Singapore

Population

5,535,000

Population 0‑14

16.0%

Internet Users

80.0%

Facebook Users

3,600,000

Mobile Subscribers

8,200,000
* Statistics provided by CIA.gov, Internet World Stats and GSMA Intellligence

1997 – The Ministry of Education launched its first Masterplan for ICT in Education, which lasted through 2002. The plan laid a foundation for ICT use in schools, particularly by providing basic ICT infrastructure and training teachers at a basic level. By 2002, students surveyed had the necessary skills to complete ICT-based assignments and teachers accepted ICT as a pedagogical tool. Primary schools had a student to computer ratio of 6.6:1, while secondary schools and junior colleges had a ration of 5:1.

2003 – The Ministry of Education’s Second Masterplan for ICT in Education (mp2) began, continuing through 2008. The goal of mp2 was to use ICT pervasively and effectively to enhance education and develop lifelong learners. By 2008, students surveyed were competent in using basic ICT tools, teachers were proficient in using basic ICT productivity tools and two-thirds were comfortable using these tools in their teaching. All schools were given adequate funds to have a computer to student ration of 6.5:1 in primary schools and 4:1 in secondary schools and junior colleges.

2009 – The Ministry of Education began its Third Masterplan for ICT in Education (mp3) which ran through 2014. The plan aimed to increase wireless Internet access, provide more laptops to students and place more emphasis on the use of ICT in lessons and as part of further study for students, among other goals.

The same year, the Ministry of Education started the Cyber Wellness Student Ambassador Programme, which aims to use positive peer influence to spread the cyber wellness messages and initiate school activities to raise awareness. It reached 90 schools in its first year.

2015 – The Ministry of Education launched its Fourth Masterplan for ICT in Education (mp4), which will continue through 2020. The program is to facilitate the use of ICT for quality learning in support of the curriculum for all students. As with the mp3 phase of the program, there is an emphasis on cyber wellness.

Association of Information Security Professionals (AISP)

This industry association was founded in 2008, and aims to promote the development and spread of information security knowledge, in addition to supporting industry professionals.

Board of Film Censors

The board operates within the MDA, and is responsible for assigning ratings for films, videos and games. Classification guidelines seek to reflect community norms and values.

Cyber Security Agency

The CSA oversees cyber security strategy, education and outreach, and industry development. It is managed by the Ministry of Communications and Information.

Cyber Security Awareness Alliance

The alliance brings together the public sector, private sector, trade associations and nonprofits to promote cyber security and online safety. It was created in 2008 and is overseen by the CSA and SITF. The alliance’s website provides online safety tips for students, parents and business owners.

Cyber Wellness

This organization promotes safe, legal online behavior, with educational programs geared toward children and teens.

Edgis

This special interest group was formed in 2011 to create a space for those passionate about infocomm security to network and encourage open source collaborations among members. The group also organizes workshops and cybersecurity awareness programs.

Educational Technology Department

This department within the Ministry of Education provides strategic guidance on ICT education, and leads the integration of ICT into teaching and learning. It oversees the planning and implementation of the ICT Masterplan in Education, and works to improve the capacity of teachers deepen the pedagogical use of ICT.

eMedia

This online platform allows teachers to share resources and exchange ideas on using media for education. The website includes videos on mobile phone use, online safety, dating and tips for teachers on using technology in the classroom. Resources are available in English, Malay and Mandarin.

ICT Connection

This website provides access to programs and services of the Educational Technology Division of MOE. It supports school leaders and teachers’ efforts to incorporate ICT into lesson plans, and promotes cyber wellness.

Info-communications Development Authority of Singapore (IDA)

The IDA was founded in 1999 to develop information technology and telecommunications to serve Singapore’s citizens and companies. It supports the growth of innovative technology companies and start-ups, and is guided by the Intelligent Nation 2015 masterplan to become a Smart Nation.

Inter-Ministry Cyber Wellness Steering Committee (ICSC)

The committee was established in 2009 to coordinate cyber wellness programs for youth. It brings together representatives from myriad ministries to encourage cyber wellness and fund initiatives from the people, private sector and public sector.

International Centre for Missing and Exploited Children (ICMEC) Singapore

The Asian regional office of this international organization was established in 2009 to foster cooperation and collaboration in combating child abduction, sexual abuse and exploitation.

INTERPOL

INTERPOL is the world’s largest international police organization, with 190 member countries. Its mission is to enable police forces to collaborate globally to fight crime in the Internet age. Three areas of focus are crimes against children (with a focus on internet crimes and travelling sex offenders), cybercrime and human trafficking.

Media Development Authority (MDA)

The MDA was established in 2003 to regulate the Internet in Singapore. It manages industry development, regulation and licensing, and public engagement. The MDA 2014-2015 report provides details on the agency’s projects and initiatives over the course of the year.

Media Literacy Council

The council is responsible for advising the government on research, trends and developments regarding the Internet and media. It suggests policy responses and develops public awareness programs on media literacy and cyber wellness. Its website has information on cyberbullying, online friendships, cybersecurity and Internet addiction, as well as resources for parents and educators.

Ministry of Communications and Information (MCI)

This department oversees information technology, cybersecurity, the media and design sectors, national and public libraries, and the government’s information and public communication policies. Its mission is to connect Singapore to opportunity through infrastructure and technology.

Ministry of Education (MOE)

The Ministry of Education’s website provides information for parents, students and teachers on all aspects of the education system. MOE’s cyber wellness framework for students advocates for “respect for self and others” and “safe and responsible use” of the internet.

notAnoobie

This cyber-wellness mobile app is designed to help parents keep their families safe online. The app was launched in 2014 and provides information on cyberbullying, gaming, device addiction, inappropriate content, and related topics.

Personal Data Protection Commission (PDPC)

The commission was established in 2013 to administer and enforce the Personal Data Protection Act 2012. It also works to educate the public and organizations on PDPA compliance, and foster awareness of the importance of protecting personal data.

Singapore Computer Emergency Response Team (SingCERT)

SingCERT responds to cybersecurity incidents, and was established to facilitate the detection, resolution and prevention of cyber crimes. It operates within the Cyber Security Agency.

Singapore Infocomm Technology Federation (SITF)

This industry alliance promotes innovation and the adoption of information, communications and media technologies in Singapore.

Smart Nation

This national initiative aims to use ICT, networks and data to holistically improve life in Singapore. It engages citizens, industries, researchers and the government to create innovative solutions together.

TOUCH Community Services

Among the many services offered by this nonprofit organization is a cyber-wellness program operated by its affiliate, TOUCH Youth. The program has been operational since 2001, and has reached 1,350,000 students, parents and educators at 340 schools.

Infocomm Media 2025 Full Report (2015)

Ministry of Communications and Information

This report sets the plans for developing Singapore's information and media sector through 2025.

The Realities of Cyber Parenting: What Pre-teens and Teens Are Up To Online (2015)

Family Online Safety Institute and Intel Security

This global study examined the online behaviors and social networking habits of pre-teens and teens aged between 8 and 16 years old, as well as looking at the concerns of parents.

Assessing New Media Literacy: The Singapore Case (2014)

D-T. Chen

This report is part of a large scale survey study assessing the level of new media literacy and competencies of Singapore school students, and which factors may affect students' new media literacy.

New Media Literacy of School Students in Singapore (2014)

V.D-T. Chen, J-Y. Li, T-B. Lin, L. Lee, X. Ye

This study found that Singapore school students were well-equipped with new media skills, and their new media literacy was generally related to factors such as grade level, dwelling type and time spent online rather than gender.

Assessing the Risk Factors of Cyber and Mobile Phone Bullying Victimization in a Nationally Representative Sample of Singapore Youth (2014)

T.J. Holt, S. Fitzgerald, A.M. Bossler, G. Chee, E. Ng

This study used routine activity theory to examine the relationships between online behaviors, target suitability, and cyber and mobile phone-based bullying in a nationally representative sample of youth from nine schools across Singapore.

Microsoft Computing Safety Index (2014)

Microsoft

This annual survey of more than 10,000 adults in 20 countries around the world creates the data for the MCSI, which measures the actions that consumers take to help keep themselves and their families safe online.

INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT) IN EDUCATION IN ASIA (2014)

UNESCO,UNESCO Institute of Statistics

A comparative analysis of ICT integration and e-readiness in schools across Asia

Microsoft Computing Safety Index (MCSI) (2013)

Microsoft

The survey, Computing Safety Index, measures the steps people report taking to protect their computers, mobile phones, and info online in the categories of foundational, technical and behavioral.

Microsoft Computing Safety Index (MCSI). (2013)

Microsoft

This annual survey of more than 10,000 adults in 20 countries around the world creates the data for the MCSI, which measures the actions that consumers take to help keep themselves and their families safe online.

The Construct of Media and Information Literacy in Singapore Education System: Global Trends and Local Policies (2013)

T-B. Lina, I.A. Mokhtarb, L-Y. Wangc

This paper argues that despite the wide recognition of information literacy and media literacy as crucial skills in the knowledge-based economy, they are perceived as separate concepts, given differentiated emphasis, and implemented using similar approaches in Singapore.

Understanding the Relationship Between Proactive and Reactive Aggression, and Cyberbullying Across United States and Singapore Adolescent Samples (2013)

R.P. Ang, V.S. Huan, D. Florell

This study examined cyberbullying among adolescents across United States and Singapore samples.

Worldwide Online Bullying Survey (2012)

Microsoft

This survey explored children’s experience of online bullying in 25 countries across the globe.

Worldwide Online Bullying Survey. (2012)

Microsoft

This survey explored children’s experience of online bullying in 25 countries across the globe.

Are Youths Today Media Literate?: A Singapore Study on Youth's Awareness and Perceived Confidence in Media Literacy Skills (2011)

L.H. Lim, Y-L. Theng

This study investigates youth's perceived media literacy skills and their confidence in these skills, based on survey responses from Singapore youth ages 13-16.

Safety and Security on the Internet Challenges and Advances in Member States (2011)

World Health Organization

Evaluation of public health threat presented by the Internet in every Member States.

Digital Information Literacy: Explorations of History Tasks in Singapore Schools (2005)

S. Shankar, J.G. Hedberg

This paper examines Singapore students' use of online skills when working on history and science assingments.

This section contains details of the country’s laws as they relate to sexual offenses, children and the use of the Internet in the commission of criminal activity. Where possible, sentence details have been given, including whether an increased custodial penalty is imposed where the victim is a child.

The age of consent for sexual intercourse in Singapore is 16. The age of consent for marriage is 18 and the age at which a contract can be entered into is 21.

  • Cap. 26. Personal Data Protection Act 2012. This act governs the collection, use and disclosure of personal data by organizations. It recognizes the privacy rights of individuals, and the need of organizations to collect, use or disclose personal data for purposes that a reasonable person would consider appropriate. The act requires organizations to obtain consent from individuals before collecting, using or disclosing personal data.
  • Cap 28. Broadcasting Act. The act establishes the regulatory framework for Internet Service and Content providers in Singapore. These providers must comply with the Internet Class License Conditions and the Internet Code of Practice. The act also authorizes the MDA to regulate internet content. Prohibited material includes content otherwise prohibited by applicable law, or that: depicts nudity or genitalia in a manner calculated to titillate; (b) promotes sexual violence or sexual activity involving coercion or non-consent of any kind; (c) depicts a person or persons clearly engaged in explicit sexual activity; (d) depicts a person who is, or appears to be, under 16 years of age in sexual activity, in a sexually provocative manner or in any other offensive manner; (e) advocates homosexuality or lesbianism, or depicts or promotes incest, paedophilia, bestiality and necrophilia; (f) depicts detailed or relished acts of extreme violence or cruelty; or (g) glorifies, incites or endorses ethnic, racial or religious hatred, strife or intolerance. However, the work’s medical, scientific, artistic or educational value shall also be considered. Additionally, Internet Access Service Providers are required to offer optional filtering services to their subscribers, a requirement put in place amid concerns that children were exposed to pornography and extreme violence online.
  • Cap. 38. Children & Young Persons Act. This act is designed to provide for the welfare, care, protection and rehabilitation of children and young people. A child is defined as a person under the age of 14, and a young person is defined as a person between 14 and 16 years old.

    • Section 7. Sexual Exploitation of a Child or Young Person. The section states that anyone who publically or privately commits or attempts to procure the commission of an obscene or indecent act with a child or young person commits an unlawful act. This section also applies to someone who procures or attempts to procure the commission of any obscene or indecent act by a child or young person. The penalty for a first offense is imprisonment for up to five years, a fine of up to $10,000 or both. A second or subsequent conviction sees the term of imprisonment increase to up to seven years and the fine to up to $20,000.
    • Section 11. Restrictions on Children and Young Persons Taking Part in Public Entertainment. This section states that no child or young person can take part in public entertainment that is of an immoral nature, is dangerous to his health or life, or without the consent of his parent or guardian. A person who procures a child or young person, or a parent who allows him, to take part in public entertainment in violation of this section is liable on conviction to a fine of up to $2,000 and/or imprisonment not to exceed one year.
    • Section 12. Unlawful Transfer of Possession, Custody or Control of Child. This section makes it an offense to take part in a transaction to transfer or confer the possession, custody or control of a child for any valuable consideration. This is punishable by four years’ imprisonment. It is also a crime to harbor, possess, control or take custody of a child when valuable consideration has been transferred to any person in or outside of Singapore. This is punishable by a fine of up to $10,000 and/or five years’ imprisonment.
    • Section 13. Importation of Child by False Pretences. This section makes it a crime to bring or assist in bringing a child into Singapore under false pretenses, false representations, or through fraudulent or deceitful means. This is punishable by a fine of up to $10,000 and/or imprisonment of up to five years.
  • Cap. 88. Electronic Transactions Act. This law regulates electronic records, signatures and contracts, including by public agencies. It establishes that network services providers are not liable for third-party material they provide access to if the liability is founded on the making, publication or distribution of said material, or the infringement of rights subsisting in or in relation to said material.
  • Cap. 107. Films Act. This Act regulates the censorship and classification of films.

    • Section 21. Penalty for Possession, Exhibition or Distribution of Uncensored Films. States that the penalty for possessing an uncensored film is a fine of $100 for each film which the offender had in their possession, up to a maximum of $20,000. The exhibition, distribution or reproduction of an uncensored film incurs a fine of $500 for each film distributed up to a maximum of $40,000, a term of up to six months’ imprisonment or both.
    • Section 29. Offences Involving Dealings in Obscene Films. This section defines the offense of making or reproducing an obscene film (regardless of whether there is the intention to distribute or disseminate it in any way) where the producer knows or has reasonable cause to know that the film is obscene. This offense carries a term of imprisonment of up to two years, a fine of between $20,000 and $40,000, or both. A second or subsequent conviction of an offense under this section increases the fine to between $40,000 and $100,000 with the maximum term of imprisonment remaining the same. The importation of an obscene film incurs a fine of $1,000 for each film, up to a maximum of $40,000. This fine can be levied instead of or as well as a prison sentence of up to 12 months. In the event of a second or subsequent conviction of an offense under this section, the maximum prison term increases to two years and the fine increases to $2,000 per film up to a maximum of $100,000.
    • Section 30. Possession of Obscene Films. The simple possession of an obscene film carries a fine of $500 for each film up to a maximum of $20,000, a term of imprisonment of up to six months or both. Where the offender knew the nature of the film, or had reasonable cause to believe that the film was obscene, the penalty for possession becomes a prison term of up to 12 months, a fine of $1,000 for each film up to a maximum of $40,000 or both. A second or subsequent breach of this section increases the maximum prison term to two years and the fine for an individual film becomes $2,000 with a maximum fine of $80,000.
    • Section 31. Advertising Obscene Films. This section makes it an offense to advertises an obscene film for the purpose of distributing or exhibiting it. This offense is punishable by a fine between $2,000 and $5,000, and/or imprisonment not to exceed six months. If the person knows the film is obscene, or has reasonable cause to believe the film is obscene, this offense carries a fine of $10,000 to $50,000 and/or imprisonment not to exceed one year; a second or subsequent offense is punishable by a fine of $20,000 to $100,000 and/or up to two years’ imprisonment.
    • Section 32. Offences Involving Children and Young Persons. This section states that anyone who causes or procures a child (defined as being under the age of 14) or a young person for the purposes of committing one of the offenses defined in sections 29 and 30, commits an offense. The same applies to anyone who does the same with a child or young person who is in their custody or care. The offense carries a prison term of up to 12 months, a fine of between $20,000 and $80,000 or both. A second or subsequent conviction under this section increases the maximum prison term to two years and the fine to between $20,000 and $100,000.
  • Cap. 311A. Spam Control Act. This act prohibits sending an electronic message to an electronic address obtained through use of a dictionary attack or address harvesting software. It also requires that unsolicited commercial electronic messages have unsubscribe functions and advertising labeling.
  • Cap. 323. Telecommunications Act. This law governs the licensing of telecom systems and services, and outlines the IDA’s power to issue codes of practice, standards of performance, directions and advisory guidelines for telecom systems and services. The law also lists offenses and penalties related to telecom systems and services.
  • Cap. 338. Undesirable Publications Act. The Act defines a publication as being (among other definitions) any text or image other than a film. It includes material stored electronically and hard copy publications. The Act gives the Controller (person responsible for making decisions on what should be classified as undesirable) the powers to prevent publications from being imported to Singapore or distributed within the country. The Act states that any person who imports, publishes, sells, offers for sale, supplies, offers to supply, exhibits, distributes or reproduces any prohibited publication is liable to imprisonment for up to three years, a fine of up to $10,000 or both. A subsequent breach of the Act incurs an increased maximum prison term of up to four years. The possession of prohibited items under Act incurs a prison term of up to twelve months, a fine of up to $2,000 or both. A subsequent breach of the Act incurs an increased maximum term of imprisonment of up to two years. The production of an obscene publication(not classified as prohibited) with the intent to sell, distribute, supply or exhibit them or the importation or possession with intent to supply, sell, exhibit or distribute them is also classified as an offense. The penalty for this offense is a term of imprisonment of up to two years, a fine of up to $10,000 or both. The same penalty applies to anyone who sells, offers for sale, supplies, offers to supply, exhibits or distributes such material.

  • Section 292, Penal Code. Sale of Obscene Books, etc. This section states that it is unlawful to sell, rent, distribute, transmit by electronic means, publicly exhibit or put into circulation in any other way, any obscene book, pamphlet, paper, drawing, painting, representation or other obscene object. It is also unlawful to make or produce such material and the section also states that it is unlawful to import, export or transmit it with the knowledge or reasonable belief that it will be put into circulation in any manner including by electronic means. This section also prohibits the advertisement for sale or making known by any means that a person is engaged or prepared to engage in an act which is an offense under this section, or that they are prepared to offer such material for sale. The penalty for any of these offenses is imprisonment for up to three months, a fine or both. The section specifically caters for images stored as data by any electronic means.
  • Section 293, Penal Code. Sale, etc., of Obscene Objects to a Young Person. This section states that selling, letting to hire, distributing, exhibiting or circulating an obscene object to a person under 21 years old is punishable by imprisonment of up to one year and/or a fine.
  • Section 372. Selling a Minor for Purposes of Prostitution. This section states that whoever sells, lets to hire, or otherwise disposes of any person under 21 years old with the intent that the person will be employed or used for prostitution or illicit intercourse shall be punished with imprisonment for up to 10 years and will be fined.
  • Section 373. Buying a Minor for Purposes of Prostitution, etc. This section makes it an offense to buy, hire or obtain possession of a person under 21 years old to employ or use them for the purpose of prostitution or illicit intercourse. This is punishable by up to 10 years imprisonment and a fine.
  • Section 375, Penal Code. Rape. Defines the crime of rape against a woman or any female child under the age of 14. Where the victim is under the age of fourteen, consent is irrelevant. The penalty for this offense when committed against someone over the age of 14 is up to 20 years’ imprisonment and may include a fine or caning. Where the victim or another person is injured in the commission of the offense, or where the victim is under the age of 14, the penalty is between eight and 20 years’ imprisonment and a minimum of 12 strokes with a cane.
  • Section 376, Penal Code. Sexual Assault by Penetration. Defines the offense as sexual penetration, committed against a man or woman without the victim’s consent. The penalty for this offense is up to 20 years’ imprisonment and may include a fine or caning. Where the victim or another person is injured in the commission of the offense, or where the victim is under the age of 14, the penalty is between eight and 20 years’ imprisonment and a minimum of 12 strokes with a cane.
  • Section 376A, Penal Code. Sexual Penetration of a Minor Under 16. Defines the offense of sexually penetrating a person under the age of 16 without their consent. The section also defines the offense of causing another person or a person under the age of 16 to commit such an act. The penalty for these offenses is up to 10 years’ imprisonment, a fine, or both imprisonment and a fine. Where the offense is committed against someone under the age of 14, the term of imprisonment may increase to up to 20 years and may be accompanied by a fine or caning.
  • Section 376B, Penal Code. Commercial Sex With Minor Under 18. Obtaining the sexual services of a person under the age of 18, in exchange for financial consideration, carries a penalty of up to seven years’ imprisonment, a fine, or both imprisonment and a fine. This section also covers the offense of a person communication with another person in order to obtain, for financial consideration, the sexual services of a person under the age 18. That offense carries a prison term of up to two years, a fine, or both.
  • Section 376C, Penal Code. Commercial Sex With Minor Under 18 Outside Singapore. This section states that if a citizen or permanent resident of Singapore commits the offense described in section 376B whilst outside the country, they are guilty of an offense and will be liable to the same punishments as laid down in that section.
  • Section 376D, Penal Code . Tour Outside Singapore for Commercial Sex With Minor Under 18. Defines the offense of facilitating the commission of an offense under section 376C for or on behalf of another person, regardless of whether the other person actually commits that offense. This section also covers the offense of transporting another person outside of the country’s borders to facilitate the commission of an offense under section 376C, regardless of whether the other person actually commits that offense. The printing, publication or distribution of any information which is intended to promote conduct which would be in breach of section 376C, or which would assist in such conduct is also an offense under this section. The publication of information specifically includes electronic means in addition to other forms of publication. The punishment for any of these offenses is imprisonment for up to ten years, a fine or both.

2007 – Singapore added sexual grooming of a minor under 16 to its list of sexual offenses. This section of the penal code defines the offense as a person over the age of 21 (having met or communicated with the victim on two or more previous occasions) meeting or travelling with the intention of meeting the victim, with the intent of committing a relevant offense against the victim. The law also states that it is irrelevant whether the communications prior to the meeting or attempted meeting took place inside the country. The penalty for this offense is up to three years’ imprisonment, a fine or both.