2005 - To improve the Moldovan education sector in line with the European Union standards the Ministry of Education implemented numerous strategic plans. In the e-Education component of the National Strategy and Action Plan “Electronic Moldova” emphasis is placed on the implementation of ICT into education and to enable access to lifelong learning. In addition, the strategy set plans to revise curriculum to reflect the changes modern technologies have brought and to establish a subject on standards of IT. The Modernization Program of Education System for 2005 - 2009 worked on implementing ICT in education system, modules of distance-learning and electronic textbooks for universities and secondary schools, and stipulating ECDL (European Computer Driving License). The Action Plan Republic of Moldova-European Union continues the implementation of the national program on introducing IT in education. The National Strategy “Education for All” strives to provide all children access to basic qualitative education that will secure the development of essential life abilities, inclusively education for health, civic education for family, professional training and implement ICT in education.
2006 - The Ministry of Education implemented Presidential SALT Program, a two year program that worked on modernizing the education system in Moldova to match European educational standards. It developed educational programs and software in correlation with the national curriculum. By the end of the program, SALT had equipped 332 schools with 3,600 computers, connected 479 schools to high-speed Internet, and provided ICT training to 7,000. In addition, educational software was introduced into the curriculum for mathematics, physics, chemistry and biology.
2007 - The government of Moldova signed the eSEE Agenda Plus 2007 - 2012 (Electronic South Eastern Europe Initiative) together with seven other Eastern European countries. The member countries pledge to, among other things, strengthen innovation and investment in ICT in education, develop digital educational content and services, invest in the ICT infrastructure of their national educational institutions, reflect the increased use of modern technologies in a revised curriculum, and make ICT curricula mandatory on all educational levels.
2008 - The Tech Age Girls (TAG) program was implemented by IREX with support from Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OCSE), Peace Corps, USAID, and US Department of State to develop information technology (IT) skills of young female leader. The program addresses the underrepresentation of women in the IT field and promotes the online presence of girls’ voices in local languages.
2009 - The same year, International Research and Exchanges Board (IREX) has completed the Internet Access and Training Program (IATP), which was initiated in 1995 by the U.S. Department of State’s Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs and in 2007, was funded by USAID. The program promoted internet usage and information access by setting up IATP centers in over 250 locations in 11 Eurasian countries, including Moldova. In addition, IATP staff created over a dozen training modules, covering basic computer literacy, Web design, internet research, blogging, and wiki creation.
2011 - The Ministry of Education adopted 2011-2015 Consolidated Strategy for Education Development to modernize the educational system, ensure sustainable human development by providing access to quality education at all education levels for all children. One of the strategy’s specific objective is to develop and apply ICT in the education system. It set to gradually reduce the “digital inequality” between the urban and rural areas, computerize educational management at all levels of the education system, implement e-learning in higher education institutions and vocational/technical institutions.
Through Quality Education in the Rural Areas in Moldova project, developed and financed by the World Bank, public servants of the Ministry of Education’s administration board and of district/municipal departments of education received training on development and implementation of educational policies, management of education based on safe database, and management based on the use of information and communication technology.
The same year, ECPAT International with the support from the Body Shop Norway, implemented Certified Safe Internet School Project in Belarus, Moldova, Ukraine, and Russia. Completed in 2013, the CISS project supported schools in understanding internet safety for children on child rights principles, including access to information and knowledge, protection from online risks. Through training, school teachers and administrators were educated on children’s behavior online and the related risks, and received tools for the implementation of policies and programs needed to protect children in schools.
2013 - The Moldovan Government drafted Digital Moldova 2020 Strategy that focuses building Moldova as an advanced information society and the knowledge based economy. Within the education sector, the strategy promotes modernization of learning tools and promotion of use of ICT for enhancing the learning experience, and initiates the development of e-Education Strategic Program.
European Commission launched eTwinning Plus, extending services of eTwinning to a select number of schools and teachers from Ukraine, Tunisia, Moldova, Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan. The program is part of the European Commission’s Neighbourhood Policy, which encourages links and collaboration with those countries in European Union immediate neighborhood. Schools and kindergartens from the neighboring countries can communicate, collaborate, develop projects, share through the use of ICT with the European Union school community.
With assistance from World Bank, the Ministry of Education (MoE) launched a four year Education Reform Project for Moldova. The project lays out plans to strengthen the quality of general education, eliminate excess capacity and create a leaner education system that meets the demands of a modern economy, and finance technical assistance for the MoE to support the implementation, monitoring and measurement of the education reform program.
2014 - With support from USAID and funding from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, IREX launched Novateca, a global libraries program that will be implemented in Moldova through 2018. The program is designed to increase access to ICT through the existing public library network. As of 2016, Novateca equipped 68 libraries with a total of 304 computers and trained 243 librarians on ICT skills and new services delivery.
2015 - Through its Neighbourhood Policy, European Commission launched the Eastern Partnership Connect (EaPConnect) project that establishes and operates a high-capacity broadband internet network for research and education across Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine. It will integrate the national research and education networks (NRENs) in the region into the pan-European GÉANT network, which will decrease the digital divide.
2016 - Since 2010, Moldova has been hosting ICT Summit, which is the leading industry event aimed to gather all industry stakeholders, including government, business, multinationals, professionals and academia, to discuss trends and challenges facing the ICT industry globally and in Moldova, highlight the actions and steps that lead to a knowledge based society and development of the ICT. In 2016, participants emphasized Moldova’s opportunities of closing the gap for the shortage of skills through the improvement vocational ICT education and development of ICT in basic education.
The same year, with the assistance from Moldovan Association of ICT Companies (ATIC), IT Center for Excellence opened doors to students interested in working in IT sector. The center will provide a range of training courses in modern IT topics, world-class education and training facilities, with up to date curricula, lecturers and laboratories. In addition, Educational Center Pro Didactica, in partnership with ATIC, launched “Partnerships for quality and relevance of the ICT vocational education in Moldova” project, which was financed by the Austrian Development Agency and the Romanian Government. The initiative aims to modernize the training of specialists in ICT in the vocational education institutions.
La Strada Moldova began observing the Safer Internet Day since 2012. In 2016, the organization launched an Online Communication Campaign for the protection of children and youth against the illegal and damaging digital content.
An interactive center for professionals working in the field of child abuse and neglect prevention and intervention in Eastern Europe. It was created in 2001, the website was designed to build upon and promote the professional networks established by the Eastern European Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Program.
A non-profit social services organization and the official representative of Hope and Homes for Children UK in Moldova. The organization supports inclusive education promotion through capacity training for staff in the child development and social services field. The organization partners with Moldova’s Ministry of Education to reform the residential care system for children and ECPAT International to fight against child online safety exploitation and trafficking.
Centre of Information and Documentation on the Rights of the Child (CIDDC)
The center works to ensure that both children and adults know about children’s rights and know how to use them.
Officially recognized institution responsible for implementing a national cybersecurity strategy, policy and roadmap in Moldova.
Educational Center PRO DIDACTICA
Established in 1998, the organization promotes principles of the open society, supporting individuals and organizations interested in continuous learning and development, in order to achieve a better personal and professional performance and to facilitate their integration into a society in transition. Center offers informational, training and consulting programs and services, focused on development of lifelong learning skills.
General Police Inspectorate
Its subdivision CCCC, carries out responsibilities and implements state policy in the field of combating cyber-crimes and child exploitation.
This industry association represents the interests of European mobile network operators. The group engages in lobbying in areas such as children’s use of mobile phones, privacy, digital inclusion and reducing the digital gender gap. In 2008, the organization formed a mobile alliance against child sexual abuse content.
A non-profit organization that empowers teachers and young people to work together online using the Internet and other new communications technologies. Since 1999, in 1999, iEARN has provided professional development workshops financed by the U.S. State Department.
Information Society Development Institute (ISDI)
Established in 2008, the ISDI works towards transforming Moldova into an Information Society and to promote policies, action plans and research in ICT to further strengthen the aforementioned Information Society.
International Research and Exchanges Board (IREX)
An international nonprofit organization provides leadership and innovative programs to promote positive lasting change globally. They enable local individuals and institutions to build key elements of a vibrant society: quality education, independent media, and strong communities. Their program activities include conflict resolution, technology for development,gender, and youth.
Internet Governance Forum
The IGF was founded by the UN in 2006 to serve as a discussion platform for internet governance policy issues. It brings together various stakeholders to determine best practices for internet policy. Past areas of focus include cybersecurity, human rights, inclusivity and openness.
INTERPOL is the world’s largest international police organization, with 190 member countries. Its mission is to enable police forces to collaborate globally to fight crime in the Internet age. Three areas of focus are crimes against children (with a focus on internet crimes and travelling sex offenders), cybercrime and human trafficking.
La Strada Moldova
The international organization promotes the protection of rights and legal interests of its beneficiaries – socially vulnerable categories – at all levels: individual, legislative and executive. It has been active in raising public awareness of child pornography through training seminar on the risk of victimization of children through the Internet.
Ministry of Information Technology and Communication (MITC)
A government body responsible for the development, promotion and application of state policy in the field of information technology, information society and communications. It ensures the continuous development of the ICT sector, creates opportunities for the businesses, offers investment incentives to promote competitiveness, including at the international level.
Moldovan Association of ICT Companies (ATIC)
The association promotes the development of the ICT sector in the Republic of Moldova through viable partnerships between the private companies, similar organizations, state institutions, international organizations in order to enhance the competitiveness and development of the sector and company capacities, enlarge the market, attract investments in the country and participate in the decision making and regulatory process on the national and international level.
National Center for Prevention of Child Abuse (CNPAC)
Since 1997, the NGO has been promoting the right of children to protection from all forms of violence, directing their actions to inform, sensitize and motivate society to stop the ill-treatment of children.
Registered under the legal name Project Harmony, Inc., the organization was founded in 1985 for the purpose of cultural and educational exchanges between the then-USSR and the United States. PH International’s mission is to build strong global communities by fostering civic engagement, cross-cultural learning, and increased opportunities in the digital age.
RENAM (Research and Educational Networking Association of Moldova)
A non-governmental, non-commercial and non-profit organization focuses on the development of communication and information infrastructure of the scientific and educational community, as well as governmental organizations in Moldova.
Created by La Strada Moldova, the interactive online portal provides tips on how children can protect themselves from the actions or violent messages in the virtual space.
Combatting Child Sexual Abuse (2015)Petra Jeney
The study provides an overview of existing legislation at European Union, Member State and the international level related to online child sexual abuse, as well as the role of law enforcement agencies in combatting child sexual abuse online and other governmental and private sector initiatives.
Global Alliance Against Child Sexual Abuse Online: Moldova (2014)European Commission
Report on Moldova's commitment to stop Child Sexual Abuse Online
A Study on Children's Safety Online in Republic of Modova (2014)La Strada Moldova
A study on children’s behaviour online of children in Moldova and recommendations for specialists interested in ensuring the protection of children online.
ICT in Education in Moldova: Meeting Industry Needs (2012)USAID
USAID's short study to examine the skills issues affecting the ICT sector in Moldova
Promotion of the use of Information and Communication Technologies in Technical and Vocational Education and Training in CIS countries (2012)UNICEF
This analytical report presents the results of a comparative study on current situation and main tendencies in ICT use in TVET in CIS countries: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan. Besides, the report includes recommendations on further development and improvement of the use of modern ICTs in Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET).
ECPAT Global Monitoring Report: Moldova (2012)ECPAT
Report on the status of action against commercial sexual exploitation of children in Moldova
Children in the Republic of Moldova: Alone Online? Safe Online? (2011)La Strada Moldova
The report provides information on children’s behaviour online in Moldova,recommendations for specialists interested in prevention of children’s risky online behaviour, and recommendations that can facilitate development of effective national campaigns in this field.
Rethink Moldova (2010)Government of Moldova
The document presents the vision of the Government of the Republic of Moldova for achieving its five‐pillar reform priorities: European integration, economic recovery, rule of law, administrative and fiscal decentralization and reunification of the country.
Regional Overview on Child Sexual Abuse Images Through the Use of Information and Communication Technologies in Belarus, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine (2008)ECPAT
This regional report provides an overview of the situation based on the information collected in the literature reviews and the detailed analysis of cases.
This section contains details of the country’s laws as they relate to sexual offenses, children and the use of the Internet in the commission of criminal activity. Where possible, sentence details have been given, including whether an increased custodial penalty is imposed where the victim is a child.
The age of simple majority and consent for marriage in Moldova is eighteen years.The age of consent for sexual activity varies between fourteen and sixteen years, according to the Criminal Code.
Moldova has signed, ratified and enter into law the Council of Europe’s Convention on Cybercrime. (September 2009).
- Article 171, Chapter IV, Penal Code. Rape. This Article defines the offense of rape as sexual intercourse committed by the physical or mental coercion of a person or by taking advantage of the victim’s incapacity to defend herself/himself or to express her/his will. The offense is punishable by imprisonment for three to five years. The following aggravating circumstances lead to an increased sentence of five to twelve years’ imprisonment: if the victim is a juvenile or a pregnant woman; the offense was committed jointly by two or more persons; the offender is a recidivist; the offense involved torture of the victim, or the offense was committed for the intentional infection of the victim with a sexually transmitted disease. A further increased penalty of ten to 20 years’ imprisonment, or life imprisonment, will apply in the following circumstances: where the victim is under the age of fourteen; the offender was entrusted with the victim’s care, custody, protection, education or treatment; the offender deliberately infected the victim with AIDS; the offense caused severe bodily injury, damage to the health or the death of the victim, or the offense resulted in other serious consequences.
- Article 172, Chapter IV, Criminal Code. Violent Actions of a Sexual Character. States that homosexuality or satisfying one’s sexual needs in perverted forms committed with the use of physical or mental coercion, by taking advantage of the victim’s inability to offer resistance or express her/his will is punishable by imprisonment for between three to five years. The following aggravating circumstances lead to an increased sentence of five to twelve years’ imprisonment: if the victim is a juvenile or a pregnant woman; the offense was committed jointly by two or more persons; the offender is a recidivist; the offense involved torture of the victim, or the offense was committed for the intentional infection of the victim with a sexually transmitted disease. A further increased penalty of ten to 20 years’ imprisonment, or life imprisonment, will apply in the following circumstances: where the victim is under the age of fourteen; the offender was entrusted with the victim’s care, custody, protection, education or treatment; the offender deliberately infected the victim with AIDS; the offense caused severe bodily injury, damage to the health or the death of the victim, or the offense resulted in other serious consequences.
- Article 173, Chapter IV, Criminal Code. Coercion to Actions of a Sexual Character. Imposes a penalty of a fine of between 300 to 500 conventional units or imprisonment for up to three years for anyone who coerces a person to sexual intercourse, homosexuality or the commission of other sexual acts by blackmail or by taking advantage of the dependence of the victim.
- Article 174, Chapter IV, Criminal Code. Sexual Intercourse with a Person under the Age of Sixteen. Defines the offense of committing sexual intercourse or other acts of vaginal or anal penetration with a person under the age of sixteen. The offender will be liable to imprisonment for up to five years. There will be no conviction if the offender is similar to the victim in terms of age and physical/mental development.
- Article 175, Chapter IV, Criminal Code. Perverted Actions. States that anyone who commits perverted actions against a person under the age of sixteen will be liable to imprisonment for up to five years.
- Article 206, Chapter IV, Criminal Code. Trafficking in Children. This Article states that anyone who recruits, transports, harbors or receives a child, or gives or receives payment or benefits to obtain the consent of the person who cares for the child, for the purpose of sexual exploitation in prostitution or a pornographic industry will be liable to imprisonment for between eight and twelve years in addition to the deprivation of the right to hold certain positions or to practice certain activities for between two and five years. If the offense was committed by a legal entity the penalty will be a fine of between 3,000 to 5,000 conventional units with the deprivation of the right to practice certain activities or by the liquidation of the legal entity. The Article also states that where the offense involves physical or mental violence; use of a weapon or threat thereof; sexual abuse and violence; abuse of authority or the child’s vulnerability; threat to disclose confidential information; or removal of human organs or tissues, an aggravated penalty of imprisonment for ten to fifteen years with the deprivation of the right to hold certain positions or to practice certain activities for two to five years will apply. Where the offense was committed by a legal entity the penalty will be a fine of between 5,000 and 7,000 conventional units with the deprivation of the right to practice certain activities or by the liquidation of the legal entity. This sentence will be further increased to between fifteen and 20 years’ imprisonment with the deprivation of the right to hold certain positions or to practice certain activities for three to five years or with life imprisonment in the following circumstances: the offender is a recidivist; the offense was committed against two or more children; the offender is a high-ranking official; the offense was committed by an organized criminal group; the victim suffered severe bodily injury or a mental disorder, or caused the victim to commit suicide, or the victim is under the age of fourteen. If the offender is a legal entity, the penalty will be a fine of between 7,000 to 9,000 conventional units plus the deprivation of the right to practice certain activities or by the liquidation of the legal entity.
- Article 208, Chapter IV, Criminal Code. Involving Juveniles in Criminal Activity or Encouraging Them to Commit Immoral Acts. This Article states that anyone over the age of eighteen who involves juveniles in criminal activity or incites them to immoral acts will be liable to a fine of between 200 to 500 conventional units or community service for 150 to 200 hours, or imprisonment for up to five years. An increased punishment of imprisonment for three to seven years will apply if the offense was committed with violence or threat thereof, or with the involvement of juveniles in an organized criminal group or organization.
- Article 208, Chapter IV, Criminal Code. Infantile Pornography. States that it is unlawful to produce, distribute, broadcast, import, export, offer, sell, exchange, use or hold pictures or other images of one or more children involved in explicit, real or simulated sexual activities, or pictures or other images of genital organs of a child represented in a lustful or indecent manner, including in a soft version. The offense is punishable by imprisonment for one to three years, whereas a legal entity will be liable to a fine of between 2,000 to 4,000 conventional units with the deprivation of the right to practice certain activities.
2009 - The OSCE Mission to Moldova hosted a roundtable discussion on the “Efforts to Combat Child Pornography in the Republic of Moldova” to discuss necessary action to improve the legislation of article 208/1 on child pornography and raise awareness among internet users. Supported by ECPAT International, CCF Moldova gave a presentation on the regional overview of “Child Sexual Abuse Images through the Use of Information and Communication Technologies” and La Strada Moldova discussed cases of the online abuse of children in Moldova.
2010 - The Government of Moldova took part in the regional seminar “Protecting children from sexual exploitation and sexual abuse through the Internet”, which was organised by the Council of Europe and the European Union. Law enforcement from Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, Russia attended the seminar, where specialists from Microsoft, ICMEC, ECPAT International, Interpol, National Police of Italy, [email protected] Internet of the European Commission, and eNACSO shared their knowledge on internet safety and protecting children from online abuse.
The same year, CCF Moldova provided training to 130 school deputy principals from municipal schools across the country.Furthermore, the organisation conducted the “Child in the Web” campaign which involved the production and distribution of materials on online safety.
2011 - Council of Europe launched Eastern Partnership – Cooperation against Cybercrime ([email protected]) project, which was implemented in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, and the Ukraine through 2014. The goal of the project was to strengthen the capacities of criminal justice authorities of Eastern Partnership countries to cooperate effectively against cybercrime in line with European and international instruments and practices. Currently, [email protected] II and III are being implemented to assist law enforcement to fight cybercrime. The projects will run through 2017.
2012 - La Strada Moldova, CNPAC, CCF Moldova, and CIDDC launch a Call for the mobilization of the government authorities, civil society, and mass media for a priority approach of sexual exploitation and abuse of children in the online environment.
The same year, Moldova has joined the Global Alliance against Child Sexual Abuse Online along with 54 countries around the world. The Alliance unites Ministers of the Interior and of Justice from each country to fight against Child Sexual Abuse Online, to rescue victims, to develop more effective prosecution, and to reduce the amount of child sexual abuse images available online.
The Moldovan Government created the CCCC within the General Police Inspectorate to strengthen cooperation between multiple law enforcement agencies within the state on cyber-crimes, including child pornography. The center carries out responsibilities and implements state policy in the field of combating cyber-crimes and child exploitation. In addition, the CCCC cooperates with NGOs that which provide social assistance to victims of sexual exploitation and abuse, including La Strada Moldova and CNPAC. It is connected to IPSG network that facilitates international cooperation in preventing and combating child pornography and sexual abuse/exploitation of children.
2013 - To information regarding safe behavior of children in the online environment, La Strada created and manages the informational portal. It acts as a central point for online safety issues among children in Moldova, provides tips to children, parents, and teachers on how to achieve online safety. In addition, through the site, internet users can report harmful content and illegal behaviors, including sexual abuse material, which is transmitted directly to the CCCC. The website provides advise to children and adolescents who have been contacted by strangers or stumbled upon offensive content online, or have become victims of cyberbullying, online identity theft, and other problems online.
2014 - La Strada Moldova began operating 24-hour national Child Helpline, which was created by the Moldovan Ministry of Labour, Social Protection and Family. The helpline provides psychological support to at-risk children, as well as to parents and child caretakers in difficult situations requiring professional assistance.