Kosovo

Population

1,895,250

Population 0‑14

25.4%

Internet Users

80.4%

Facebook Users

860,000
* Statistics provided by CIA.gov, Internet World Stats and GSMA Intellligence

Kosovo is still trying to incorporate ICT education into the school system. The ‘Second Draft of the Curriculum Framework (CF) for Pre-school, Primary, Secondary and Post-secondary Education’, published in April 2010, recognizes the challenges and opportunities which the global shift towards an Information Society creates for Kosovo; determining that, at least in part, these have to be managed by the education system. Schools are required to assist young people to develop the competences necessary to access and process information responsibly and independently in order to develop broader capabilities for life and work. The competency-based CF promotes a comprehensive approach to teaching and learning: integrating concepts reflecting new developments in society, such as e-learning and ICT.

Key competencies defined in the Curriculum Framework include communication and expression competencies, thinking competencies, life-, work-, and environment-related competencies, as well as learning competencies. ICT is included in all of the above, ranging from the effective and responsible use of ICT and media to digital literacy. ICT is considered to be a cross-cutting issue that needs to be integrated in the curriculum subjects through appropriate lessons and classroom practices. Within ‘Health & Wellbeing’, students will learn how to access information on the Internet and how to avoid online dangers. Within ‘Life & Work’, issues relating to the ethical aspects of Internet usage and online communities will be discussed.

Kosovo’s Education Strategic Plan 2011-2016 (KESP) was developed as a six year plan that links life-long learning and inclusion in education and is based on a learning model that reaches out to all learners offering equal opportunities and quality education. It is the key action plan for education sector investment. Annual implementation of plans were developed by MEST (Ministry of Education, Science, and Technology) which was a key step for ongoing support in this sector. MEST regularly reviewed education sector performance including the impact of major investment decisions. The KESP was structured around the following eight priority programs : Pre-school education and Pre-primary education, Pre-university education, Vocational education and training, Higher education, Teacher education, Adult education and Training, Information & Communication Technology, and Capacity Building. Another strategic priority is developing information and communication technology (ICT) in all levels and all groups of education.

Kosovo’s Education Strategic Plan 2017-2021 plans the development of the education sector for the next 5 years. The process of drafting KESP 2017-2021 began in June 2015 the organizational structure was established to draft the new strategic plan. The structure consisted of three levels: the Core Group, the Plenary Group and thematic subgroups. The planning process is organized in seven thematic areas that cover all relevant segments of education in Kosovo: Participation and Inclusion, Management of the education system, Quality Assurance, Teacher development,Teaching and Learning,Vocational Education Training and Adult Education, and Higher Education. Kosovo’s Ministry of Education, Science, and Technology recognizes that over three-fourths of the population uses technology for entertainment purposes, and wants to expand this technology use into the classroom. This policy effort places emphasis on integrating ICT Education into secondary schooling. This will be achieved by the Provision of access to broadband Internet for all schools, providing schools with computers and ICT infrastructure, the development of plans for ICT equipment maintenance and updating, promoting the use of personal ICT equipment, and subsidizing laptops for teachers.

The ICT and E-learning in Education Project aimed to support the Kosovo government in improving the quality of education and training services through support and use of ICT technology in the teaching and learning process, thereby improving lifelong learning and employability. The project supported implementation if the new Kosovo curriculum through capacity building of local stakeholders in e-content development, and use of e-learning materials.

EU-IT Pilot Project in the Field of Education

By supporting the government of Kosovo in introducing ICT into the teaching and learning process, the projects aims to improve the quality and efficiency of education and training services in the country. Funded by the EU with €3m, the project issues guidance and recommendations for the future development of the education network, e-content and IT training.

IPKO Institute

The Institute works towards providing Kosovo’s citizens with the tools, knowledge, and infrastructure required to participate in the global Information Society.

Ministry of Education, Science and Technology

Responsibility for formal education and developing educational policies in Kosovo rests with the Ministry, located in Pristina.

Child Safety on the Internet (2015)

Save the Children, Center for Advanced Studies FIT

This brochure informs parents about ways they can regulate their child’s Internet use, and common safety habits/concerns.

Measuring Internet Use, Risk, and Safety Among Children (2015)

Save the Children, Center for Advanced Studies FIT

Presents key findings and recommendations deriving from the research “Measuring Internet Use, Risk, and Safety among Children of 9-16 years of age in Kosovo/Promotion of Sound Surfing Methods in the Internet by Children”.

Children’s Internet Safety - Guide for Parents and Educators (2015)

B. Musmurati, T. Zymeri

This guide offers tips for parents and educators about the safety of children on the Internet.

The impact of internet and new media on the occurrence of violence against children in Europe and Cyprus (2015)

Rosella Sala

This document demonstrate that countries lack of expertise on child sexual exploitation and struggle combating this issue by their own. It suggests to establish an international legal framework to prosecute offenders and protect children.

Youth Internet Safety: Risks, Responses, and Research Recommendations (2014)

A. Farrukh, R. Sadwick, J. Villasenor

This report provides an overview of existing online safety research across a wide range of categories,an analysis of major findings, an identification of knowledge gaps, and a set of recommendations for specific areas of research that can further the policy dialog regarding online safety.

Internet Safety for Children (2014)

B. Musmurati, T. Zymeri

This report seeks to understand how children use the internet and explore possible risks of harm related to online activities. The report contains six chapters: Introduction, Internet Usage, Online Activities, Risks, Cyberbullying, and Recommendations.

Best Practice Compendium in Implementing the e-SEE Agenda + 2011 (2011)

N. Trbonja

This publication recommends best practices for ICT development in South Eastern Europe. The projects presented in this document exhibit a large range of creative, technical, and management solutions, as well as budget-friendly options, and context sensitive approaches towards ICT development.

This section contains details of the country’s laws as they relate to sexual offenses, children and the use of the Internet in the commission of criminal activity. Where possible, sentence details have been given, including whether an increased custodial penalty is imposed where the victim is a child. The Special Representative of the U.N. Secretary-General approved the Provisional Criminal Code of Kosovo with special regulations on July 6, 2003.12 Its official title still remains as ‘Provisional Criminal Code of Kosovo’. The age of consent in the Republic of Kosovo is sixteen as defined by Article 198 of the Criminal Code.

  • Article 192, Chapter XIX, Criminal Code. Definitions Relating to Criminal Offenses Against Sexual Integrity. Defines the term ‘consent’ as the voluntary agreement of a person who has reached the age of sixteen years to engage in a sexual act. No consent is obtained where the person expresses a lack of agreement to engage or continue to engage in the sexual act by word or conduct; where the consent is expressed by a person other than the victim; where the consent was obtained by deception, fear or intimidation where such means do not involve the use of force, threat or exploitation as provided for in 193(2) or where the victim is incapable of agreeing because of intoxication by alcohol, drugs or other substances. The Article also defines ‘child pornography’, which means pornographic material that visually depicts a person under the age of eighteen years engaged in sexually explicit conduct; a person appearing to be a person under the age of sixteen years engaged in sexually explicit conduct or realistic images representing a person under the age of sixteen years engaged in sexually explicit conduct.

  • Article 193, Chapter XIX, Criminal Code. Rape. States that anyone who subjects another person to a sexual act without consent is guilty of rape and liable to imprisonment for two to ten years. The minimum penalty will be increased to three years’ imprisonment if the offender subjects the victim to a sexual act by force, by threat of an imminent danger to their life or that of another person, or by exploiting a situation in which the victim is unprotected or where his/her security is in danger. The Article also states that where the victim of rape is under the age of sixteen, the offender will be liable to imprisonment for a term of between five to 20 years. The following aggravating circumstances lead to an increased penalty of five to fifteen years’ imprisonment: the offense is preceded, accompanied or followed by an act of torture or inhumane treatment; the victim suffers serious bodily injury or serious disturbances to their mental or physical health; the offender used a weapon; the offender intoxicated the victim; the offense is committed jointly by more than one person; the perpetrator knows that the person is exceptionally vulnerable because of old age, physical or mental disorder or disability, or pregnancy; the offender is the parent, adoptive parent, foster parent, step parent, grandparent, uncle, aunt or older sibling of the victim and the victim is between the ages of sixteen and eighteen years; or the offender and victim share a domestic relationship and the victim is between the ages of sixteen and eighteen years. Where the victim dies as a result of the offense, an increased penalty of a minimum of ten years imprisonment or long-term imprisonment will apply.

  • Article 194, Chapter XIX, Criminal Code. Commission of Sexual Acts by Threat to Honor or Reputation. This Article states that it is a criminal offense to subject another person to a sexual act by threatening to reveal something that would seriously harm the honor or reputation of the victim or of a person closely connected to the victim. The offense is punishable by imprisonment for a term of between six months to five years.

  • Article 195, Chapter XIX, Criminal Code. Sexual Assault. Defines the offense of sexual assault as touching another person for sexual purposes, or inducing another person to touch the perpetrator or a third person for such purpose, without the victim’s consent. The offense is punishable by imprisonment for between six months to five years. An increased sentence of imprisonment for one to seven years will apply if the offender used force or threat of an imminent danger to the victim’s life or that of another person, or if he/she exploited a situation in which the victim is unprotected or where his/her security is in danger. The Article also states that were the victim is under the age of sixteen, the offender will be liable to imprisonment for a term of between five to ten years. The following aggravating circumstances lead to an increased penalty of three to ten years’ imprisonment: the offense is preceded, followed or accompanied by an act of torture or inhumane treatment; the victim suffers serious bodily injury or serious disturbances to their mental or physical health; the offender used a weapon; the offender intoxicated the victim; the offense is committed jointly by more than one person; the perpetrator knows that the person is exceptionally vulnerable because of old age, physical or mental disorder or disability, or pregnancy; the offender is the parent, adoptive parent, foster parent, step parent, grandparent, uncle, aunt or older sibling of the victim and the victim is between the ages of sixteen and eighteen years; the offender and victim share a domestic relationship and the victim is between the ages of sixteen and eighteen years. If the victim dies as a result of the offense, an increased penalty of a minimum of ten years imprisonment or long-term imprisonment will apply.

  • Article 196, Chapter XIX, Criminal Code. Degradation of Sexual Integrity. This Article states that anyone who induces another person to expose the private parts of their body, to masturbate or to commit another act that degrades the victim’s sexual integrity, without the victim’s consent, will be punished by a fine or by imprisonment of six months to one year. If the offender applied force, threatened the victim or another person, or exploited a situation in which the victim was unprotected, an increased penalty of imprisonment for six months to three years will apply. The penalty will be further increased to one to three years’ imprisonment if the offense was preceded, accompanied or followed by an act of torture or inhumane treatment; the victim suffered serious bodily injury or serious disturbances to their mental or physical health; the offender used a weapon; the offender intoxicated the victim; the offense is committed jointly by more than one person; the perpetrator knew that the person was exceptionally vulnerable because of old age, physical or mental disorder or disability, or pregnancy; the offender is the parent, adoptive parent, foster parent, step parent, grandparent, uncle, aunt or older sibling of the victim and the victim is between the ages of sixteen and eighteen years; the offender and victim share a domestic relationship and the victim is between the ages of sixteen and eighteen years. The Article also states that if the victim is under the age of sixteen, the offender will be liable to imprisonment for a term of between one and five years.

  • Article 198, Chapter XIX, Criminal Code. Sexual Abuse of Persons Under the Age of Sixteen Years. This Article states that anyone who subjects a child under the age of sixteen years to a sexual act will be liable to imprisonment for between one and ten years. Anyone who touches a person under that age for sexual purposes, or induces the victim to touch the perpetrator or another person, will be punished by imprisonment for up to five years. The Article also states that anyone who induces a person under the age of sixteen to expose their private parts, to masturbate or to commit another act which degrades his/her sexual integrity is liable to imprisonment for up to one year. Where any of the acts above are committed with the agreement of two persons who have reached the age of fourteen and where the difference in age does not exceed two years, or, if the difference does exceed two years, where there is no clear difference in the maturity level of the two persons, such act will not be classed as a criminal offense. If any of the above are committed in one or more of the following aggravating circumstances, the penalty will be increased to between three to fifteen years’ imprisonment, or imprisonment for up to three years in the case of acts degrading the victim’s sexual integrity: the offense was preceded, accompanied or followed by an act of torture or inhumane treatment; the victim suffered serious bodily injury or serious disturbances to their mental or physical health; the offender used a weapon or dangerous instrument; the offender intoxicated the victim; the offense is committed jointly by more than one person; the perpetrator is a teacher, health care professional or a person entrusted with the victim’s upbringing, education or care; the offender is the parent, adoptive parent, foster parent, step parent, grandparent, uncle, aunt or older sibling of the victim; the offender and victim are in a domestic relationship. If the offense results in the death of the victim, the minimum penalty will be increased to ten years’ imprisonment. The Article also states that anyone who, by a false promise of marriage, induces a person between the ages of sixteen to eighteen years to engage in a sexual act will be liable to imprisonment for a term of between three months to three years.

  • Article 199, Chapter XIX, Criminal Code. Promoting Sexual Acts or Sexual Touching by Persons Under the Age of Sixteen Years. Imposes a penalty of imprisonment for between six months to five years for anyone who brokers, furnishes or creates an opportunity for a person under the age of sixteen to commit a sexual act with a third person who has reached the age of eighteen. The Article also states that anyone who brokers, furnishes or creates an opportunity for a person under the age of sixteen to touch a third person who is of or above the age of eighteen for a sexual purpose, or to allow such person to touch a child under the age of sixteen for such purpose, will be liable to imprisonment for six months to three years.

  • Article 200, Chapter XIX, Criminal Code. Sexual Abuse by Abusing Position, Authority or Profession. Whoever subjects another person to a sexual act by abusing his or her control over the financial, family, social, health, employment, educational or other circumstances of such person or a third person; By abusing his or her position or authority over the victim who is held in detention or custody and who is entrusted to the perpetrator for upbringing, education, supervision or care; Or by abusing his or her position or authority over the victim who is between the ages of sixteen and eighteen years and who is entrusted to the perpetrator for upbringing, education or care shall be punished by imprisonment of six months to five years.

  • Article 201, Chapter XIX, Criminal Code. Facilitating Prostitution. Defines the offense of knowingly recruiting, organizing or assisting another person, or providing premises to another person, for the purposes of prostitution. The offense is punishable by a fine or by imprisonment for up to three years. If the offense is committed within a 350 meter radius of a school or other locality which is used by children, the perpetrator shall be punished by imprisonment for between six months to five years. The Article also states that anyone who, by force, threat of force, or by holding another person in a situation of personal or economic dependency, compels such person to engage in prostitution will be liable to imprisonment for a term of between one to eight years. If the victim is between the ages of sixteen and eighteen, an aggravated penalty of imprisonment for one to ten years will apply. This will be further increased to between one and twelve years’ imprisonment if the victim is under the age of sixteen.

  • Article 202, Chapter XIX, Criminal Code. Abuse of Children in Pornography. This Article states that anyone who produces child pornography or involves a child in making or producing live performances will be liable to imprisonment for between one and five years. Anyone who sells, distributes, promotes, displays, transmits, offers or makes available child pornography will be punished by imprisonment for between six months to five years. Possessing or procuring child pornography is punishable by a fine or by imprisonment for up to three years.

  • Article 203, Chapter XIX, Criminal Code. Showing Pornographic Material to Persons under the Age of Sixteen Years. States that anyone who sells, offers to sell or provides a person under the age of sixteen years with photographs, audio-visual material or other objects with pornographic content, or knowingly allows such person to attend a live performance with a pornographic content or intentionally brings such person to such a performance shall be punished by a fine or by imprisonment for up to one year.

  • Article 188, Chapter XIX, Criminal Code. Defamation. Defines defamation as asserting or circulating false statements about another person which damage the victim’s honor or reputation, knowing these statements to be untrue. The offense is punishable by a fine or by imprisonment for up to three months. A person is not criminally liable for defamation if the statement asserted or circulated is true or if the accused had well-founded reason to believe it to be true.