1990- Since Namibia gained independence from South Africa in 1990, its education system has been transformed, widening access to involve all learners in integrated classrooms.
2005- The purpose of the ICT Integration for Equity and Excellence in Education Policy is “to prepare all Namibia’s learners, students, teachers, and communities of today for the world economy of tomorrow”. Launched in June 2005, the educational goals outlined in the policy put more emphasis on the pedagogical use of ICT as an integrated tool in the teaching-learning process at all levels in the educational system. Overall, modern technologies are envisaged to assist and facilitate learning across the curriculum and thus produce ICT-literate citizens, among other objectives. Development levels have been drawn up in order to measure the progress of implementation. This ranges from a small computer room with up to twelve computers in a school, used to introduce students to basic processing skills and the Internet, which is classed as level 1, whereas level 5 is normally reserved for an educational facility with an ICT focus, where all students and staff have good access in conjunction with ICT subjects such as programming, database design and so on. To ensure ICT integration, distribution, delivery and literacy are addressed effectively, a number of services will be implemented, such as maintenance and support, networking or digital content creation. Security will also need to be addressed, and the policy explicitly mentions the protection from undesirable content such as pornography. In terms of ICT integration into the curriculum, three aspects have been identified: ICT for skills and knowledge; as a curriculum subject in its own right and cross-curricular integration as a tool in other subjects. The plan also makes provision for teacher education. To make ICT available for the wider community and enable self-education, availability of Internet-enabled ICT services in libraries and community centers is considered essential. An ICT for Education Steering Committee, comprising various working groups to provide specific guidance to ICT-related projects and activities, such as curricula development, content, technical support, training and usage, and ICT for educational management, oversees the policy’s implementation.
2006- Tying in with the Namibian Vision 2030 and the U.N. Millennium Development Goals, the government developed an ambitious fifteen-year strategic plan (2006 - 2020) the Education and Training Sector Improvement Programme (ETSIP). Its key purpose is to transform Namibia into a knowledge society, which is hoped to be achieved through nine sub-programs, one of them being ICT in education as a cross-cutting issue. ETSIP aims to embed ICT at all levels of the education system, integrating it as a tool in the teaching and learning process.
Since the adoption of the ICT in Education Policy, the key implementation areas have been amended by the ICT for Education Steering Committee: teacher education; schools with secondary grades (combined schools, junior secondary schools, and senior secondary schools); vocational training; libraries, community and adult education; and primary schools. Priority will initially be given to providing access for educators and teacher training before equipping students and learners. Following this, the curriculum for secondary grades in Science, Math, English and ICT will be revised, ensuring the ICT is incorporated in a practical and efficient manner. The third priority is to establish the infrastructure and technical support necessary to implement the curriculum and training revisions in colleges, secondary and comprehensive schools. Finally, the effective use of ICT in educational management will be focused on.
The aforementioned curriculum revision will include integrating ICT as a tool across the syllabus as well as a subject in its own right (Computer Studies) for grades 8 - 12, in addition to the establishment of an e-learning center to develop and distribute appropriate content. A total budget of N$6.2 million has been allocated to this program component, whereas the funds for the establishment of the required infrastructure and technical support amounts to N$225.4 million (approx. US$1.5m), which will equip an estimated 150 - 250 primary and secondary schools each year with ICT.
The Namibian Ministry of Education (MoE) developed the education initiative TECH/NA!, a comprehensive strategy for the integration and utilization of ICTs across the education sector based on ETSIP (see above). The initiative ensures that all educational institutions are able to efficiently utilize ICTs to meet their overall goals with support from local expertise and through international assistance. TECH/NA!’s main goals are to supply schools and colleges with hardware, software and Internet connectivity, as well as technical curriculum, content, and support. Furthermore, teachers, staff, administrators and students should all receive ICT literacy training and be education on its cross-curricular integration. Just like ETSIP, teacher training is the initial priority of TECH/NA!, followed by secondary schools, vocational training centers, national and community libraries and, lastly, primary schools.The first purchase of equipment for the initiative supplied 40 secondary schools, all teachers’ colleges, five teacher resource centers, seven vocational training centers, and ten libraries with a total of approximately 1,500 computers, over 100 printers, and various other equipment. This is considered the biggest purchase of equipment in Namibian government history.
2009- SchoolNet Namibia was operational between 2000 - 2009 as non-profit ICT service provider with the mission to introduce affordable modern technology and Internet to all Namibian schools. Financially supported by USAID, the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida) and other co-operations, SchoolNet provided not only Internet access, but also technical support, training and special guidance modules designed for educators.16 In addition, weekly lessons were printed in a Namibian newspaper to enable interested parties without regular Internet access to benefit from the service.
2010- The Curriculum for Basic Education from 2010 states that learners are required to become ICT competent, specifically mentioning the ability to practice computer hygiene and follow ethical norms in using ICT, among other skills. This is not elaborated any further, and Internet safety is not mentioned explicitly in this document. Also revised recently in 2010, the ICT Literacy Foundation Level Syllabus – Computing Fundamentals – Grades 1 - 12 does not specifically mention Internet safety as a topic either. Instead, the syllabus aims to equip learners with basic skills in using a computer and utilizing that knowledge to learn subjects such as Mathematics, English and Science. In terms of Internet abilities, learners are expected to gain the skills to enable them to find online resources, but Internet safety is not part of the expected learners’ knowledge at the present time.
Teachers and trainers received training sessions in Namibia, organized by the Africa School Technology Innovation Center (STIC) as a pilot program in 2010.Over the course of a week, the participants were introduced to Microsoft’s Partners in Learning program and were given the skills to use technology in innovative ways in their teaching. The 38 students were able to create and share teaching resources online and participate in or start online discussions about topics of interest. The workshop was conducted by SchoolNet Nigeria and CECS Namibia.
2013- The 8th eLearning Africa conference was held in May 2013 in Windhoek, Namibia. The annual conference is a key networking event for developing eLearning capacities on the continent, with the 2013 conference focusing on tradition, change and innovation.
Ongoing- The second phase of ETSIP is ongoing and Namibia remains a leader in Africa and the world in ICT education. Namibia has made substantial investments in education and seeks to be a leader in the knowledge economy. For an overview of the eLearning environment in Namibia head to eLearning Africa’s country profile, while the country faces many challenges in regards to ICT education, there are also abundant opportunities.
Center for External Studies
Center at the University of Namibia focusing on providing support to various distance learning and ICT in 10 regional centers across Namibia.
Community Education Computer Society (CECS)
South African NGO designed to promote computer literacy across sub-Saharan Africa.
Education and Training Sector Improvement Programme (ETSIP)
The Education and Training Sector Improvement Programme is a fifteen-year improvement plan for education, which aims to improve the quality of general education from grades one through twelve, to be achieved through curriculum revision, improved teacher training, and ICT integration, to name but a few.
Replacement organization for SchoolNet Namibia, with a similar mission- to bring the power of ICT to Namibian classrooms.
Global e-Schools and Communities Initiative (GeSCI)
Part of the UN ICT task-force, focused on ICT education across Africa and the developing world. Provides technical and research assistance to e-learning programs.
INTERPOL is the world’s largest international police organization, with 190 member countries. Its mission is to enable police forces to collaborate globally to fight crime in the Internet age. Three areas of focus are crimes against children (with a focus on internet crimes and travelling sex offenders), cybercrime and human trafficking.
Research and education consortium works with partner nations that facilitate ICT adoption across Africa.
ITU Development Sector, Africa
ITU-D fosters international cooperation and solidarity in the delivery of technical assistance and in the creation, development and improvement of telecommunication and ICT equipment and networks in developing countries.
Ministry of Gender Equality and Child Welfare
Promotes forward-thinking education and social programs for children and women. At the forefront of combating gender-based violence in Namibia.
Namibia Institute for Democracy
Advocacy and research organization to promote civil society, fair elections, and anti-corruption programs in Namibia.
Namibia National Teachers' Union
Independent organization for teachers to promote better results in the classroom and better conditions for teachers.
Namibia Training Authority
Vocational training and education authority for Namibia, includes ICT vocational training.
National Institute for Educational Development
Designs curriculums and assessments, as well as conducts research and provides educational and training material across Namibia.
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Education in Sub-Saharan Africa (2015)Peter Wallet
This documents presents the current status of the Information and communication technologies in Education in the Sub-Saharan region.
The Use of ICTs in the Curriculum in Botswana, Namibia and Seychelles (2004)Linda Chisholm, Rubby Dhunpath, Andrew Paterson
ICT implementation in Seychelles, Botswana, and Namibia
This section contains details of the country’s laws as they relate to sexual offenses, children and the use of the Internet in the commission of criminal activity. Where possible, sentence details have been given, including whether an increased custodial penalty is imposed where the victim is a child.
The age of consent for sexual activity is sixteen. The minimum age for marriage without governmental consent is eighteen and the legal age of majority is 21.
Although Namibia passed the Computer Misuse and Cybercrime Act in 2003, this only deals with offenses related to unauthorized access to computer data, interception of computer services, unauthorized modification of computer material, damaging access to a computer system, unlawful disclosure of password, and electronic fraud. The Act does not cover issues such as online child pornography or cyber bullying.
Where the Combating of Immoral Practices Act is quoted, some of the fines are specified in Rand and some in Namibian dollars. This is because some sections have been amended since the Namibian dollar was introduced.
- Section 2, Combating of Rape Act (Act No. 8 of 2000) (CRA). Rape. This section states that anyone who, under coercive circumstances, commits a sexual act with another person, or causes another person to commit such an act with the offender or a third person, is guilty of the crime of rape. The term “coercive circumstances” includes, but is not limited to, circumstances where the victim is under the age of fourteen and the offender is more than three years older, or where the offender used physical force, threat thereof or to cause other harm, impersonation, fraudulent misrepresentation as to the nature of the act, among others.
- Section 3, CRA. Penalties. Imposes a penalty of a minimum of five years’ imprisonment for a first offense, and a minimum of ten years’ for any subsequent offense. An increased penalty of a minimum of ten years’ imprisonment for a first offense and at least 20 years’ for a subsequent offense applies if the offender used physical force, threats or where the victim was unlawfully detained. This is further increased to a minimum of fifteen years’ for a first offense and at least 45 years’ imprisonment for any subsequent offense where the victim is under the age of thirteen or by reason of age exceptionally vulnerable; where the victim is under the age of eighteen and the offender is in a position of trust or authority over the victim; where the offense constitutes incest; where the victim has suffered grievous bodily harm; where the offender was knowingly infected with a serious sexually transmitted disease at the time of the offense; where the offense was committed jointly by two or more persons or where the offender used a firearm or any other weapon. The minimum sentence shall not apply if the offender is under the age of eighteen, in which case the court may impose any appropriate sentence.
- Section 5, Combating of Immoral Practices Act, 1980 (Act No. 21 of 1980). Procuration. This section states that anyone who procures or attempts to procure any woman to have unlawful sexual intercourse with any person other than the procurer, or to become a prostitute or an inmate of a brothel, is guilty of an offense. The same applies to anyone who entices any female to a brothel for the purpose of unlawful sexual intercourse or prostitution. The offense is punishable by imprisonment for up to five years.
- Section 6, Combating of Immoral Practices Act. Assistance for Purposes of Unlawful Carnal Intercourse. Defines the offense as to, with intent to have unlawful sexual intercourse with any female, perform any act or furnish in any way any information which will enable a him to communicate with or establish the whereabouts of any such female. A prison term of up to five years is the penalty for this offense.
- Section 7, Combating of Immoral Practices Act. Enticing to Commission of Immoral Acts. Imposes a prison term of up to two years and/or a fine not exceeding R2,000 for anyone who, in any public place, entices, solicits or importunes any person for immoral purposes, or who willfully exhibits himself within view of any public place or in a place to which the public have access.
- Section 8, Combating of Immoral Practices Act. Committing of Immoral Acts. States that it is an offense to commit an immoral act with another person in public. This renders the offender liable to up to three years’ imprisonment and/or a maximum fine of R3,000.
- Section 10, Combating of Immoral Practices Act. Living on Earnings of Prostitution and Assistance in Relation to Commission of Immoral Acts. States that anyone who knowingly lives, wholly or in part, on the earnings of prostitution, or who in any way assists or brings about the commission by any person of any immoral act with another person, is guilty of an offense and liable to up to three years’ imprisonment and/or a fine of up to R3,000.
- Section 13, Combating of Immoral Practices Act. Detention for Purposes of Unlawful Carnal Intercourse. This section states that it is an offense to detain a female against her will with intent that any male may have unlawful sexual intercourse with her. The penalty is up to seven years’ imprisonment. If the victim is under the age of sixteen, it shall be deemed that she was taken or detained in such aforementioned place against her will; where she is sixteen or above but under 21, it shall be deemed that it was involuntarily if it was against her own will or against that of her parents.
- Section 14, Combating of Immoral Practices Act. Sexual Offences with Youth. States that anyone who, being at least three years older than the victim, commits or attempts to commit a sexual, indecent or immoral act with a minor under the age of sixteen, or solicits or entices such minor to the commission of such act, is guilty of an offense. The penalty is imprisonment for up to ten years and/or a fine of up to N$40,000.
- Section 17, Combating of Immoral Practices Act. Manufacture, Sale or Supply or Article Intended to be Used to Perform Unnatural Sexual Act. Imposes a penalty of imprisonment for a maximum of two years and/or a fine not exceeding R2,000 for anyone who manufactures, sells or supplies any article which is intended to be used to enable a person to perform an unnatural sexual act.
- Child Care and Protection Act of 2015, (Act No. 3 of 2015). Wide-ranging bill designed to protect children’s rights by establishing a Children’s court, prevent abuse and neglect, and respond to cases of exploitation and trafficking of children. The Act conforms to international agreements on children’s rights like the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child and the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child.
- The law criminalizes the actions of both the client and the pimp in cases of sexual exploitation of children under age 18, and it also criminalizes child pornography and child prostitution, with a minimum penalty of 5 years for statutory rape. Exposing a child to pornography is also illegal. The maximum penalty for soliciting sex from a child under the age of 16 is a imprisonment not to exceed 10 years and/or a fine not to exceed N$40,000,
According to the U.S. State Department Human Rights Country Report for Namibia sexual exploitation of children occurred primarily as a result of economic pressures on orphans and at-risk youths. HIV/AIDS has left many children parentless. Child prostitution remains less common than child labor and gender-based violence but remains a large issue especially with San minority girls. Children from neighboring states like Angola, Zimbabwe, and Zambia can be forced into prostitution in Namibia. In 2013, the U.S. Department of Labor released a report on child labor and categorical worst forms of child labor in Namibia.
2012-2016- The Namibian Government released the National Plan of Action on Gender Based Violence. Gender-based violence remains a serious problem in Namibia and young, vulnerable populations are more likely to be victims.
2015- Namibia joined the #We Protect Children Online Program partnering with UNICEF, other governments, and technology companies to fight online sexual exploitation. The standards established by Namibia through this program are inline with the UN Convention on the RIghts of the Child and the Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution, and Child Pornography.
- The Namibian cabinet approved a new law that would regulate the use of social media allowing for prosecution of cases where explicit, violent, or insensitive material was published on social media.
- The Child Care and Protection Act prohibits child trafficking and requires all ISPs who detect the advertisement of human trafficking or child pornography to report such violations to the Namibian authorities.
Ongoing- As of February 2016, Namibia is considering passing laws to regulate child abuse online and exploitation of children via the internet.
- According to the International Center for Exploited and Missing Children, Namibia has none of the recommended laws for child pornography (e.g. specific definitions, specific legislation, computer facilitated offenses, simple possession, and ISP reporting).