2007 - The Serbian government signed the eSEE Agenda Plus (Electronic South Eastern Europe Initiative) along with seven other eastern European countries. By signing on to the initiative, the member countries pledge to strengthen innovation and investment in ICT in education, develop digital educational content and services, invest in the ICT infrastructure of their national educational institutions, reflect the increased use of modern technologies in a revised curriculum, and make ICT curricula mandatory on all educational levels.
2009 - Telenor launched its Internet for All project in cooperation with the Youth Office of the Vracar municipality in Belgrade. The project aims to increase their computer and Internet use in the field of education and integrate computers into the school system, modernizing the education process.
2010 - Serbia introduced its own Digital Agenda, which aligns with the European Union Digital Agenda and contains numerous strategies and action plans aimed at transforming the republic into an Information Society and introducing modern forms of communication into everyday work and life, government and enterprises until 2020. One of the focuses of the agenda is on ICT in classrooms. Specifically, the Digital School Project, which is part of the Digital Agenda and run by the Ministry of Trade, Tourism and Telecommunications, has provided 2808 schools with fully equipped computer classrooms with training for teachers and students.
2013 - The Media Coalition and the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) launched Campaign for Media Literacy – a fifteen-month project to strengthen and support the democratization of Serbian society by promoting media literacy and independent and accountable journalism. The program aimed to conduct research to determine the level of media literacy in Serbia, define knowledge gaps, and identify priorities for the Media Coalition’s information campaign. As part of the program, the Media Coalition and USAID held workshops, hosted public events, created webinars, and produces educational brochures. (additional source)
2015 - The Ministry of Youth and Sports adopted the National Youth Strategy 2015-2025, which builds on the National Youth Strategy of 2008-2014 and outlines key objectives for supporting personal and social empowerment of young people. The strategy includes specific objectives for increasing computer access and literacy and using ICT in ways that will benefit youth in their social lives.
Serbia’s Information Society Development Strategy (Serbian) envisages that all educational institutions will be equipped with broadband Internet access and related hardware by 2020. In addition, for effective and efficient education, ICT is to be integrated into all aspects of the educational process. In order to establish a modern education system that is tailored to the needs of an information society, teachers will receive training the in use of modern technologies and teaching methods, and digital content will be developed. Contemporary concepts of e-learning and distance learning will be introduced, and ICT will be integrated into traditional curriculum subjects.
Ongoing - The Belgrade Open School’s Center for Research of Information Technologies publishes reports and guides for parents on Internet safety and use in Serbia.
The Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development is working with the European Union to strengthen digital and online learning by creating an analytical framework for the use of ICT in classrooms. And in the ministry’s own Action Plan for the Implementation of the Strategy for Development Education in Serbia by 2020 (Serbian) there are plans to improve teacher training in new methods of teaching and using ICT and increasing student access to ICT.
The Ministry of Trade, Tourism and Telecommunications funds the ICT Political Support Program, which is a special program of the European Union and is intended to stimulate innovations and competitiveness through wide application of ICT in business and public sector.
Belgrade Open School
BOS is a not-for-profit educational organization of the civil society that contributes to the overall development of society through additional education and training to agents of social change, research and policy-development in order to build modern society based on democratic values. In particular the school’s Center for Research of Information Technologies publishes reports and guides for parents on Internet use in Serbia. BOS is supported by the Europe for Citizens programme of the European Union.
A regional coalition of NGOs focused on child protection in the Wider Black Sea region, working to create dialogue within government, civil service and other stakeholders.
Child Protection Hub for South East Europe
A professional organization that strives for a safe, nurturing and inclusive environment for all children, with a focus on professional training and advocacy for child protection professionals.
Directorate for eGovernment
The Ministry’s mission is to convert the state government into an e-government in which all routine operations are optimized, standardized and automated, and the coordination and development of ICT in all subsystems, including education.
This industry association represents the interests of European mobile network operators. The group engages in lobbying in areas such as children’s use of mobile phones, privacy, digital inclusion and reducing the digital gender gap. In 2008, the organization formed a mobile alliance against child sexual abuse content.
IAN supports the human rights violation survivors and other marginalised and vulnerable groups in development of their own potential for decent life in peace. The non-profit offers computer classes, participates in Europe’s Get Online Week, and published research studies on human rights and health.
International Telecommunications Union (ITU) Europe
The ITU is is the UN agency for ICTs. Areas of focus in Europe include improving E-accessibility in Central and Eastern Europe, transitioning Europe to digital broadcasting, and sharing best practices for implementing e-applications.
Internet Governance Forum
The IGF was founded by the UN in 2006 to serve as a discussion platform for internet governance policy issues. It brings together various stakeholders to determine best practices for internet policy. Past areas of focus include cybersecurity, human rights, inclusivity and openness.
INTERPOL is the world’s largest international police organization, with 190 member countries. Its mission is to enable police forces to collaborate globally to fight crime in the Internet age. Three areas of focus are crimes against children (with a focus on internet crimes and travelling sex offenders), cybercrime and human trafficking.
Minisry of Trade, Tourism, and Telecomunications
The Ministry’s objectives include application of ICT in education and the promotion of education for the Information Society. Moreover, the Ministry is responsible for harmonizing national strategies and laws with EU regulations and the implementation of new legislation
Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development
Responsible for the research, planning and development of preschool, primary, secondary and higher education, the Ministry of Education and Science is also accountable for maintaining standards of education and implementing policies and procedures.
Ministry of Youth and Sports
Develops policies and programs that are intended to benefit young people in their social, academic and professional lives.
Serbian Safer Internet Center
The Ministry of Telecommunications and Information Society has created the Click Safely website to educate parents and children about the dangers of the Internet and how to protect themselves and their computers. As a part of the 2015 Safer Internet Day, the Safer Internet Center developed a Net Patrol mobile app, which makes it available and easy to use for the general public to report illicit and illegal material online, so helping its faster removal from the internet.
A Norwegian based telecommunications company, which operates in Scandinavia, Eastern Europe, and Asia and places an emphasis on safe Internet use in the home and prevention of the distribution of illegal child sexual abuse materials. Telenor launched their Internet for All project, which aims to increase Serbian computer and Internet use in the field of education and integrate computers into the school system, modernizing the education process and created filters blocking access to illegal web domains containing sexual abuse of children.
The impact of internet and new media on the occurrence of violence against children in Europe and Cyprus (2015)Rosella Sala
This document demonstrate that countries lack of expertise on child sexual exploitation and struggle combating this issue by their own. It suggests to establish an international legal framework to prosecute offenders and protect children.
Global Research Project: A Global Landscape of Hotlines Combating Child Sexual Abuse Material on the Internet and an Assessment of Shared Challenges (2015)Melissa Stroebe, Stacy Jeleniewski, PhD
This report examines hotlines combating Internet-facilitated Child Sexual Abuse Material.
Combatting Child Sexual Abuse (2015)Petra Jeney
The study provides an overview of existing legislation at European Union, Member State and the international level related to online child sexual abuse, as well as the role of law enforcement agencies in combatting child sexual abuse online and other governmental and private sector initiatives.
The Usage of the Internet Among Men and Women in Serbia (2014)Slavko Alčaković, Bojana Čavić, Valentina Bošković
This paper represents the difference between men and women regarding the Internet usage, the purpose of the Internet usage (news, sport, entertainment, social networks, online shopping), as well as the difference in time management online.
Media Literacy in Europe: 12 Good Practices that will Inspire You (2013)Evens Foundation
This document explores 12 cases across Europe of media literacy.
Media Use Among Young People in Serbia (2012)Dragan Stanojević
The aim of this paper is to present how the electronic and print media have been used among the youth in Serbia. There is a specific section on Internet use in Serbia
ICT in the Education of the Balkan Countries (2010)Dr. Rossita Penkova, Dr. Violeta Mircheva, Nikolina Tsvetkova, Mirena Legurska
This is a comprehensive document on the situation of the ICT in education in the Balkan countries.
Human (Child) Trafficking: A Look Through the Internet Window (2006)Neda Ilić, Marija Andelković, Zorica Rajić, Aleksandra Jovanović, Ana Dorić, Jovan Cirić
This five-part paper examines child trafficking in print and online media, child safety in online chat rooms, child trafficking and Internet recruitment, and international and domestic legal frameworks.
This section contains details of the country’s laws as they relate to sexual offenses, children and the use of the Internet in the commission of criminal activity. Where possible, sentence details have been given, including whether an increased custodial penalty is imposed where the victim is a child.
According to Serbian criminal law, the term ‘child’ refers to a person under fourteen years of age and a ‘minor is a person aged between fourteen to eighteen.
Chapter 27 of the Criminal Code, Criminal Offenses Against Security of Computer Data, deals with offenses ranging from damaging computer data and programs, computer sabotage, creating and spreading computer viruses, computer fraud, unauthorized access to a computer or network, preventing or restricting access to a public network, and the unauthorized use of a computer network.
Serbia has signed, ratified and entered into law the Council of Europe’s Convention on Cybercrime (November 2001). In 2010, Serbia fully enacted the law on the organization and competences of government authorities combating cyber crime.
And in 2009, Serbia enacted the Data Secrecy Law and the Law on Personal Data Protection.
- Article 170, Criminal Code. Insult. This Article states that it is an offense to insult another person, punishable with a fine ranging from 20 to 200 daily amounts, or from 40,000 to 200,000 dinars. If the offense is committed through the press, radio, television or other media, or at a public gathering, the offender will be punished with a fine ranging from 80 to 200 daily amounts or from 150,000 to 450,000 dinars. If the insulted person returns the insult, the court may punish or refrain from punishing either party or one party.
- Article 171, Criminal Code. Defamation. States that anyone who expresses or disseminates untruths regarding another person that may harm the victim’s honor or reputation will be liable to a fine ranging from 30 to 120 daily amounts or a fine ranging from 20,000 to 200,000 dinars. If the offenses is committed through the press, radio, television or other media, or at a public gathering, an increased fine ranging from 60 to 180 daily amounts or between 30,000 to 300,000 dinars. Where the defamation caused serious consequences for the victim, a fine from 60 to 100 daily amounts or a fine between 30,000 to 300,000 dinars will apply.
- Article 178, Criminal Code. Rape. This Article states that anyone who forces another person to sexual intercourse or an equivalent act by use of force or threat of direct attack against the victim or another person will be liable to imprisonment for between two and ten years. Where the offense is committed under threat of disclosure of information against the victim or another person that would discredit their honor or reputation, or by threat of another great evil, the penalty will be imprisonment for between one and eight years. The Article also states that an aggravated penalty of imprisonment for between three and fifteen years will apply if the victim is a juvenile; if the offender caused grievous bodily harm to the victim; if the offense is committed jointly by more than one person; or if it was committed in a particularly humiliating or cruel manner. Where the victim is a child or the offense led to the death of the victim, a prison sentence of between five and eighteen years will apply.
- Article 180, Criminal Code. Sexual Intercourse with a Child. Imposes a penalty of imprisonment for between three and twelve years for anyone who has sexual intercourse or commits an equivalent act with a child. No penalty will apply if there is no considerable age difference between the victim and the offender in respect of their mental and physical development. The Article also states that where the offense results in grievous bodily harm, was committed by several persons or if the child falls pregnant, an increased penalty of five to fifteen years’ imprisonment will apply. Where the death of the victim was caused, the offender will be liable to a minimum penalty of ten years’ imprisonment.
- Article 182, Criminal Code. Prohibited Sexual Acts. States that anyone who commits some other sexual acts on another person by use of force or threat of direct attack against the victim or another person will be liable to imprisonment for up to three years. The same penalty applies where the sexual act is committed under threat of disclosure of information against the victim or another person that would discredit their honor or reputation, or by threat of another great evil. Where the offense results in grievous bodily harm to the victim, or if the act is committed by several persons or in a particularly cruel or degrading manner, an aggravated penalty of two to ten years’ imprisonment will apply. If the victim dies as a result of the offense, the offender will be liable to a prison sentence for a minimum of five years. The Article also states that a penalty of imprisonment for between six months to five years will apply to anyone who commits some other sexual act with a child.
- Article 183, Criminal Code. Pimping and Procuring. Defines the offense of pimping a minor for sexual intercourse, an equal sexual act or another sexual act. The offense is punishable by imprisonment for one to eight years and a fine. The Article also states that anyone who procures a minor for intercourse or another sexual act will be liable to imprisonment for a period of between six months to five years and a fine.
- Article 184, Criminal Code. Mediation in Prostitution. States that it is an offense to cause or induce another person to prostitution, to participate in handing over a person for the purpose of prostitution, or to advertise or promote prostitution by means of media or otherwise. The offense is punishable by imprisonment for between six months and five years and a fine. Where the victim is a minor, an increased penalty of imprisonment for one to ten years and a fine will apply.
- Article 185, Criminal Code. Showing, Procuring and Possessing Pornographic Material and Child Pornography. States that whoever sells, shows or publicly displays or otherwise makes available texts, pictures, audio-visual or other items of pornographic content to a child or shows to a child a pornographic performance, shall be punished with a fine or imprisonment up to six months. Whoever uses a child to produce photographs, audio-visual or other items of pornographic content or for a pornographic show, shall be punished with imprisonment from six months to five years. Whoever sells, shows, publicly exhibits or electronically or otherwise makes available pictures, audio-visual or other items of pornographic content resulting from offences, shall be punished with imprisonment up to two years. All offending items shall be confiscated.
In September 2010, the Stara Pazova Municipality of Serbia and the Croatian Center for Missing and Exploited Children (CNZD) signed a cooperation agreement in which the CNZD committed to opening a branch in Stara Pazova to educate local children, teachers and parents about Internet safety and online privacy.
In 2013, Save the Children launched a program entitled “A Comprehensive Response to On-Line Child Sexual Abuse and Exploitation in SEE,” which took place in Serbia, Bosnia, Herzegovina, and Bulgaria with a purpose of establishing and strengthening the system that protects children from online threats.
In 2014, the European Commission had the members of their Global Alliance Against Child Sexual Abuse Online, which includes Serbia, produce action items the members have already taken and plan to take in order to combat child sexual abuse online. To view the other members’ commitments, click here.
Later in 2014, Telenor and the Serbian Ministry of Interior worked collaboratively to introduce filters for blocking access to illegal web domains containing sexual abuse of children through Telenor’s networks.