Final recommendations for policy (2014)

O’Neill, B., Staksrud, E

Combining all the EU Kids Online policy guidance into one resource, this report provides more than 30 proposed actions for making the Internet safer for children.

Children's Use of Online Technologies in Europe (2014)

K. Ólafsson, S. Livingstone, L. Haddon

This report reviews recent research on children’s use of internet and mobile technologies identified by the EU Kids Online network.

Mapping Safer Internet Policies in the Member States (2014)

P. Baudouin, B. Mahieu, T. Dor, B. Good, J. Milayi, S. Nakajima

The purpose of the study was to set up a framework for analysing Better Internet for Children public policies covering EU Member States, and Norway and Iceland.

Country Classification: opportunities, risks, harm and parental mediation (2013)

Ellen J. Helsper, Veronika Kalmus, Uwe Hasebrink, Bence Sagvari and Jos De Haan.

This report updates and deepens the understanding of cross-national differences among the countries surveyed in EU Kids Online. Where the previous classification was based simply on the percentage of children in each country who used the internet daily, and who had encountered one or more risks, this report examines the range and type of online opportunities, risks and harm experienced by the children in each country. It also takes into account the ways in which parents mediate or regulate their children’s internet use in each country.

Country Classification: opportunities, risks, harm and parental mediation (2013)

Ellen J. Helsper, Veronika Kalmus, Uwe Hasebrink, Bence Sagvari and Jos De Haan.

This report updates and deepens the understanding of cross-national differences among the countries surveyed in EU Kids Online. Where the previous classification was based simply on the percentage of children in each country who used the internet daily, and who had encountered one or more risks, this report examines the range and type of online opportunities, risks and harm experienced by the children in each country. It also takes into account the ways in which parents mediate or regulate their children’s internet use in each country.

Zero to Eight - Young Children and Their Internet Use (2013)

Holloway, D., Green, L., and Livingstone, S. with members of the EU Kids Online network,

This report reviews a number of other studies and provides recommendations as to how younger children can be protected from online risks.

Risks and safety on the internet: Comparing Brazilian and European children (2013)

Barbosa, A., O’Neill, B., Ponte, C., Simões, J.A., Jereissati, T.,

This study compares the results of the survey of Brazilian children and their parents/guardians, carried out by the Brazilian Internet Steering Committee. Using the same methodology as the EU Kids Online research, the results from Brazil are compared with those from Europe.

Overview and Analysis of 1:1 Learning Initiatives in Europe (2013)

Intel

Intel 's report on the status of 1:1 Learning Initiative in Europe

EU Kids Online: National perspectives (2012)

Haddon, L., Livingstone, S., EU Kids Online Network

This report summarizes the Internet experiences of children in the 33 participating EU Kids Online countries and includes eight countries which have not appeared in previous reports.

EU Kids Online: National perspectives (2012)

Leslie Haddon, Sonia Livingstone and the EU Kids Online network

This report summarizes the Internet experiences of children in the 33 participating EU Kids Online countries and includes eight countries which have not appeared in previous reports

ICT in Primary Education (2012)

Ivan Kalaš, Haif E. Bannayan, Leslie Conery, Ernesto Lava, Diana Laurillard, Cher Ping Lim, Sarietjie Musgrave, Alexei Semenov, Márta Turcsányi-Szabó

Status of implementation of ICT in primary schools in Slovakia, Jordan, United States, Chile, United Kingdom, Hong Kong, South Africa, Russia, and Hugnary.

Report on risks faced by children online and policies to protect them (2012)

Kristina Irion

The report provides key findings and policy recommendations to keep children safe online as a follow up to the 2008 Seoul Ministerial Declaration on the Future of the Internet Economy.

Education on Online Safety in Schools in Europe (2009)

Eurydice

The study covers 30 European countries and provides information on whether online safety is taught and how it is taught in schools within the participating countries.

Towards a safer use of the Internet for children in the EU - a parents' perspective (2008)

Eurobarometer

The study covers 27 EU Member States and provides parental responses to a range of questions relating to Internet safety and their perception of risk.

Informatizacia.sk (2007)

The Ministry of Finance

The Ministry of Finance established this portal in 2007 to provide the public with up-to-date information about the current state-of-play regarding the development of an Information Society in the Republic.

Safer Internet for Children and Adolescents in the new Member States. Full Report (2004)

Eurobarometer

This report covers the ten accession countries of the time: Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia.

This section contains details of the country’s laws as they relate to sexual offenses, children and the use of the Internet in the commission of criminal activity. Where possible, sentence details have been given, including whether an increased custodial penalty is imposed where the victim is a child.

The age of consent for sexual activity in Slovakia is fifteen. The age of majority is eighteen, as is the age of consent for marriage. However, in exceptional cases and upon request, the courts may allow marriage from the age of sixteen. In the Penal Code, a child is defined in Section 127 as being a person under the age of eighteen.

§ 247 of the Penal Code imposes a penalty of imprisonment for a term of between six months and three years for damaging and misusing a computer system or other information carrier, unauthorized access, alteration or destruction of data and similar offenses.

Slovakia has signed, ratified and entered into law the Council of Europe’s Convention on Cybercrime (November 2001).

  • § 132, Penal Code. Prostitution and Pornography. Defines, among other things, child pornography as the depiction of sexual intercourse or similar acts with a child, or the depiction of nude parts of a child’s body aimed at the sexual satisfaction of another person.
  • § 139, Penal Code. Protected Person. States that the term ‘protected person’ in this Code means a child, a pregnant woman, a close person, a person in care, a person of old age, a sick person, a person under protection according to international law, a public official or a witness.
  • § 179, Penal Code. Trafficking. This section states, among other things, that anyone who entices, transports, harbors, transfers or receives a minor under the age of eighteen, even with the minor’s consent, for the purposes of prostitution or other forms of sexual exploitation, including pornography, forced labor or forced service, slavery or similar practices, servitude or the removal of organs or tissue, will be liable to imprisonment for between four and ten years.
  • § 199, Penal Code. Rape. This section states that anyone who, by the use of violence or threat of imminent violence, forces a woman to have sexual intercourse with him, will be liable to imprisonment for five to ten years. This will be increased to between seven and fifteen years’ imprisonment if the victim is a protected person or the offense was committed in a particularly extreme manner. Where the offender caused serious bodily harm, a prison sentence of fifteen to 20 years will apply. If the victim dies as a result of the offense or the crime was committed in a crisis situation, the offender will be liable to between 20 and 25 years’ imprisonment.
  • § 200, Penal Code. Sexual Violence. Imposes a penalty of imprisonment for five to ten years for anyone who forces another person to engage in oral or anal intercourse or other sexual activities by the use of violence or threat of imminent violence. This will be increased to between seven and fifteen years’ imprisonment if the crime was committed against a protected person, in a particularly extreme manner, due to a special reason or against an imprisoned person. If the offense caused serious bodily harm, the sentence will be further increased to between fifteen and 20 years’ imprisonment. If the victim dies or the offense was committed in a crisis situation, the penalty will increase to between 20 and 25 years’ imprisonment.
  • § 201, Penal Code. Sexual Abuse. States that anyone who has sexual intercourse with a person under fifteen years of age or who subjects such person to other sexual abuse will be liable to imprisonment for between three and ten years. This will be increased to between seven and twelve years’ imprisonment if the crime was committed on a protected person, in a particularly extreme manner, due to a special reason or on an imprisoned person. If the offense caused serious bodily harm, the sentence will be further increased to between twelve and fifteen years’ imprisonment. If the victim dies or the offense was committed in a crisis situation, the penalty will increase to between fifteen and 20 years’ imprisonment.
  • § 202, Penal Code. Sexual Abuse (contd.). Imposes a penalty of imprisonment for one to five years for anyone who, for a reward, entices a child under the age of fifteen to engage in sexual intercourse outside marriage or who abuses such a person in another sexual way. The section also states that anyone who commits the offense mentioned above on a person under the age of eighteen under the threat of violence will be liable to imprisonment for two to eight years.
  • § 367, Penal Code. Procurement. This section states that anyone who entices, lures, uses, obtains or offers another person for the purpose of prostitution, or who benefits from the prostitution of others or enables its execution, will be liable to imprisonment for up to three years. If the crime is committed in a more serious manner, an aggravated penalty of one to five years’ imprisonment will apply. Where the victim is a protected person, the offender will be liable to imprisonment for between three and ten years. This will be further increased to between seven and twelve years if the offender received a notable benefit for him/herself or another person; if the crime was committed by an organized group or if the victim was under the age of fifteen. Where the victim dies as a result of the offense or suffers grievous bodily harm, the offender will be liable to imprisonment for between ten to fifteen years.
  • § 368, Penal Code. Production of Child Pornography. Defines the offense of using, obtaining, offering or abusing a child for the production of child pornography, enabling this abuse or participating in the production of child pornography. The offense is punishable by imprisonment for between four and ten years. Where the victim is under the age of twelve, the offense was committed in a particularly serious manner or in public, the sentence will increase to between seven and twelve years. Imprisonment for between ten and fifteen years will apply if the victim suffered serious bodily harm or died, or of the offender gained a significant benefit. A further increase of the penalty to between 20 and 25 years’ imprisonment will apply if the offense was committed by an organized group; if the offender gained a large-scale benefit or if more than one person died or suffered grievous bodily harm.
  • § 369, Penal Code. Distribution of Child Pornography. States that anyone who reproduces, transports, obtains or disseminates child pornography will be liable to imprisonment for between one and five years. If the offense was committed in a particularly serious manner or in public, an aggravated sentence of between three and eight years’ imprisonment will apply. Imprisonment for between four and ten years will apply if the offender gained a significant benefit. Where the perpetrator gained a large-scale benefit, he will be liable to between seven and twelve years’ imprisonment.
  • § 370, Penal Code. Receiving and Possessing Child Pornography. This section states that anyone who receives or possesses child pornography will be liable to imprisonment for up to two years.