Japan

Population

126,919,653

Population 0‑14

13.1%

Internet Users

90.6%

Facebook Users

25,000,000

Mobile Subscribers

173,300,000
* Statistics provided by CIA.gov, Internet World Stats and GSMA Intellligence

To address Japan’s high rate of bullying and bullying-related suicides, some Boards of Education assembled panels of clinical psychologists and attorneys to implement bullying prevention and support solutions and educate students about proper online behavior.

In 2013, Japanese lawmakers enacted anti-bullying legislation that requires schools to report confirmed cases of bullying to the Education Ministry and local government officials and work with education boards to set up investigative panels to investigate complaints and advise victims.

The Ministry of Economy, Trade & Industry (METI) and the Japan Network Security Association (JNSA) operate a website which offers a range of information aimed primarily at school children such as Internet Safety Classroom. Information is split by age and is delivered in different formats according to the age of the audience. Much of the information is delivered in the form of role-playing games or interactive quizzes but regular seminars are held in schools all over the country and the website contains a schedule of such activity.

Microsoft has developed an online safety program where children answer questions about how to behave safely in various situations, presented with the help of three little pigs. The program is aimed at elementary school-aged children and has been held in various schools around Tokyo.

Computer Entertainment Rating Organization (CERO)

An organization that monitors video games produced in Japan and rates them according to age-appropriate content and is rated as world’s major organization in producing video games.

Information-Technology Promotion Agency (IPA)

The agency works to ensure the integrity of the country’s IT infrastructure, strengthen International competitiveness and to cultivate highly-skilled IT workers. Its website provides information on the work which it is undertaking in the area of IT security in particular, with reports available on the various projects that the IPA undertakes.

Internet Content Safety Association (ICSA)

Established in 2011 as a voluntary initiative by the industry, ICSA creates and manages a URL list for member companies (most of the major ICT companies are its members) for blocking child sexual abuse contents on the internet.

Internet Hotline Center Japan

Operating since 2006, the center is the reporting node for the country and a member of INHOPE. The Center receives reports of harmful or illegal online content and passes any relevant details to the police and other authorities.

INTERPOL

INTERPOL is the world’s largest international police organization, with 190 member countries. Its mission is to enable police forces to collaborate globally to fight crime in the Internet age. Three areas of focus are crimes against children (with a focus on internet crimes and travelling sex offenders), cybercrime and human trafficking.

Japan Committee for UNICEF (JCU)

As one of the national committees for UNICEF, JCU has been actively working to protect children from sexual exploitation since the 1st World Congress on Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children in 1996, advocated for the enactment and amendments of anti-child pornography and child prostitution law. Towards the same goal, JCU has been working closely with the ICT industry, the Government and the civil society on child protection online issues. The work has contributed for the introduction of internet filtering and blocking measures initiated and managed by the ICT industry.

Japan Computer Emergency Response Team Coordination Center (JPCERTCC)

The center provides analysis, incident responses, and security alerts about network vulnerabilities, as well as education about network security, etc.

Japanese Cabinet Office

The Office runs the National Movement to Protect Youth From Harmful Information in the Environment as part of the aforementioned national campaign to prevent children from accessing harmful content on the Internet. The awareness campaign teaches safe behaviors online and ethical and legal use of the Internet.

Japan Internet Providers Association (JAIPA)

Founded in 1999, the incorporated organization dedicated to promoting a healthy development of the businesses of internet service providers and better, safer internet use.

Japan Internet Safety Promotion Association (JISPA)

A non-profit organization established in 2009 to link the various private-sector initiatives for the improvement of the Internet use and environment.

Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI)

The Ministry partnered with private sector organizations/businesses to launch an Information Security Awareness Campaign that aimed to prevent technology risks and educate the public about safe use of IT

Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (MIC)

The Ministry promotes initiatives that aim to provide a safe Internet environment, including taking measures against illegal and harmful information on the Internet, such as child pornography.

National Police Agency (NPA) Cybercrime Project

It contains information about the NPA’s progress in fighting cybercrime, as well as information on the latest security threats.

Safer Internet Association (SIA)

Non-profit organization founded in 2013 by some of the ICT companies in Japan. SIA is a member of INHOPE and runs hotlines to receive illegal and harmful online contents, report to relevant authorities, and notify both domestic and overseas providers for removal. It also proactively monitors for illegal information online.

The National Police Agency (NPA) Cybercrime Consultation

It’s website offers advice and reporting facilities for those who have been the victims of fraud or crime committed over the internet, such as through online auctions.

Global Research Project: A Global Landscape of Hotlines Combating Child Sexual Abuse Material on the Internet and an Assessment of Shared Challenges (2015)

Melissa Stroebe, Stacy Jeleniewski, PhD

This report examines hotlines combating Internet-facilitated Child Sexual Abuse Material.

The Realities of Cyber Parenting: What Pre-teens and Teens Are Up To Online (2015)

Family Online Safety Institute and Intel Security

This global study examined the online behaviors and social networking habits of pre-teens and teens aged between 8 and 16 years old, as well as looking at the concerns of parents.

Cyberbullying in Japan: An Exploratory Study (2015)

Reinis Udris

This study contributes to understanding of cyberbullying by adding the case of adolescents in Japan

Microsoft Computing Safety Index (2014)

Microsoft

This annual survey of more than 10,000 adults in 20 countries around the world creates the data for the MCSI, which measures the actions that consumers take to help keep themselves and their families safe online.

INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT) IN EDUCATION IN ASIA (2014)

UNESCO,UNESCO Institute of Statistics

A comparative analysis of ICT integration and e-readiness in schools across Asia

Microsoft Computing Safety Index (MCSI). (2013)

Microsoft

This annual survey of more than 10,000 adults in 20 countries around the world creates the data for the MCSI, which measures the actions that consumers take to help keep themselves and their families safe online.

Microsoft Computing Safety Index (MCSI) (2013)

Microsoft

The survey, Computing Safety Index, measures the steps people report taking to protect their computers, mobile phones, and info online in the categories of foundational, technical and behavioral.

Global Digital Communication: Texting, Social Networking Popular Worldwide (2012)

J. Menasce Horowitz, K. Simmons, J. Poushter, C. Barker

The report is a part of the Pew Research Center's Global Attitudes Project, which conducts opinion surveys on subjects ranging from people's assessments of their own lives to their views about the current state of the world and important issues of the day.

Mobile Education in Japan (2012)

GSMA

This is one of a series of country specific reports from the GSMA which considers the demand for mobile education from the formal education sector perspective.

Children’s use of mobile phones – An international comparison 2012 (2012)

GSMA

This report surveyed 4,500 children to provide a detailed picture of children’s mobile phone usage across five different countries

The Protection of Children Online (2012)

Kristina Irion

The report provides key findings and policy recommendations to keep children safe online as a follow up to the 2008 Seoul Ministerial Declaration on the Future of the Internet Economy.

Worldwide Online Bullying Survey. (2012)

Microsoft

This survey explored children’s experience of online bullying in 25 countries across the globe.

Worldwide Online Bullying Survey (2012)

Microsoft

This survey explored children’s experience of online bullying in 25 countries across the globe.

Safety and Security on the Internet Challenges and Advances in Member States (2011)

World Health Organization

Evaluation of public health threat presented by the Internet in every Member States.

The Effects of Netiquette and ICT Skills on School-bullying and Cyber-bullying: The Two-wave Panel Study of Japanese Elementary, Secondary, and High School Students (2011)

Ayuchi Kumazakia, Kanae Suzukib, Rui Katsura, Akira Sakamotoa, Megumi Kashibuchib

This study examined causal relationships between cyber-bullying, ICT skills, and netiquette by using a two-wave panel study of 884 elementary, 2,421 secondary, and 1,003 high school students in Japan

Internet Safety for Children: A Study of Policy Responses in China, Japan and South Korea (2010)

Sun Lim

This study reviews efforts to promote children’s Internet safety by examining regional trends and paying special attention to policies and initiatives unique to each country

2010 Norton Online Family Report (2010)

Norton by Symantec

The report reveals how children are spending more time online and have had more negative online experiences than parents realize. It highlights different approaches taken by families globally and uncovers the emotional impact of children’s negative online experiences.

Children’s une of mobile phones - An international comparison 2011 (2010)

GSM Association and the Mobile Society Research Institute within NTT DOCOMO Inc.

A comparative document of the statistics and facts of the usage of mobile phones by children across the globe.

Children’s Use of Mobile Phones and Personal Relationships – An International Comparison 2010 (2010)

Society Research Institute and the GSMA

Society Research Institute and the GSMA jointly conducted an international research study examining the ways in which children communicate through mobile phones

ICT Usage and Student Perceptions in Cambodia and Japan (2009)

James Elwood, George MacLean

This article uses survey data from students in Cambodia and Japan to explore how young people feel about internet technology in regard to educational and personal use.

Child Trafficking in Europe, A broad vision to put children first (2008)

Unicef Innocenti Research Centre

This Innocenti report was developed with assistance of many experts. The report's key findings addresses child trafficking patterns and flow, which is occuring all over Europe; discusses positive developments; lists challenges; lists international standards and national legislations to combat child trafficking; discusses policy responses; and finally shares different approaches to combat this epidemic.

Meta-survey on the Use of Technologies in Education in Asia and the Pacific (2003)

Glen Farrell, Cédric Wachholz

This study identifies and analyses the different practices in the use of ICTs in education in Asia and the Pacific. it discusses countries’ policies, challenges and successful ICT integration in the region.

This section contains details of the country’s laws as they relate to sexual offenses, children and the use of the Internet in the commission of criminal activity. Where possible, sentence details have been given, including whether an increased custodial penalty is imposed where the victim is a child. The age of consent in Japan is deemed to be thirteen years of age and the age of majority is twenty. The term ‘child’ usually refers to a person under the age of eighteen, although it varies by jurisdiction.

To understand some of the sentencing detailed below it is necessary to understand that prison terms fall into the two categories of imprisonment or imprisonment with labor. Imprisonment with labor is not ‘hard labor’ in that prisoners do not undertake the outdoor, physical work associated with that term. Instead it refers to assigned work duties such as the manufacture of parts which are sold on to private companies.

Act on Punishment of Activities Relating to Child Prostitution and Child Pornography, and the Protection of Children (Act No.52 of May 26, 1999). The term ‘child’ in the Act is used to refer to a person under the age of eighteen. The term ‘child prostitution’ refers to acts of sexual intercourse and sexual touching in exchange for money or the promise of payment. The term ‘child pornography’ refers to visual and electronic media which depicts a child engaging in sexual intercourse or being touched in a sexual manner, or a naked image of a child designed to stimulate sexually.

  • Article 4. Child Prostitution. States that any person who commits child prostitution will be sentenced to imprisonment with labor for up to five years or fined up to ¥3 million.
  • Article 5. Intermediation in Child Prostitution. States that anyone who acts as an intermediary in child prostitution is liable to a term of imprisonment with labor for up to five years and/or a fine of up to ¥5 million. If the offender acts as an intermediary as their business, the term of imprisonment is increased to up to seven years and the fine becomes mandatory, increasing to a maximum of ¥10 million.
  • Article 6. Solicitation. States that any person who solicits a person to commit child prostitution for the purposes of acting as an intermediary is liable to imprisonment with labor for up to five years and/or a fine of up to ¥5 million. If the offender commits the offense as their business the term of imprisonment is increased to up to seven years and the fine becomes mandatory, increasing to a maximum of ¥10 million.
  • Article 7. Possession, Supply of Child Pornography and Other Related Articles. The section states that a person who supplies child pornography is liable to imprisonment with work for up to three years or a fine of up to ¥3 million. The same penalty applies to anyone who supplies such images via electronic means. It also applies to anyone who possesses such images in electronic format with the intention of distributing them. The import, export, production or possession with intent to distribute such images is also prohibited. In addition to the offenses previously stated, the same penalties apply to someone who makes a child pose in any of the ways defined under ‘child pornography’ under the title of this Act above. The section also defines the offense of offering child pornography images (including those stored electronically) to the general public or publicly displaying such material, including via telecommunications networks. In 2014, an amendment was made to include: “a person who possesses child pornography for the purpose of satisfying one’s sexual curiosity is liable to imprisonment with work for up to one year or a fine of up to ¥1 million”; and “the same penalties (of producing child pornography) apply to someone who covertly depicts a child in such pose as defined under ‘child pornography’. The penalty for this is imprisonment with labor for up to three years and/or a fine of up to ¥3 million.
  • Article 8. Trafficking in Children for the Purpose of Child Prostitution. Defines the crime or purchasing a child for the purpose of involving the child in child prostitution or the production of child pornography. The offense is punishable by imprisonment with labor for between one year and ten years. If the offender transports a child who resides in a foreign state out of that state, who has been kidnapped, purchased, enticed or forced, they face a sentence of imprisonment with labor for a minimum term of two years.

Penal Code

  • Chapter XXII, Article 174, Penal Code. Public Indecency. States that a person who commits an indecent act in public is liable to a term of imprisonment with labor for up to six months, a fine of up to ¥300,000, imprisonment or a petty fine.
  • Chapter XXII, Article 175. Distribution of Obscene Objects. States that a person who distributes, sells, possesses for the purpose of sale, or displays in public an obscene document, drawing or other objects shall be punished by imprisonment with work for not more than 2 years, a fine of not more than 2,500,000 yen or a petty fine.
  • Chapter XXII, Article 176, Penal Code. Forcible Indecency. Defines the crime of forcibly committing an indecent act on a person of either sex, through the use of intimidation or physical intimidation. The penalty is imprisonment with labor for between six months and ten years. The same penalty applies, regardless of whether the victim is aged under or over thirteen.
  • Chapter XXII, Article 177, Penal Code. Rape. Defines the crime of rape against a female and states that the penalty is imprisonment with labor for a minimum of three years. The section states that the same penalty applies, regardless of whether the victim is aged under or over thirteen.
  • Chapter XXII, Article 178, Penal Code. Quasi-Indecency; Quasi-Rape. This crime is defined as when an offender takes advantage of a victim’s loss of consciousness or inability to resist (or causes the same state) to carry out an indecent act. This applies to victims of either sex and the penalties imposed are the same as under Article 176. The section also covers the crime committed when an offender takes advantage of a female victim’s loss of consciousness or inability to resist (or causes the same state) to have sexual intercourse with them. In that case, the penalties imposed are the same as those for Article 177.
  • Chapter XXII, Article 178-2., Penal Code. Gang Rape. States that when two or more persons jointly commit the crimes proscribed under Article 177 or paragraph 2 of Article 178, they shall be punished by imprisonment with work for a definite term of not less than 4 years.
  • Chapter XXII, Article 179, Penal Code. Attempts. States that an attempt of the crimes prescribed in Articles 176 through 178-2 is also punishable.
  • Chapter XXII, Article 181, Penal Code. Forcible Indecency Causing Death or Injury. In the event that an offender causes the death of their victim whilst carrying out the acts covered by Articles 176 and 178, they will be punished by imprisonment with labor for between three years and life. If death occurs in the commission of a rape as described in Articles 177 and 178 the punishment is imprisonment with labor for between five years and life. If death or injury occurred from committing an act proscribed in Article 178-2 or an attempt of the above-mentioned crimes, the punishment is imprisonment with labor for between six years and life.
  • Chapter XXXIII, Article 224, Penal Code. Kidnapping of Minors. States that a person who kidnaps a minor, using force or enticement, is liable to imprisonment with labor for between three months and seven years.
  • Chapter XXXIII, Article 225, Penal Code. Kidnapping for Profit. Defines the crime of kidnapping for (among other definitions) indecent purposes and states that the penalty is imprisonment with labor for between one and ten years.
  • Chapter XXXIII, Article 226, Penal Code. Kidnapping for Transportation out of a Country. States that a person who kidnaps another by force or enticement for the purposes of transporting them from one country to another country, will be punished by imprisonment with labor for a minimum of two years.
  • Chapter XXXIII, Article 226-2, Penal Code. Buying or Selling of Human Beings. This section states that it is unlawful to buy a person and that the penalty is imprisonment with labor for between three months and five years. If the victim is a minor the sentence increases to between three months and seven years. If a person is bought for (among other definitions) the purpose of indecency, the penalty is imprisonment with labor for between one and ten years. If a person is purchased with the intention of transporting them from one country to another country, the punishment is imprisonment with work for a minimum of two years.
  • Chapter XXXIII, Article 228, Penal code. Attempts. States that an attempt of the crimes proscribed under Articles 224, 225, paragraph 1 of Article 225-2, Articles 226 through 226-3 and paragraphs 1 through 3 and the first sentence of paragraph 4 of the preceding Article are also punishable.
  • Chapter XXXIII, Article 230, Penal code. Defamation. States that a person who defames another by alleging facts in public shall, regardless of whether such facts are true or false, be punished by imprisonment with or without work for not more than 3 years or a fine of not more than 500,000 yen.
  • Chapter XXXIII, Article 246-2, Penal Code. Computer Fraud. In addition to the provisions of Article 246 (Fraud), states that a person who obtains or causes another to obtain a profit by creating a false electromagnetic record relating to acquisition, loss or alteration of property rights by inputting false data or giving unauthorized commands to a computer utilized for the business of another, or by putting a false electromagnetic record relating to acquisition, loss or alteration of property rights into use for the administration of the matters of another shall be punished by imprisonment with work for a maximum of 10 years.
  • Unauthorized Computer Access Law (Law No. 128 of 1999). This law makes various computer hacking behaviors illegal.

2003 - Microsoft provided support to the International Centre for Missing and Exploited Children (ICMEC), enabling it to conduct a series of training sessions for law enforcement agencies over five years, including in Japan. The sessions explained how to conduct successful investigations of computer-facilitated crimes against children.

2008 - The Act on Development of an Environment that Provides Safe and Secure Internet Use for Young Peoplewas published, which aims to protect the rights of young people by educating them about online safety and taking measures to use software or other means to filter content harmful to them.

2010, 2013 - Japan published a first and second “Comprehensive Measures to Eliminate Child Pornography,” detailing efforts to quickly detect and efficiently address instances of child online victimization. Two noteworthy accomplishments were the Cabinet Office’s introduction of a Working Team for Measures to Eliminate Child Pornography and the National Police Agency’s education campaign, “No!! Child Pornography,” which provides information such as the definition of child pornography, measures to prevent damage, the current situation of cleared cases and damage, and the seriousness of the damage caused to child victims to increase public understanding of the issue.

2011 - In 2010, the Governor of the Tokyo municipal government proposed an amendment to the city’s youth welfare ordinance on child pornography that would limit child access to Lolicon hentai, a type of Japanese anime that often mixes child-like images with “perverted” or nonconsensual sexual undertones. The Bill was passed in 2011 with some changes to the original wording. No national law exists to address the topic (although many of the producers of such materials are located in Tokyo).

Blocking of child sexual abuse contents online was introduced as a voluntary initiative by the ICT industry, with newly-established Internet Content Safety Association responsible for maintaining the URL list.

2013 - The Japan Internet Safety Promotion Association (JISPA) established both national and local projects to address safe internet and smartphone use among students and rule-making for parents and guardians.

2014 - The Council of Anti-Phishing Japan, a part of the Japan Computer Emergency Response Team Coordination center (JPCERTCC) launched a STOP.THINK.CONNECT. Cybersecurity Awareness Campaign, to increase cybersecurity and cybercrime awareness in Japan and beyond, the first site established beyond the original website and the first in a language other than English. STOP.THINK.CONNECT collaboration in Japan has been underway since 2009 to protect children online.

Japan is also a participant in the Global Alliance of Against Child Sexual Abuse Online, and therefore submitted a 2014 report detailing its accomplishments and commitments toward protecting children on the internet.

2014 - Act on Punishment of Activities Relating to Child Prostitution and Child Pornography, and the Protection of Children was amended to ban and criminalize the simple possession of child pornography (amendment became effective in 2015).

2016 - In July, Japan is scheduled to participate in the RSA Conference Asia Pacific & Japan. RSAC aims to address cybersecurity threats, including threats to children such as cyberbullying, online predators, and identity theft.