Education is Hong Kong is the remit of the Education Bureau (EDB). The home page of the Department’s website has a wealth of materials for parents, students and teachers about internet safety and technology curriculums in schools. Use of computers and the Internet is not confined to ICT lessons, but rather is a cross-curricular activity. Internet safety is taught as part of the Information Technology curriculum, under the umbrella topic of cyber ethics.
2004 - Hong Kong celebrated its first Safer Internet Day (SID) to address the importance of safe use of online technology and mobile phones, particularly among children. The Safer Internet Day is co-organised by the Hong Kong Council of Social Service (HKCSS) and WebOrganic.
2008 - Internet safety and accessibility in regard to education it also one of the focuses of the Hong Kong Council of Social Services (HKCSS). The ‘Intelligent Fibre Kids’ program provided low-income families with free broadband facilities for 24 months to enable children to learn online.
2009 - Hong Kong’s District Cyber Centres Alliance (DCCA) program was started to build a sustainable technology community by bringing corporate, government and NGO entities together to bridge the gap of who has access to the internet. Initiatives included providing internet access and training (including internet safety training) to groups that traditionally have less technology access, including the poor, women and elderly.
2012 - The Hong Kong Digital Academy’s YouTube channel was launched in 2012, containing interactive learning materials and information.
2014 - As part of the Safer Internet Day 2014, a series of cartoon-style videos aimed at primary school children were uploaded to the channel, with topics ranging from cyberbullying to keeping personal information protected online. See the Organizations section below for more information on education-related initiatives.
Be Net-Wise (Hong Kong Federation of Youth Groups)
The organization provides a wide range of Internet safety advice to parents and children, as well as online games. The site also offers information about cyber safety education initiatives and workshops available to teachers and the general public.
Child Rights Coalition Asia
CRC is a network of children’s rights and human rights organizations in Asia, which brings the child rights perspectives and agenda to regional and international advocacy.
Cyber Security and Technology Crime Bureau (CSTCB)
The bureau works under the Hong Kong Police force and is responsible for handling cyber security issues and carrying out technology crime investigations. The site also provides information on cybercrime among other topics.
Education Bureau (EDB)
The Bureau contains a wealth of resources on all aspects of education, including curriculum standards and Internet safety information.
Hong Kong Council of Social Services (HKCSS)
The council is responsible for creating policies that foster social responsibility and positive social change. Under HKCSS, there is the Internet Learning Resource Centre (ILRC), which aims to increase internet accessibility for low-income families and teach children how to use the Internet safely and productively.
Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited (HKIRC)
It is responsible for the administration of .hk domain names throughout Hong Kong. It also participates in events such as a 2008 conference on the subject of Internet safety for young people which was arranged by the Hong Kong Federation of Youth Groups.
Information Technology Resource Center (ITRC)
A department of the Hong Kong Council of Social Service and exists to provide ICT support to NGOs operating throughout Hong Kong. One of its main services is to provide ICT equipment and software at discounted prices to those organizations.
INTERPOL is the world’s largest international police organization, with 190 member countries. Its mission is to enable police forces to collaborate globally to fight crime in the Internet age. Three areas of focus are crimes against children (with a focus on internet crimes and travelling sex offenders), cybercrime and human trafficking.
Office of the Government Chief Information Officer (OGCIO)
The office partners with other bureaus and organizations to implement IT-related initiatives. The its Cyber Security Information Portal (CSIP) provides information on upcoming events and resources of internet safety, as well as resources to make computers and phones more secure. The OGCIO has a related website InfoSec that provides news about internet safety education and awareness events, as well as online resources and games for the general public to learn about online safety.
One Laptop per Child (OLPC)
A nonprofit organization launched by Massachusetts Institute of Technology Media Lab, whose aim to empower the world’s poorest children through education by providing a low cost laptops.
Television and Licensing Authority
The Authority’s website provides resources on filtering software, including where to obtain it and information for parents on what the software does.
It organizes Safer Internet Day in a joint partnership with the Hong Kong Council of Social Service (HKCSS), who work on the new government-sponsored initiative to provide e-learning support to students from low-income families. As of March 2014, up to 40,000 needy families joined the “Internet Learning Support Programme” sponsored by the Office of the Government Chief Information Officer. WebOrganic provided affordable computer hardware and Internet service, counseling hotline, mentorship services, and arranged seminars and training courses to over 13,000 of these families.
INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT) IN EDUCATION IN ASIA (2014)UNESCO,UNESCO Institute of Statistics
A comparative analysis of ICT integration and e-readiness in schools across Asia
ICT in Primary Education (2012)Ivan Kalaš, Haif E. Bannayan, Leslie Conery, Ernesto Lava, Diana Laurillard, Cher Ping Lim, Sarietjie Musgrave, Alexei Semenov, Márta Turcsányi-Szabó
Status of implementation of ICT in primary schools in Slovakia, Jordan, United States, Chile, United Kingdom, Hong Kong, South Africa, Russia, and Hugnary.
This section contains details of the country’s laws as they relate to sexual offenses, children and the use of the Internet in the commission of criminal activity. Where possible, sentence details have been given, including whether an increased custodial penalty is imposed where the victim is a child.
The Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China (HKSAR) was enacted by the National People’s Congress in accordance with the Constitution of the People’s Republic of China and can be likened to a constitution. It came into force on 1 July 1997 along with the establishment of HKSAR. All systems and policies in the HKSAR must be founded on provisions of the Basic Law. The underlying principle is the concept of ‘one country, two systems,’ referring to the fact that Hong Kong is a region of China, but is not closely regulated, so apart from clearly defined circumstances, the national laws of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) are not applied in HKSAR. Because Hong Kong was a British colony starting in 1842, the law of Hong Kong is more similar to the law of the UK than that of the PRC.
The age of consent in Hong Kong is sixteen and the age of majority is eighteen, but some specific regulations are applied to crimes committed against persons under the age of 21.
- Article 188, Penal Code. Rape. The offense does not make specific mention of the act committed against a child or have increased penalties for such an offense. Penalties are not specified in this section.
- Article 122, Penal Code. Indecent Assault. This section states that a person under sixteen is unable to consent to an act which would otherwise not be classed as an assault if consent were given. The crime carries a term of imprisonment of ten years.
- Article 123, Penal Code. Intercourse with a girl under thirteen. States that the penalty for having unlawful sexual intercourse with a female child under the age of thirteen upon conviction on indictment is life imprisonment.
- Article 124, Penal Code. Intercourse with a girl under sixteen. States that the penalty for having unlawful sexual intercourse with a female child under the age of sixteen upon conviction on indictment is imprisonment for five years.
- Article 126, Penal Code. Abduction of a girl under sixteen. States that anyone who takes an unmarried girl under the age of 16 out of the possession of her parent or guardian against the will of the parent or guardian is liable for imprisonment for 10 years.
- Article 127, Penal Code. Abduction of a minor for sexual intercourse. States that anyone who takes an unmarried girl under the age of 18 out of the possession of her parent or guardian against the will of the parent or guardian with the intention that she shall have unlawful sexual intercourse with men or with a particular man is liable for imprisonment for 7 years.
- Article 132, Penal Code. Procurement of a girl under 21. States that anyone who procures a girl under the age of 21 to have unlawful sexual intercourse with a third party (in Hong Kong or anywhere else) is liable for imprisonment for 5 years.
- Article 135, Penal Code. Encouragement of prostitution/assault of a child. States that anyone who is responsible for a child and causes or encourages the prostitution of or an unlawful sexual act (with a girl or boy under the age of 16) is liable for imprisonment for 10 years.
- Article 138A, Penal Code. Child Pornography. States that it is a crime to use, procure, or offer another person who is under the age of 18 for making pornography. Punishments include: if the offence is committed in relation to a person under the age of 16, to a fine of HK $3,000,000 and to imprisonment for 10 years; (b) if the offence is committed in relation to a person of the age of 16 or above but under 18, to a fine of HK $1,000,000 and to imprisonment for 5 years. To depict a person pornographically means— (a) to visually depict a person as being engaged in explicit sexual conduct, whether or not the person is in fact engaged in such conduct; or (b) to visually depict, in a sexual manner or context, the genitals or anal region of a person or, in the case of a female person, her breast; live pornographic performance includes any play, show, exhibition, act, entertainment, presentation, display or other performance of any kind in which a person is pornographically depicted; pornography means (a) a photograph, film, computer-generated image or other visual depiction that depicts a person pornographically, whether it is made or generated by electronic or any other means and whether or not it has been modified; or (b) anything that incorporates a photograph, film, image or depiction referred to in paragraph (a), and includes data stored in a form that is capable of conversion into a photograph, film, image or depiction referred to in paragraph (a) and anything containing such data.
- Article 140, Penal Code. Regarding child prostitution. States that any owner, occupier, manager, etc. of any premises/vessel who induces or knowingly suffers a girl or boy under the age of 13 to resort to or be on such premises or vessel for prostitution is liable for imprisonment for life.
- Article 146, Penal Code. Indecent conduct towards a child under sixteen. Defines the crime of committing an act of gross indecency against a child, or inciting someone under the age of sixteen to do the same against the offender or another person. Upon conviction on indictment the offender is liable to ten years’ imprisonment.
- Article 161, Penal Code. Computer Crimes. States that anyone who obtains access to a computer: (a) with intent to commit an offence; (b) with a dishonest intent to deceive; (c) with a view to dishonest gain for himself or another; or (d) with a dishonest intent to cause loss to another, whether on the same occasion as he obtains such access or on any future occasion is liable for imprisonment for 5 years.
- Chapter 390, Control of obscene and indecent articles Ordinance. This ordinance addresses offenses such as publishing, possessing for the purposes of publication or importing for the purposes of publication any obscene or indecent articles. The penalty is up to three years’ imprisonment and a fine of up to HK $1,000,000.
- Chapter 579, Prevention of child pornography Ordinance. This ordinance outlines all offenses, definitions, and penalties relating to child pornography.
2003 - The Hong Kong government established the Prevention of Child Pornography Ordinance, which outlines specific acts the are criminalized and penalties assigned to them.
Also in 2003, Microsoft provided support to the International Centre for Missing and Exploited Children (ICMEC), enabling it to conduct a series of training sessions for law enforcement agencies over five years, including in Hong Kong.
2005 - The Internet Infrastructure Liaison Group (IILG) was established by the OGCIO in 2005 to collaborate with Internet infrastructure stakeholders to enforce healthy operation of the Internet infrastructures of Hong Kong. Members of the IILG include OGCIO, HKCERT, Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited (HKIRC), Hong Kong Internet Service Providers Association (HKISPA), Hong Kong Police Force (HKPF), and Office of the Communications Authority (OFCA).
2012 - The Cyber Security Centre (CSC) under the Technology Crime Division of Commercial Crime Bureau of the Hong Kong Police Force began operation in 2012 with the mission to enhance the protection of critical infrastructures and strengthen the resilience of Hong Kong against cyber attacks. CSC duties have now been expanded to include other aspects of cybercrime, internet safety, and child online victimization as part of the CSTCB.
2015 - The Hong Kong Police Force presented a law enforcement perspective at the third Asia Pacific Financial Coalition Against Child Pornography Roundtable, “The Role of Industry in the Fight Against Online Child Sexual Exploitation” in July. The APAC-FCACP was launched by the the International Centre for Missing & Exploited Children (ICMEC) in 2009 as an alliance between the private and public sectors in the fight against commercial child pornography.
Also in 2015, Hong Kong’s Computer Emergency Response Team (HKCERT) engaged in research and public education regarding the vulnerabilities of mobile apps and how to avoid being victimized, one of many efforts by HKCERT to disseminate information and coordinate response actions for cybersafety and security. HKCERT is a member of the Forum of Incident Response and Security Teams (FIRST) and the Asia Pacific Computer Emergency Response Teams (APCERT).