Malaysia

Population

30,513,848

Population 0‑14

28.5%

Internet Users

67.5%

Facebook Users

18,000,000

Mobile Subscribers

42,500,000
* Statistics provided by CIA.gov, Internet World Stats and GSMA Intellligence

1997 – The Malaysian Smart School Program was launched, with Smart Schools defined as learning institutions systematically reinvented to prepare students for the Internet era through changes to teaching and learning practices and school management. The project is to be completed by 2020 and is currently in its final stage, which focuses on consolidating and stabilizing the use of ICT in schools.

2001 – The Malaysian government introduced the Electronic Book Project, which provided 35 schools with Internet accessible e-books installed with electronic textbooks.

2002 – The first stage of the Computerisation Programme in Schools was carried out, with the goal of introducing ICT literacy to as many schools as possible to reduce the digital divide. As part of this initiative, computer laboratories were built in 18 schools.

2004 – ViaSat supplied a broadband satellite communications network to provide high-speed Internet access to more than 1,500 Malaysian schools.

2007 – Information and Communication Technology Literacy became a mandatory subject in 2007 in all schools the government equipped with computer labs. The directive aimed to teach 13- and 14-year-olds how to apply ICT knowledge in daily life, share ideas and information, and demonstrate responsible use of ICT.

2008 – As part of the SchoolNet project, 88 smart schools began receiving bandwidth upgrades. The same year, the Ministry of Education launched EduWebTV.com. The network’s instructional and non-instructional videos can be accessed for free by students and teachers from rural and urban schools, and aimed to provide “digital education for all.“

2011- DiGi gave Malaysians the opportunity to benefit from the internet by engaging more than 100,000 students, teachers, and parents through awareness talks, training programs, and educational resources. This program is called CyberSAFE. As part of the Telenor Group, DiGi CyberSAFE is a global commitment to creating a safe internet.

2013 – Malaysia’s Ministry of Education released its 2013-2025 education plan. The plan includes leveraging ICT to improve the quality of learning across the country: Goals include is to providing internet access and virtual learning in all 10,000 schools, providing online content to share best practices, and maximize the use of ICT for distance learning.

Also in 2013, more than 90 percent of public primary and secondary schools were connected to broadband through the 1BestariNet program. Schools participating in the program were equipped with high-speed 4G internet access and are connected Frog Virtual Learning Environment, an online learning platform.

2015 – Malaysia’s Multimedia Development Corporation launched eUsahawan, a digital entrepreneurship program for students in Technical, Vocational and Training colleges, and micro-entrepreneurs. The program aims to teach students how to establish and expand online businesses, and is targeted at low-income Malaysians 18 and older.

2016 – After the success of Malaysia’s MyProCert Data Science Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) in 2015, the MDeC introduced three additional specialized tracks in the big data analytics field. The MOOC program is run through Coursera and provides content from Johns Hopkins University, Duke University and University of Pennsylvania.

2017- Digi created an app to allow families, especially parents, to stay connected and make sure everyone is safe. This app is called Familysafety. The app allows family members to locate their phones and each other at all times as well as wipe a phone clean if lost. It offers a panic alert button that sends your location to the whole family as well as regular check-ins to let family members know you are okay. For parents, the Familysafety app allows them to use parental controls to monitor phone usage and control when apps are allowed to be used. It also allows parents to set up notifications that tell them when their child is arriving or leaving from a destination.

1BestariNet

This Ministry of Education intiative partners with telecommunications company YTL Communications to provide schools with high-speed 4G internet access and access to Frog Virtual Learning Environment, an online learning platform.

Child Rights Coalition Asia

CRC is a network of children’s rights and human rights organizations in Asia, which brings the child rights perspectives and agenda to regional and international advocacy.

CyberSAFE Malaysia

Operated under the auspices of CyberSecurity Malaysia, CyberSAFE Malaysia aims to provide Internet safety and cybersecurity information to all segments of the population. The website provides information on cyberbullying, as well as general online safety tips for children, youth and parents.

CyberSecurity Malaysia

CyberSecurity Malaysia is an agency under the oversight of MOSTI, the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation. It is tasked with creating and sustaining a safer cyberspace, and provides specialized cybersecurity services to protect the public, the economy and the government.

DiGi

DiGi, a subsidiary of Telenor, started a project in 2009 to build 163 Community Broadband Centers (CBCs) across Malaysia. The company is working to bridge the digital divide in rural areas, and enable residents to access services, seek employment and connect with other communities online.

Digital Malaysia

Driven by MDeC, Digital Malaysia aims to promote the use of ICT in all aspects of the economy to foster global connections, increase the Gross National Income and improve standards of living. One area of focus for the agency are youth initiatives for Malaysians ages 15-24. Initiatives include closing the digital literacy gap, encouraging safe and ethical use of digital technology, and fostering digital creativity and innovation. The program aims to prepare youth for the workforce.

INTERPOL

INTERPOL is the world’s largest international police organization, with 190 member countries. Its mission is to enable police forces to collaborate globally to fight crime in the Internet age. Three areas of focus are crimes against children (with a focus on internet crimes and travelling sex offenders), cybercrime and human trafficking.

Malaysia Computer Emergency Response Team (MyCERT)

MyCERT works within CyberSecurity Malaysia to address computer security concerns and reduce the likelihood of successful cyberattacks. Among other responsibilities, it operates the Cyber999 Help Centre which exists to enable Malaysian Internet users report threats such as hacking attempts, harassment, online fraud and spam.

Malaysian Child Resource Institute (MCRI)

This NGO is dedicated to promoting quality early child care and education through training of child-based services. It provides trainings, raises awareness and engages in advocacy from a child-rights perspective.

Malaysian Communications & Multimedia Commission (SKMM)

SKMM is tasked with implementing policies governing telecommunications, broadband services and online activities, as detailed in the Communications and Multimedia Act 1998. The commission’s Click Wisely campaign aims to raise public awareness on internet safety. Since 2002, the commission has implemented programs to improve access to the internet, such as 1Malaysia Internet Centre, Community WiFi, Community Broadband Libraries and 1Malaysia Netbook.

Microsoft Unlimited Potential Program

Microsoft has been provided support for technology skills training across Asia since 2004. The program has provided software to NGO partners whose projects are focused on the employability and empowerment of women in Bangladesh, China, India, Japan, Malaysia, Taiwan, and Thailand.

Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (MOSTI)

MOSTI leads ICT development initiatives nationwide, and provides funding for technology development and innovation.

Multimedia Development Corporation (MDeC)

MDeC champions the use of ICT in Malaysia. The government-funded department aims to act as an efficient corporation. It collaborates with and advises the government on ICT matters, and works to formulate cyberlaws.

Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC)

MSC is Malaysia’s ICT industry initiative, operating with MDeC. In 2016, MSC will host its 10th annual Intellectual Property Creators Challenge (IPCC), inviting creators of multimedia games and animations to compete for prizes.

NITC Malaysia

The council’s mission is to promote the use of ICT in Malaysia, as well as monitor its impact. It launched the National IT Agenda in 1996.

One Laptop per Child (OLPC)

A nonprofit organization launched by Massachusetts Institute of Technology Media Lab, whose aim to empower the world’s poorest children through education by providing a low cost laptops.

The International Multilateral Partnership Against Cyber Threats (IMPACT)

IMPACT is the cybersecurity executing arm of the United Nations’ agency, the ITU, and was established in 2008 in Cyberjaya, Malaysia. IMPACT brings together academics, governments and industry experts to aid global efforts to enhance cybersecurity. It provides the 152 member states of the ITU with access to facilities, expertise and the resources to respond to cyber threats, as well as helping other UN agencies to protect their ICT infrastructures. It launched the Child Online Protection Initiative (COP) in 2008 to identify risks to children in cyberspace, develop awareness, develop tools to minimize risk, and share best practices. Online safety publications from international organizations are available on the COP website.

Safer Internet for School Students (2016)

Telenor Group

This study used samples of children in Thailand, Malaysia and Bangladesh to help understand the online behavior of students and children's experiences with online victimization.

Media Matters: Networked Media Content Research Report Volume 2.0 (2015)

Malaysian Communications and Multimedia Commission

The report analyzes social media usage, policies and regulations in Malaysia.

The Emergence Themes of Cyberbullying Among Adolescents (2015)

H. Suhairi Abu Bakar

This research aims to fill a knowledge gap on cyberbullying by focusing why Malaysian adolescents engage in this behavior.

How to Talk to Your Children About the Internet (2015)

Unicef, DiGi, Telenor

This guide for Malaysian parents provides information on keeping kids safe from cyberbullying, identity theft, sexting and other online risks.

Talent Gap Study for the Communications Sector in Malaysia (2015)

Malaysian Communications and Multimedia Commission, Institute of Labour Market Information and Analysis

This study is a collaborative effort to identify and analyze the talent demand and supply in the Communications sector, focusing on the Telecommunications sector to better understand talent requirements in Malaysia.

Safety Net: Capacity Building among Malaysian Schoolchildren on Staying Safe Online (2014)

Ministry of Education Malaysia, MCMC, DiGi, CyberSecurity Malaysia

This report presents survey data on children's online safety in Malaysia, and makes recommendations for a safer internet experience.

Children’s Rights in the Digital Age (2014)

A. Third, D. Bellerose, U. Dawkins, E. Keltie, K. Pihl

This study found unequal access to digital media among youth from 16 countries, among other key findings on children's digital usage.

INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT) IN EDUCATION IN ASIA (2014)

UNESCO,UNESCO Institute of Statistics

A comparative analysis of ICT integration and e-readiness in schools across Asia

Microsoft Computing Safety Index (2014)

Microsoft

This annual survey of more than 10,000 adults in 20 countries around the world creates the data for the MCSI, which measures the actions that consumers take to help keep themselves and their families safe online.

Exploring the Digital Landscape: Malaysia (2014)

Unicef Malaysia

This report aims to understand the use, access and impact of digital technologies and social media on adolescents and young people in Malaysia.

Microsoft Computing Safety Index (MCSI) (2013)

Microsoft

The survey, Computing Safety Index, measures the steps people report taking to protect their computers, mobile phones, and info online in the categories of foundational, technical and behavioral.

Microsoft Computing Safety Index (MCSI). (2013)

Microsoft

This annual survey of more than 10,000 adults in 20 countries around the world creates the data for the MCSI, which measures the actions that consumers take to help keep themselves and their families safe online.

Child Protection System in Malaysia (2013)

Child Frontiers

The report analyzes prevention and response systems for chlild abuse, violence and exploitation in Malaysia.

Not All That We Watch Are Real: Young People and Media Literacy in Malaysia (2013)

N.V. Prasad, S. Balraj, M.Z. Dollah, S. Balaya

The main aim of this study of Malaysian 16 year olds was to examine young people's media literacy practices by introducing a media literacy intervention programme on issues such as stress and friendship.

Developing Media Literacy Practice among Secondary School Students in Malaysia: Case Studies of Video Making on Environmental Issues (2013)

N.V. Prasad, S. Balraj

This study found that Malaysian students can quickly learn media literacy skills and produce videos on the environment.

The Paradigm Model of Cyberbullying Phenomenon (2013)

H. Suhairi Abu Bakar, N. Yusof, A.M. Budiman

This study contextualizes cyberbullying in Malaysia and attempts to provide a framework for understanding adolescents' technology abuse.

Status Report on Children’s Rights in Malaysia (2013)

Child Rights Coalition Malaysia

This report focuses on child protection efforts in Malaysia, child marriage, and education, among other topics.

Worldwide Online Bullying Survey. (2012)

Microsoft

This survey explored children’s experience of online bullying in 25 countries across the globe.

Worldwide Online Bullying Survey, Malaysia (2012)

Microsoft

This series of reports examines the global problem of online bullying in 25 countries.

Determinants of Smart School System Success: A Case Study of Malaysia (2012)

S. Omidinia, M. Masrom, H. Selamat

This paper identifies the determinants of smart schooling system success in Malaysia, studying a random sample of the population from 88 schools.

Worldwide Online Bullying Survey (2012)

Microsoft

This survey explored children’s experience of online bullying in 25 countries across the globe.

An Evaluation of Instructional Videos in EDUWEBTV: Technical Qualities, Pedagogical Aspects, Engagement and Perceived Impact on Learning (2010)

N.L.Y.A. Melissa, S.F. Fong, S.L. Ong

This study evaluate EDUWEBTV and provides recommendations to improve the quality and impact of instructional videos.

The Impact of Digital Divide on Information Literacy Development Among the Secondary School Students in Malaysia (2010)

J. Idris

This study investigates the relationship between the digital divide and information literacy development.

Children in the Media A Guide to Media Policy Affecting Children in Malaysia (2009)

UNICEF

This paper outlines existing guidelines for children's involvement with media, and provides additional guiding principles.

The Conditions and Level of ICT Integration in Malaysian Smart Schools (2009)

W.Z.W. Ali, H.M. Nor, A. Hamzah. H. Alwi

Based on qualitative interviews, this paper describes the conditions that facilitated the implementation of ICT integration in the Malaysian Smart School and the problems that emerged during the process of integration.

Reversing the Trend: Child Trafficking in East and South-East Asia (2009)

UNICEF East Asia and Pacific Regional Office

This report is a synthesis of seven country assessments, highlighting trends, gaps, lessons learned, promising and good practices across Asia.

All Rights for All Children (2009)

Unicef Malaysia

The guide provides information on the Convention on the Rights of the Child and child protection regulations in Malaysia.

Meta-survey on the Use of Technologies in Education in Asia and the Pacific (2003)

Glen Farrell, Cédric Wachholz

This study identifies and analyses the different practices in the use of ICTs in education in Asia and the Pacific. it discusses countries’ policies, challenges and successful ICT integration in the region.

The Adequacy of Legal Mechanism of Child Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Abuse in Malaysia from the Convention on the Rights of the Child's Perspective (2000)

M.R. Abidin

This paper focuses on the legal mechanisms to protect abused children in Malaysia, particularly those who are sexually abused or exploited for prostitution.

This section contains details of the country’s laws as they relate to sexual offenses, children and the use of the Internet in the commission of criminal activity. Where possible, sentence details have been given, including whether an increased custodial penalty is imposed where the victim is a child.

The age of consent for sexual intercourse in Malaysia is 16 for both males and females and the age of consent for marriage is 18, with the exception of Muslim girls who can marry at 16 years old with the approval of the Syariah Courts.

  • Section 292, Penal Code. Sale etc. of obscene books etc. This section states that it is an offense to sell, let to hire, distribute, publicly exhibit, circulate, or (for the purposes of doing any of the aforementioned actions) to possess an obscene book, pamphlet, paper, drawing, painting, representation, figure or any other obscene object. Importing such an object for any of the purposes previously described is also an offense. It is also prohibited to participate in or receive profit from any business where the offender knows or has reason to believe that such objects are made, produced, kept, imported, exported, conveyed or circulated in any manner. Advertising or making known by any means that a person is engaged (or is prepared to engage) in any act which is an offense under this section is also an offense, as is advertising that any obscene object can be obtained from or through the offender. Attempts are also punishable under this section. The punishment for any of these offenses is imprisonment for up to three years, a fine or both.
  • Section 293, Penal Code. Sale etc. of obscene objects to young person. Any person who provides (using any means or under any circumstances outlined in section 292) any obscene objects to a person under the age of 20 commits an offense. This is punishable by imprisonment for up to five years, a fine or both.
  • Section 372, Penal Code. Prostitution. This section states that it is an offense to sell, let for hire, procure, buy or hire another person with the intention that the other person will be employed for the purposes of prostitution. This applies whether the person is likely to be used for the purposes of prostitution or sexual intercourse inside or outside the country’s borders. This section also states that it is an offense to use fraudulent means or deceit to achieve the same aim, whether the procurement or the activity takes place inside or outside of the country’s borders. Receiving or harboring a person who has been purchased or hired for the purposes of engaging in prostitution is also deemed to be an offense. It is also an offense to receive or harbor someone who has been brought into or taken out of the country for the purposes of engaging in prostitution. This section also defines the crime of wrongfully restraining someone in order to force them to engage in such acts. The advertising of prostitution is also prohibited, as is acting as an intermediary or controlling the actions of someone acting as a prostitute. The punishment for any of these offenses is imprisonment for up to fifteen years, a whipping and the possibility of a fine.
  • Section 372A, Penal Code. Persons living on or trading in prostitution. This section states that anyone who knowingly lives (either wholly or entirely) on earnings made by the prostitution of another person is an offense. The punishment is imprisonment for up to fifteen years, a whipping and the possibility of a fine.
  • Section 372B, Penal Code. Soliciting for purpose of prostitution. This section defines the crime of soliciting for prostitution or immoral purposes in any place and states that the penalty is imprisonment for up to one year, a fine or both.
  • Section 375, Penal Code. Rape. This section defines the crime of rape and states that (among other definitions) rape occurs whether a not the female gives consent if she is under the age of 16. The punishment for this crime is imprisonment for between 10 and 30 years with the offender also liable to be whipped.
  • Section 377E, Penal Code. Inciting a child to an act of gross indecency. This section states that anyone who incites a child under the age of 14 to commit an act of gross indecency with themselves or another person will be punished by three to 15 years’ imprisonment. The offender is also liable to be whipped.
  • Act 310. Printing Presses and Publications Act 1984. This act regulating the use of printing presses and distribution of publications prohibits the printing and dissemination of sexual and pornographic material.
  • Act 588. Communications and Multimedia Act 1998. Part IX. Chapter 2. Section 211. This section prohibits content service providers or a person using a content applications service from providing indecent, obscene, false, menacing or offensive content with the intent to annoy, abuse, threaten or harass any person. An offense is punishable by a fine not to exceed 50,000 ringgit and/or imprisonment not to exceed one year.
  • Act 611. The Child Act 2001. In addition to the protection afforded to them under the Penal Code, Malaysia’s children are protected by The Child Act. For the purposes of the Act, a child is anyone under the age of 18. Key sections of the Act have been summarized below.
    • Part V, Chapter 2, Section 28. Duty of member of the family. This section states that where a member of a family suspects that a child is (among other definitions) being sexually abused they are obliged to report the matter to a Protector immediately. Protectors are government-appointed officials who may be social workers, charged with acting as an advocate for the child but with similar powers to a magistrate in that, among other duties, they can direct whether children should be placed into care. Family members who fail to report cases where they have reasonable cause to believe that a child is being sexually abused are liable to be released on a bond under conditions determined by the court. Failure to adhere to the conditions incurs a prison term of up to two years, a fine of up to 5,000 ringgit or both.
    • Part V, Chapter 3, Section 31. Ill-treatment, neglect, abandonment or exposure of children. This section states that (among other definitions) anyone who sexually abuses a child in their care, or permits them to be sexually abused commits an offense. The punishment for this offense is imprisonment for up to ten years, a fine of up to 20,000 ringgit or both.
    • Part VI, Chapter 2, Section 41. Children in need of urgent protection. States that a child is in need of urgent protection if there is reasonable cause to believe that the child is being threatened or intimidated for purposes of prostitution or having sexual intercourse with another for any immoral purpose.
    • Part VI, Chapter 2, Section 42. Inquiries and detention of a child who has been bought or acquired under false pretences, etc. States that a Protector may order a child to be removed to a place of refuge if they have reasonable cause to believe that the child has been brought into or is to be sent out of the country and the custody of the child has been acquired by (1) purchase; (2) fraud, false representation or false pretense, whether or not for the purpose of prostitution; (3) procurement either within or outside Malaysia for the purpose of prostitution; or (4) the child is being detained against his will for the purpose of prostitution.
    • Part VI, Chapter 2, Section 43. Offenses. This section defines the offense of a person selling, letting for hire, buying, hiring or otherwise obtaining possession of a child with the intent that the child is to be used for the purposes of prostitution, either inside or outside the country. It also includes knowing or having cause to know that the child will be used in such a capacity. The section also defines the crime of procuring a child for the purposes of engaging in sexual intercourse with them, either inside or outside of the country. This section states that it is an offense to use fraudulent means or deceit to achieve the same aim, whether the procurement or the activity takes place inside or outside of the country’s borders. Importing, receiving or harboring a child who has been purchased or hired for the purposes of engaging in prostitution is deemed to be an offense. It is an offense to receive or harbor a child who has been brought into or taken out of the country for the purposes of engaging in prostitution. This section also defines the crime of wrongfully detaining a child in a brothel in order to force them to engage in such acts. An additional offense defined by this section is that of detaining a child against their will in any place for the purposes of prostitution or for any immoral purpose. The advertising of a child for the purposes of prostitution, or advertising a request for such services is also prohibited, as is acting as an intermediary or controlling the actions of someone acting as a prostitute. The punishment for any of these offenses is imprisonment for up to fifteen years, a fine of up to 50,000 ringgit or both. A second or subsequent offense under any of the circumstances described under this section incurs the additional punishment of up to ten strokes with the whip, in addition to any other punishment determined by the courts. Should the offender have acted as an intermediary on behalf of a child, or exercise control or influence over them in such a way as to show they are aiding or abetting the prostitution of a child; or if they engage, hire or attempt to engage or hire a child to provide them with sexual gratification they face imprisonment of between three and fifteen years, a fine of up to 50,000 ringgit and up to six strokes of the whip. A second or subsequent offense under either of the circumstances described here incurs the additional punishment of between six and ten strokes with the whip, in addition to any other punishment meted out by the courts.
    • Part VIII, Section 48. Unlawful possession, custody or control of a child. This section states that it is an offense to take part in any transaction, the object of which is to take control or custody of a child, in exchange for financial consideration. The penalty is up to five years’ imprisonment, a fine of up to 10,000 ringgit or both. Anyone who (without lawful authority) has in their possession, custody or control a child whose possession, custody or control has been passed to them in respect for financial consideration commits a crime. This applies whether the offense has taken place inside or outside the Malaysian border. The punishment for this offense is imprisonment for up to five years, a fine of up to 10,000 ringgit or both.
  • Act 332. Copyright (Amendment) Act 1997. The act amends the 1987 version to extend copyright law to online, multimedia works. Technological methods of ensuring works and authorship information are not tampered with are protected under this section.
  • Act 562. Digital Signature Act 1997. The act provides for the licensing and regulation of Certification Authorities, which issue Digital Signatures and certify the identity of a signor by issuing a certificate. The Act also makes a digital signature as legally valid and enforceable as a traditional signature to protect against cybercrime.
  • Act. 563. Computer Crimes Act 1997. This law makes it an offense to enter or attempt to enter into computers without authorization or damage data in computers by disseminating viruses. It is also an offense to aid others in either of the above crimes, and to give unauthorized individuals passwords.
  • Act 588. Communications and Multimedia Act 1998. This act creates a new system of licenses for the ICT industry, and defines the roles and responsibilities of those providing communication and multimedia services. The act also creates the Communication and Multimedia Commission to oversee the ICT industry.
  • Act 620. Film Censorship Act 2002. Part III. Section 5. This section states that no person shall possess or circulate any film or film-publicity material which is obscene or otherwise against public decency. An offense is punishable by a fine between 10,000 and 50,000 ringgit, and/or imprisonment not to exceed five years.
  • Act 670. Anti-Trafficking Persons Act 2010. Originally passed in 2007, the amended version of this act defines trafficking to include all actions involved in acquiring or maintaining the labor or services of a person through coercion. Under the revised law, trafficking must be by force, not deception.
    • Part III, Section 14. Offence of trafficking in children. Any person, who traffics in children, for the purpose of exploitation, commits an offence and shall, on conviction, be punished with imprisonment for a term between three and 20 years, and a fine.
    • Part III, Section 16. Consent of trafficked person irrelevant. The consent of the trafficked person to the act of trafficking is not a defense.
    • Part III, Section 17. Past sexual behaviour irrelevant. A trafficked person’s past sexual behavior is irrelevant and inadmissible for the purpose of proving that the trafficked person was engaged in other sexual behaviour or to prove the trafficked person’s sexual predisposition.
  • Act 680. Electronic Government Activities 2007. This law provides legal recognition and establishes protocol for electronic messages between the government and the public.

2009 – UNICEF Malaysia focused its efforts on child online safety, including tips on keeping children safe on the internet. The organization’s website also provides the email addresses for departments at the Communications & Multimedia Commission so that citizens can report offensive content found online or get further information.

2010 – Childline Malaysia was founded. This 24-hour free hotline aims to link children to long-term services. It conducts outreach to raise awareness of the harms vulnerable children face, and offers care and protection to children 18 and younger, including child victims of sexual abuse.

2012 – Childline Malaysia hosted a conference on child protection and Internet safety.