Kazakhstan

Population

18,157,122

Population 0‑14

25.4%

Internet Users

54.9%

Facebook Users

1,200,000

Mobile Subscribers

27,500,000
* Statistics provided by CIA.gov, Internet World Stats and GSMA Intellligence

2008 - The Kazakh Government established the Zerde National Infocommunication Holding to further development of infocommunication technology market, as well as implement state policies in ICT and manage the national ICT infrastructure. In addition, the state company works to increase level of computer literacy of population and provide training and raise the qualification level of professionals in ICT sphere in higher and secondary technical education.

2009 - To promote the industrial-innovative development in Kazakhstan, President Nursultan Nazarbayev opened the International Information Technology University (IITU). At the University, design and development of training programs for ICT specialists is carried out in close association with leading IT-companies in Kazakhstan, such as Zerde National Infocommunication Holding. IITU is constantly updating and creating training programs, guided by researches and developments in the ICT area.

The same year, International Research and Exchanges Board (IREX) has completed the Internet Access and Training Program (IATP), which was initiated in 1995 by the U.S. Department of State’s Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs and in 2007, was funded by USAID. The program promoted internet usage and information access by setting up IATP centers in over 250 locations in 11 Eurasian countries, including Kazakhstan. In addition, IATP staff created over a dozen training modules, covering basic computer literacy, Web design, internet research, blogging, and wiki creation.

2010 - The Program for Information and Communication Technology Development in the Republic of Kazakhstan 2010 - 2014 was developed as part of the State Program for Accelerated Industrial and Innovative Development of Kazakhstan (SPAIID), which was designed to aid the Republic’s transformation into an information society and establish an innovation-based economy, as well as to build up the competitiveness and export potential of the national ICT sector. One of the main priorities of the ICT Development Program is to increase the number of university graduates in the field of ICT from 5,300 in 2008 to 8,000 by 2014. To fulfill this goal, the government has increased number of state grants awarded to colleges for ICT courses and set up partnerships with national and international universities to enable the transfer of new educational technologies and international standards of ICT education.

2011 - RKK held 3-day seminar for teachers and school administrators on how ICT and digital tools can be used in education. The goal of the seminar was to share knowledge of how ICT is used in the Norwegian school system, and how the Norwegian experience can be used to develop the use of ICT within the education sector in Kazakhstan. Since RKK cooperation agreement with Kazakhstan in 2004, a number of courses have been held on the use of ICT in teaching. In an effort to develop the country’s e-learning capacities, 44 of the country’s educational institutions started a pilot project on electronic training. Half of the schools will receive laptops, with the other half receiving tablet computers. The project will start in the Astana, Almaty and Karaganda regions of the country. Additionally, teachers will receive training in the operation of the hardware which is distributed. The Internet Association of Kazakhstan held active educational work to raise youth’s internet literacy where students learned ways to use internet in education, self-development, skills of programming, design, etc.

2013 - First phase (2013 - 2017) of Information Kazakhstan - 2020 has been implemented by the Ministry of Information and Communication. By 2020, the government plans to provide access of information communication infrastructure in all households, increase the amount of internet users to 75 percent of country’s population, as well as raise the level of computer knowledge and computer literacy of the population to 80 percent. To achieve these goals, the government plans provide advanced ICT training courses, develop the concept of formation of information culture in preschool education, and provide electronic training for the preparation and professional development of teachers. In 2015, it is planned to cover 50% and by 2020 90% of education institutions using e-learning at all levels of training.

2014 - Through the Tech Age Society (TAS) program, established in 2010, IREX organized ICT training sessions for youth in an orphanage of remote part of Atyrau, Kazakhstan to develop their basic technology skills that are needed for future education opportunities and employment. The program promotes the use of technology in schools, NGOs, and other organizations with social missions. As of 2013, 629 teachers have received training in computer and technology and similar trainings have been completed in all Zhyloi schools.

2015 - UNESCO Asia and the Pacific Regional Bureau for Education organized the Central Asia Symposium on ICT in Education (CASIE) as a sub-regional platform for the Member States (Republic of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Mongolia, Republic of Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Republic of Uzbekistan) to brainstorm possible solutions for integrating technologies into the education systems and teachers’ education. All participating member states and international experts convened to formulate a long-term (3 to 5 years) strategic action plan for the sub-region to achieve the effective integration of ICT in education.

2016 - The Safer Internet Day Committee of Nazarbayev University (NUFYP) organized Safer Internet Day in Kazakhstan where students of the University signed a Cyber Security Pledge to committing to promote online safety and support international effort to promote good cyber security and responsible online behavior. In addition, NUFYP professors conducted lessons and facilitated student discussions on the issues related to online safety. Furthermore, more than 160 students completed online quiz, where they tested their knowledge of online safety and social media use.

World Bank launched Kazakhstan - Youth Corps Development Project, which was approved on March 2014, and on November 2015 the Ministry of Education and Science of Republic of Kazakhstan confirmed its commitment in ensuring project effectiveness. The project focused on various aspects, including the development of initiative of youth, development of the support system to build strong adult-youth and peer relationships. Furthermore, it will promote positive youth development through learning opportunities that serve the community while helping youth develop important skills through a community-based service learning program.

Committee on Child Rights Protection

The committee operates under the supervision of the Ministry of Education and Science. It is responsible for formation of moral and spiritual development of the individual, the promotion of family values ​​and family education, community education in the protection of rights and interests of children, as well as prevent abuse, violence, exploitation of child labor, homelessness, neglect, suicidal behavior among minors.

Communication, Informatization and Information Committee

The committee operates under the supervision of Ministry of Investment and Development, it responsible for the development of ICT related policies and programmes.

Foundation for Educational, Scientific and Cultural Cooperation (IFESCCO)

The foundation contributes to the further development of humanitarian cooperation and intercultural communication in the Commonwealth of Independent States in the area of education, science, culture, mass communications, information, archives, sport, tourism and youth matters.

iEARN - Kazakhstan

Created in 1996, the organization is involved in 40 schools. Training workshops in ICT have been held annually since 1997, sometimes in conjunction with iEARN-Kyrgyzstan.

International Research and Exchanges Board (IREX)

An international nonprofit organization provides leadership and innovative programs to promote positive lasting change globally. They enable local individuals and institutions to build key elements of a vibrant society: quality education, independent media, and strong communities. Their program activities include conflict resolution, technology for development,gender, and youth.

Internet Association of Kazakhstan (IAK)

The association was created to consolidate the internet - the community of Kazakhstan to work together to improve the infrastructure of Kazakhstan network segment, to develop common rules and to identify existing problems in the industry. It is also an important part of a study of the Internet - space and monitoring to determine the overall performance of its development and to identify key trends and predicting paths of development.

INTERPOL

INTERPOL is the world’s largest international police organization, with 190 member countries. Its mission is to enable police forces to collaborate globally to fight crime in the Internet age. Three areas of focus are crimes against children (with a focus on internet crimes and travelling sex offenders), cybercrime and human trafficking.

PH International

Registered under the legal name Project Harmony, Inc., the organization was founded in 1985 for the purpose of cultural and educational exchanges between the then-USSR and the United States. PH International’s mission is to build strong global communities by fostering civic engagement, cross-cultural learning, and increased opportunities in the digital age.

RKK

A Norwegian foundation has at its heart a cooperative network comprising 30 vocational schools Today, their ”order book” comprises everything from the use of modern ICT in teaching, in and outside Norway, to craft certificates in most vocational subjects and to language training and mathematics. It maintains close cooperation between educational institutions and the public and private sectors creates learning environments.

Safekaznet.kz

A non-proft organization that works actively with the internet industry, law enforcement, government/policy makers and social services to deliver their services. In addition to receiving reports, the hotline offers other services related to community outreach and internet safety awareness and research/policy development.

Ya Student (I am student)

The National Educational Portal managed by the Ministry of Education and Science.

“Zabota” Crisis Center

Founded in 1999, the center provides psychological and social services to families experiencing violence and runs educational programs. Zabota operates two hotlines and a counseling center.

Zerde National Infocommunication Holding

The largest Kazakhstani state company, created for the development of modern infocommunication technologies, it promotes information society and ICT field’s competitive formation in the Republic of Kazakhstan.

Global Research Project: A Global Landscape of Hotlines Combating Child Sexual Abuse Material on the Internet and an Assessment of Shared Challenges (2015)

Melissa Stroebe, Stacy Jeleniewski, PhD

This report examines hotlines combating Internet-facilitated Child Sexual Abuse Material.

INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT) IN EDUCATION IN ASIA (2014)

UNESCO,UNESCO Institute of Statistics

A comparative analysis of ICT integration and e-readiness in schools across Asia

ECPAT Global Monitoring Report: Kazakhstan (2013)

ECPAT

Report on the status of action against commercial sexual exploitation of children in Kazakhstan

ICT in Education in Central and West Aisa (2012)

Asian Development Bank

Progerss of implementation of ICT in education sector of Central and West Asian countries

Promotion of the use of Information and Communication Technologies in Technical and Vocational Education and Training in CIS countries (2012)

UNICEF

This analytical report presents the results of a comparative study on current situation and main tendencies in ICT use in TVET in CIS countries: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan. Besides, the report includes recommendations on further development and improvement of the use of modern ICTs in Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET).

Meta-survey on the Use of Technologies in Education in Asia and the Pacific (2003)

Glen Farrell, Cédric Wachholz

This study identifies and analyses the different practices in the use of ICTs in education in Asia and the Pacific. it discusses countries’ policies, challenges and successful ICT integration in the region.

This section contains details of the country’s laws as they relate to sexual offenses, children and the use of the Internet in the commission of criminal activity. Where possible, sentence details have been given, including whether an increased custodial penalty is imposed where the victim is a child.

2009 - The President of Government of Kazakhstan signed into law a package of amendments to laws that deal with media and the Internet. Under the new additions, all forms of Internet content such as blogs, chat rooms etc., could potentially be considered as ‘Internet resources’ which would render them liable to the existing restrictive laws on expression, such as criminal libel.

The age of majority in Kazakhstan is eighteen, the age of consent for sexual activity is sixteen. The legal age of consent for marriage is seventeen for women and eighteen for men.

  • Article 15, Penal Code. The Age from Which Criminal Liability Arise.The article states that a person at 16 years of age shall be subject to criminal liability. Persons, who reached fourteen years of age by the time of the commission of a crime, shall be subject to criminal liability for deliberate causation of serious damage to health, rape, forcible acts of a sexual character, kidnapping, extortion, capture of a hostage.
  • Article 120, Penal Code. Rape. This Article defines the offense of rape as sexual intercourse accompanied by violence or threat thereof, or by abusing the victim’s state of helplessness. The offense is punishable by imprisonment for three to five years. The sentence will be increased to between five and ten years’ imprisonment if the offense has been: committed against a juvenile, by a group of persons or by an organized group; combined with a threat to kill, as well as committed with especial brutality with regard to a victim or to other persons; resulted in the infection of a victim with a venereal disease; or committed repeatedly or by a person who earlier committed violent acts of a sexual character. The penalty will be further increased to eight to fifteen years’ imprisonment if the victim is under the age of fourteen years; if the victim dies as a result of the offense, suffered severe damage to his health or other serious consequences, or was infected with HIV/AIDS; or if the offense has been committed using the circumstances of a public disaster.
  • Article 121, Penal Code. Violent Actions of Sexual Character. States that sodomy, lesbianism or other acts of a sexual character accompanied by violence or threat thereof, or committed by abusing the victim’s state of helplessness, are punishable by imprisonment for three to five years. The sentence will be increased to five to ten years’ imprisonment if the offense has been: committed against a juvenile, by a group of persons or by an organized group; combined with a threat to kill, as well as committed with especial brutality with regard to a victim or to other persons; resulted in the infection of a victim with a venereal disease; committed repeatedly or by a person who earlier committed violent acts of a sexual character. The penalty will be further increased to eight to fifteen years’ imprisonment if the victim is under the age of fourteen years; if the victim dies as a result of the offense, suffered severe damage to his health or other serious consequences, or was infected with HIV/AIDS.
  • Article 122, Penal Code. Sexual Intercourse and Other Actions of Sexual Character with a Person under Sixteen Years of Age. This Article states that sexual contact, homosexuality, lesbianism and other acts of sexual character with a person under sixteen years of age are punishable by limiting the liberty for the term up to three years, or by arrest up to six months, or by imprisonment for up to five years.
  • Article 123, Penal Code. Coercion into Sexual Intercourse, Sodomy, Lesbianism, or Other Actions of Sexual Character. Imposes a penalty of imprisonment for up to two years, a fine of between 200 to 500 monthly assessment indices, the offender’s salary or other income for two to five months, correctional work for up to two years, or arrest for six months for anyone who coerces another person to sexual contact, homosexuality, lesbianism or other acts of sexual character by blackmail, threat of destruction, breaking or seizure of a property, or by abusing another form of dependency of the victim.
  • Article 128, Penal Code. Recruitment for Exploitation. This Article states that anyone who recruits persons by way of deception for the purpose of sexual or other exploitation is liable to imprisonment for up to one year, a fine of between 100 to 500 monthly assessment indices, the offender’s salary or other income for two to five months, correctional labor for up to two years, restriction of freedom for the same period, or detention under arrest for a period up to six months. Where the victim is a juvenile or the act was committed by a group of persons upon prior conspiracy, an aggravated penalty of imprisonment for up to five years will apply. If any of the aforementioned crimes have been committed by an organized group, for the purpose of exporting the recruited persons outside of the Republic of Kazakhstan, for sexual or other exploitation, an increased penalty of three to eight years’ imprisonment will apply, with or without forfeiture of property.
  • Article 129, Penal Code. Libel and Slander. Defines libel as the distribution of deliberately false information which defames the honor and dignity of another person, or which undermines the victim’s reputation. Anyone guilty of libel is liable to a fine of between 100 up to 250 monthly assessment indices, two monthly wages, public works for between 120 to 180 hours, or by correctional labor for a period up to one year. The Article also imposes a penalty for slander which is contained in a public speech, in a publicly displayed work, or in mass media: a fine of 200 to 500 monthly assessment indices, two to five monthly wages, public works for a period between 180 to 240 hours, correctional labor for between one to two years, restriction of freedom for up to two years, or detention under arrest up to six months. Slander combined with accusing a person of the commission of a grave or an especially grave corruption crime is punishable by the restriction of freedom for a period up to three years, or imprisonment for the same period.
  • Article 130, Penal Code. Insult. Defines insult as the debasement of the honor and dignity of another person, expressed in an obscene form. The offense of insult is punishable by a fine of up to 100 monthly assessment indices, one month’s wages, public works for up to 120 hours, or correctional labor for a period up to six months. Any insult published in mass media, contained in a public speech or in publicly exhibited works is liable to an increased penalty of a fine of between 100 to 400 monthly assessment indices, one to four months’ wages, public works for up to 180 hours, correctional labor for up to one year, or restriction of freedom for the same period.
  • Article 227, Penal Code. Illegal Access to Computer Information, and the Creation, Use, and Distribution of Harmful Programmes for Computers. The articles states that illegal access to computer information which is protected by law, that is information on a storage medium, in a computer, computer system, or computer network, and equally violation of the rules for operation of a computer, computer system or their network by persons who have access to the computer, computer system or their network, if this action entailed destruction, blocking, modification, or the copying of information, or disruption of the work of a given computer, computer system, or computer network, shall be punished by a fine in an amount from two hundred up to five hundred monthly assessment indices.
  • Article 270, Penal Code. Recruiting for Prostitution. States that it is an offense to recruit a person for prostitution by the use of blackmail, violence or threat thereof, destruction or damage of the victim’s property, or by abusing the victim’s dependency. The offender is liable to a fine of between 200 to 500 monthly assessment indices, two to five months’ wages, or deprivation of liberty for up to five years. The same act committed by an organized group or by a recidivist previously convicted for the same offense, is punishable by imprisonment for a term of between three and seven years.
  • Article 273, Penal Code. Illegal Distribution of Pornographic Materials or Objects. This Article states that it is an offense to distribute, advertise, trade or manufacture for the purpose of distribution or advertising any pornographic publications, films, pictures or other objects of a pornographic nature. The offense is punishable by a fine of between 500 to 1,000 monthly assessment indices, the offender’s wages or other income for a period of five months to one year, correctional labor for up to two years or imprisonment for the same period, with forfeiture of the pornographic materials or objects, as well as the means for their production or reproduction.

Actions of the Convention on the Rights of the Child: Kazakhstan has acceded, with no declarations or reservations to articles 16, 17(e) and 34 (c), to the Convention on the Rights of the Child and to articles 2 and 3, to the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography.

2009 - The Union of Crisis Centres of Kazakhstan implemented “Organisation of awareness-raising campaign to protect women and children from sexual abuse, child pornography and trafficking” project, which was supported by the Ministry of Culture and Information of Kazakhstan.

2010 - The safekaznet.kz hotline, managed by Internet Association of Kazakhstan, was established as a public mechanism for reporting online content that contains ofensive and defamatory images, videos, comments or other materials related to pornography, drugs, violence, propaganda of cruelty, extremism and terrorism by means of public action. It became a member of INHOPE in 2013 and the following year, hotline received 2,088 reports, of which 10 were regarding online child sexual abuse material.

2011 - The Court of Astana prohibited the distribution of a foreign website promoting child pornography. Law enforcement shut down 25 pornographic websites and five promoting cruelty and violence websites. In another incident, Karaganda police arrested a pedophile for abusing young boys in social networks. The Committee for Child Right Protection, in coordination with the Sange Research Center, held an online conference on compliance with the information security of children. The committee led discussion on the sites containing pornography, cruelty and violence and who they have a negative effects on children.

2014 - Internet Association of Kazakhstan (IAK), with the support from the Central Communications Service under the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan, held a roundtable to discuss online safety for children and the younger generation, online safety educational programs for teachers and parents, and Google’s security tools, and advice to teachers and parents on how to ensure child safety on the Internet. The event attended by the representatives of state bodies, including authorized body in the sphere of defense and protection of children’s rights, law enforcement, as well as representatives from the business community, including telecom operators and owners of popular Kazakh Internet resources.

2015 - IAK took part in the 4th Annual Security Analyst Summit, which was organized by the the Kaspersky Lab. The goal of the summit was to learn, debate, share and showcase cutting-edge research, new technologies and discuss ways to improve collaboration in the fight against cybercrime.

2016 - Kazakhstan hosted a roundtable discussion regarding the issues of internet safety for children, which is addressed in the Kazakhstan 2050 strategy.