Guatemala

Population

14,918,999

Population 0‑14

35.6%

Internet Users

31.5%

Facebook Users

4,700,000

Mobile Subscribers

17,200,000
* Statistics provided by CIA.gov, Internet World Stats and GSMA Intellligence

2004 - The Ministry of Education launched the Schools for the Future (Escuelas del Futuro) project in an effort to update Guatemala’s public schools and further the nation’s development. The first phase saw some selected Demonstration Schools participate in the program. They were equipped with the necessary physical infrastructure and the teachers received adequate training on how to best utilize ICT as part of the curriculum.

Created by Trust for the Americas, Partnership in Opportunities for Employment through Technology in The Americas (POETA) provides training to people with disabilities and to young people, both of whom have high rates of unemployment. The aim is that through providing training in the use of ICT, as well as courses on other topics, such as job readiness, combined with POETA’s support to students to find them job placements after they have completed their course. Guatemala was the first country to benefit from POETA and more than 21,000 people have benefitted from its services.

2005 - Technology for Education (Tecnología para Educar, or TPE) is a joint effort of private enterprises, public sector institutions, international agencies and NGOs, with the common vision of providing computers to public schools in the rural and urban areas of the Republic of Guatemala. The aim of the project is to promote digital education and social inclusion of Guatemalan children, and to increase the country’s global competitiveness.

The Government of Guatemala presented their National Plan for Innovation in Science and Technology 2005 - 2014 (Spanish). The aim was to increase interest for the scientific and technological fields and with more qualified people achieve competitiveness to create a more suited environment for development

2007 - The Ministry of Education launched the initiative Abriendo Futuro (Expanding Futures), enabling public school teachers to purchase computers at a reduced rate through an affordable finance plan. Through the support of FUNSEPA, 70% of all teachers were able to benefit from the program, which has now finished. Microsoft was a partner in the initiative: providing low-cost software and training to the teachers in how to use their new computers and the programs supplied.

2008 - The Ministry of Education’s Educational Policy 2008-2012 sets the overall goal of moving towards a quality education. To achieve this, the ministry recognizes the need to promote, improve and strengthen access to technology labs in all national schools. As an operational goal the policy also includes the integration of technology into the teaching-learning process, and to incorporate the national language and culture within the technological tools to improve access.

2012 - The foundation of many guatemalan indigenous communities are based on the concepts of sharing and collaboration, hence access to internet and knowledge to ICT allows improvement of communication and economic development. The indigenous village of Santiago Atitlan declared internet access as a human right, which led different initiatives by municipalities.

2013 - The Congreso Internacional de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación (International Congress on Science, Technology and Innovation) is hosted annually by the National Council for Science and Technology (CONCYT). Its aim is to achieve development and knowledge exchange through the promotion of the use of science, technology and innovation.

The Learning Centers of ICT are an initiate of The Ministry of Education. Located in different municipalities, theses centers’ purpose is to provide a variety of courses on information and communications technology. This program allows more people to have access to higher training and help to close the technology gap.

2014 - The ITU Girls in ICT Portal in collaboration with Campus Tec and Telefonica prepares annually the Girls in ICT Day of The International Telecommunications Union (ITU). Through the development of various activities, this initiative seeks to encourage girls to get more involved in information technology and communications and tech careers.

2015 - Empresarios por la Educacion (Entrepreneurs for Education) is an organization that aims to create conditions of equity by improving the quality of education. Understanding very well the difficulties of the Guatemalan education system, the organization presents a new government plan on education. Government Plan 2016 - 2020, suggests the priorities the upcoming government should take into consideration.

Educational Community of Central America and Dominican Republic (CEDUCAR)

A virtual meeting place for the teaching community, this educational portal links eight Latin American countries and their respective educational systems. It provides up-to-date information, online courses, virtual communities, digital resources, newsletters, digital libraries and other educational materials.

FunSEPA

A non-profit organization that aims to promote the use of technology as a tool in education by training teachers and helping to provide ICT access. They are responsible for the operation of TPE’s computer Reconditioning Center.

Guatemalan Ministry of Education

The Ministry is responsible for developing and implementing the educational model that incorporates the use of technology in the country’s classrooms and schools.

Instituto Interamericano del Niño, la Niña y Adolescente (INN)

A specialized body of the Organization of American States (OAS) on children and adolescents policy that provides guidance to the different states on how they must assume protection.

INTERPOL

INTERPOL is the world’s largest international police organization, with 190 member countries. Its mission is to enable police forces to collaborate globally to fight crime in the Internet age. Three areas of focus are crimes against children (with a focus on internet crimes and travelling sex offenders), cybercrime and human trafficking.

La Secretaria Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (The National Secretariat of Science and Technology)

The Secretariat works under the framework of the Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (National Council for Science and Technology), and monitors actions, supports and implements decisions on science and technology. Its purpose is to promote the scientific and technological knowledge to contribute to economic and social development.

La Secretaria Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (The National Secretariat of Science and Technology)

The Secretariat works under the framework of the Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (National Council for Science and Technology), and monitors actions, supports and implements decisions on science and technology. Its purpose is to promote the scientific and technological knowledge to contribute to economic and social development.

Latin American Network of Educational Portals (La Red Latinoamericana de Portales Educativos – RELPE)

Formed in 2004 by an agreement of the Ministries of Education from sixteen Latin American countries, a network of educational portals, allowing the collaboration and sharing of educational content between the member countries. It also provides for the construction of standards and methodologies of processes to position the network as a benchmark in the region and the world on collaborative management of educational content.

Latin American Network of ICT and Education (Red Iberoamericana de TIC y Educación – RIATE)

This organization promotes bilateral or multilateral cooperation for development through the exchange of information, initiatives and projects that promote the integration of ICT in education in 21 countries.

One Laptop per Child (OLPC)

A nonprofit organization launched by Massachusetts Institute of Technology Media Lab, whose aim to empower the world’s poorest children through education by providing a low cost laptops.

Skoool

An initiative that provides online resources and learning materials relating to math and science. The site is a joint initiative between the Ministry of Education, Intel, USAID and various other organizations. It provides basic Internet safety information for parents on the use of filters and other safety topics.

Tecnologia Para Educar (Technology for Education)

This non-profit organization provides computers to public schools in the rural and urban areas of Guatemala, and works in partnership with the Ministry of Education, Microsoft, FunSEPA, the Canadian Agency for International Development, the National Telecommunications Authority (SIT), and the National Council for Science and Technology (CONCYT).

The Interactive Generations Forum

A nonprofit organization which mission is to promote the use of technology to improve people’s lives. It was founded in 2008 by Telefónica, the University of Navarra and the Inter-American Organization (OUI). The Forum seeks to understand the impact of technology on children aged between 6 - 18 in Latin America, to provide educational resources for that age group and to educate through its own programs.

Abuse and Exploitation

UNHCR

This paper highlights the critical issues of abuse and exploitation

Protecting Children from Cybercrime (2015)

Simone dos Santos Lemos Fernandes, Legal Consultant, Global Forum on Law Justice and Development (GFLJD), Legal Vice Presidency, World Bank

This report studies different Latin American countries’ legislation on the prevention and combat of violence against children on the internet. It also identifies gaps and good practices on the protection of children from cybercrime.

The commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children in Latin America (2014)

ECPAT International

This report studies the different forms of sexual exploitation of children inLatin America. Furthermore, it highlights the new emerging trends and how Latin america is addressing this phenomena

Report of the Special Rapporteur on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography on her visit to Guatemala (20–29 August 2012) (2013)

Najat Maalla M’jid

This is a Report by the special United Nations Rapporteur on the situation of selling of children, child prostitution and child pornography in Guatemala during her visit.

UNICEF Annual Report 2013 – Guatemala (2013)

UNICEF

Annual report by UNICEF on the overall situation of Guatemala on the protection of women and children.

ICT IN EDUCATION IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN A regional analysis of ICT integration and e-readiness (2012)

UNESCO Institute for Statistics

UNESCO Institute for Statistics, based on survey responses from 38 countries reveals the extent to which factors such as education policy, teacher training, and infrastructure drive or hamper the integration of ICTs in schools.

Trafficking of Women and Girls within Central America (2012)

United Nations - Office on Drugs and Crime

A chapter focused on the sexual exploitation that goes along trafficking women and girls in Central America.

ICT for Development and the MuNet ProgramExperiences and Lessons Learnt from an Indigenous Municipality in Guatemala (2012)

Jorge Lopez-Bachiller, Javier Saenz-Core and Diego Cardona

Report on experiences of the ICT for development and MuNet Program in the indigenous municipality of Patzun in Guatemala.

Small World, Big Responsibility: The UK’s role in the global trade in children (2012)

Erika Hall, Phillippa Lei

This report preset information on the different forms of child exploitation. Its purpose is to raise awareness to this global issue.

Computers in Schools: Why governments Should do their Homework (2011)

Inter-American Development Bank

This chapter is a comparison of the Latin American governments include ICT in their educational programs.

Computers in Schools: Why governments Should do their Homework (2011)

Inter-American Development Bank

This chapter is a comparison of the Latin American governments include ICT in their educational programs.

Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children and the Internet (2011)

Inter American Children’s Instirute

This is a report to the Organization of American States on the situation of the member states in the issue of commercial sexual exploitation and the impact of internet in their lives.

Children of Guatemala - Realizing Children’s Rights in Guatemala (2011)

Valentine Fau

This a comprehensive report on the situation of rights of the children in Guatemala.

Missing Children in Central America: Research of Practices and legislation on Prevention and Recovery (2011)

UNICEF and the International Centre for Missing & Exploited Children

This report is about the situation of Central America in 2011 on the matter of trafficking and sexual exploitation. It pays close attention to legislation, some cases and the countries’ actions on this issue.

Report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights on the activities of her office in Guatemala (2010)

the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights and Reports of the Office of the High Commissioner and the Secretary-General

This United Nations Report describes the Human Rights situation on the year 2009. Due to political instability during this time, Guatemala circumstances were of utmost concern.

Concluding observations of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (2009)

the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women of the United Nations

a report by the CEDAW on the improvements made by the government of Guatemala, but also the most concerning issues on the matter of the elimination of discrimination against women.

Internet in Guatemala - Obstacles and Opportunities (2000)

Benjamin Sywulka, David Huang, Darius Contractor and Di Yin lu

Project on the usage of Internet in Guatemala. It explores the obstacles and the opportunities it could bring to the country as a tool for development.

This section contains details of the country’s laws as they relate to sexual offenses, children and the use of the Internet in the commission of criminal activity. Where possible, sentence details have been given, including whether an increased custodial penalty is imposed where the victim is a child.

According to Article 8 of the Guatemalan Civil Code, the age of simple majority is eighteen. The age of consent for sexual activity is fourteen for women and sixteen for men, subject to receiving approval for marriage, according to Article 81 of the Civil Code.

In February 2009, the national congress passed a law on sexual violence, exploitation and trafficking in persons (Decree 9-2009), amending the existing Penal Code by introducing new sanctions. Filling the previously existing legal voids reflects Guatemala’s determination to comply with the main international human rights standard and define and penalize sexual violence and trafficking in persons.

  • Article 173, Penal Code. Rape. [Amended by Decree No. 9-2009] Defines the offense of using physical or mental violence in order to have any form of sexual intercourse with another person against their will, or to insert another body part or object into the victim’s vagina, mouth or anus. The article also states that it is a criminal offense to have sexual intercourse with a child under the age of fourteen. The offender is liable to a term of imprisonment for between eight to twelve years.
  • Article 173 Bis, Penal Code. Sexual Assault. [Added by Decree No. 9-2009] States that anyone who uses physical or psychological violence to commit sexual or erotic acts with, in front of or to another person, unless the act constitutes the offense of rape, is liable to imprisonment for between five to eight years. It is always an offense to sexually assault a child under the age of fourteen, even without the use of violence.
  • Article 174, Penal Code. Increased Penalties. [Amended by Decree No. 9-2009] This Article prescribes increased penalties by two thirds for the offenses described in the preceding articles in the following cases: where the offense was committed jointly by more than one person; where the victim is particularly vulnerable because they are elderly, suffer from illness, are mentally or physically disabled, or are deprived of their liberty; where the offender uses weapons, alcohol, narcotic drugs or other instruments or substances that damage the victim’s health or adversely affect their judgment; where the victim was pregnant; where the offender is married or related to the victim, or entrusted with their education, care, custody or guardianship; where the offender is a public official or professional or where the offender infected the victim with a sexually transmitted disease.
  • Article 188, Penal Code. Sexual Exhibitionism. [Amended by Decree No. 9-2009] This Article states that anyone who performs sexual acts in the presence of minors will be punished by imprisonment for between three to five years.
  • Article 189, Penal Code. Admission to Shows and Distribution of Pornographic Material to Minors. [Amended by Decree No. 9-2009] Defines the offense of letting minors or people with a cognitive disability attend shows of a sexual nature aimed at adults, or to allow children to watch public entertainment of such nature. It is also an offense to otherwise distribute pornographic material to minors, or to acquire pornographic material of minors. The punishment for this offense is imprisonment for three to five years.
  • Article 190, Penal Code. Violation of Sexual Privacy. [Amended by Decree No. 9-2009] States that anyone who, without consent, captures messages, conversation, communications, sounds, images or pictures that are detrimental to the depicted person’s sexual privacy and affect their dignity, will be liable to imprisonment for one to three years. The same penalty will be imposed on anyone who, without consent, takes, accesses, uses or modifies third party communication or confidential data with sexual content, whether physical or electronic, stored in files or on other computer or electronic media, to the detriment of the owner or a third person. The article also states that an increased sentence of imprisonment for two to four years will apply to anyone who disseminates, discloses or transfers to a third person data, facts or images of the nature described in this article.
  • Article 191, Penal Code. Promoting, Facilitating or Furthering Prostitution. [Amended by Decree No. 9-2009] This Article states that the exploitation of an adult through the promotion, facilitation or execution of prostitution is a criminal offense, punishable by imprisonment for five to ten years, and a fine of 500,000 to 1,000,000 GTQ.
  • Article 192, Penal Code. Promoting, Facilitating or Furthering Aggravated Prostitution. [Amended by Decree No. 9-2009] Constitutes that the penalties prescribed in the preceding Article will be increased by one-third in the following cases: where the victim has fallen pregnant as a result of the sexual exploitation; where the perpetrator is related or married to the victim or responsible for their education, care, custody or guardianship or where the offender used violence, intimidation or abused a position of authority.
  • Article 193, Penal Code. Remunerated Sexual Activity with Minors. [Amended by Decree No. 9-2009] This Article states that anyone who, for himself or a third person, in exchange for a sexual act or the promise of such an act, financially or otherwise rewards a minor, will be punished by imprisonment for five to eight years, subject to penalties that may apply for the commission of other crimes.
  • Article 193 Bis, Penal Code. Remuneration for the Promotion, Facilitation or Favoritism of Prostitution. [Amended by Decree No. 9-2009] States that it is a criminal offense to give or promise any kind of financial reward in exchange for a sexual act for himself or another person to a person of any age, whether or not it achieves its purpose. The offense is punishable by imprisonment for between three to five years.
  • Article 194, Penal Code. Production of Child Pornography. [Amended by Decree No. 9-2009] Defines the offense of producing or manufacturing, in any manner and through any medium, pornographic images or voices, real or simulated, or pornographic or erotic acts of one or more minors or disabled persons. The offender will be liable to imprisonment for six to ten years, and a fine of 50,000 to 500,000 GTQ.
  • Article 195 Bis, Penal Code. Marketing or Distribution of Child Pornography. [Added by Decree No. 9-2009] This Article constitutes that it is a criminal offense to publish, reproduce, import, export, distribute, transport, display, advertise, disseminate or trade in any form and through any medium pornographic material depicting minors or disabled persons, whether the images and voices are real or simulated. The offense is punishable by imprisonment for six to eight years, and a fine of 50,000 to 500,000 GTQ.
  • Article 195 Ter, Penal Code. Possession of Child Pornography. [Added by Decree No. 9-2009] States that anyone who knowingly possesses pornographic material depicting minors or disabled persons will be punished by imprisonment for between two to four years.
  • Article 195 Quatar, Penal Code. Using Tourism for the Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Minors. [Added by Decree No. 9-2009] This Article states that anyone who facilitates, organizes, promotes or allows in any way the performance of any sexual offenses defined in this chapter through tourism-related activities will be punished by imprisonment for a term of between six to ten years, and a fine of 100,000 to 500,000 GTQ.
  • Article 195 Quinquies, Penal Code. Special Aggravating Circumstances. [Added by Decree No. 9-2009] States that the penalties prescribed for offenses under Articles 173, 188, 189, 193, 194, 195, 195 bis and 195 ter will be increased by two-thirds if the victim is under eighteen and over fourteen years of age, by three-quarters if the victim is under fourteen, and double if the victim is under ten years of age.
  • Article 196, Penal Code. Obscene Publications and Shows. This Article states that anyone who publishes, manufactures, reproduces, distributes or circulates obscene books, documents, images or objects will be punished by a fine between 300 to 5,000 GTQ. The same penalty applies to anyone who participates in obscene performances in theater, cinema, television or radio broadcasts.
  • Article 202 ter, Penal Code. Trafficking. [Added by Decree No. 9-2009] Defines the crime of trafficking persons as the recruitment, transportation, retention, harboring or receipt of one or more persons for exploitation. Anyone who is guilty of human trafficking will be punished by imprisonment for between eight to eighteen years and a fine of 300,000 to 500,000 GTQ. In no case will the consent given by the victim or their legal representative be taken into account. For the purpose of this article, exploitation includes prostitution, any form of labor exploitation, forced labor or services, begging, slavery, servitude, the sale of people, extraction and trafficking of human organs and tissue, the recruitment of minors for criminal groups, illegal adoption, pornography, forced pregnancy and forced or servile marriage.
  • Article 159, Penal Code. Slander. Defines slander as falsely accusing someone of a crime, leading to an official investigation. The person responsible for the slander will be liable to imprisonment for between four months to two years, and a fine of 50 to 200 GTQ.
  • Article 160, Penal Code. Truth of the Accusation. Following the preceding Article, the offender will be relieved from any criminal responsibility by proving that the accusation was true.
  • Article 161, Penal Code. Libel. Defines libel as any expression or action that dishonors, discredits or disdains another person. The offender will be punished by imprisonment for a term of between two months to one year.
  • Article 162, Penal Code. Disclaimer of Truth. Where the libel is proven to be true, the accused will not be put on trial.
  • Article 163, Penal Code. Provoked or Reciprocated Libel. States that the court may exempt both parties or either of them from criminal responsibility if the libel was provoked or reciprocated.
  • Article 164, Penal Code. Defamation. This Article defines the offense of defamation as libel or slander done in the form or by means of disclosure that may cause or incite hatred or damage the victim’s honor, dignity or decorum. The person responsible for the defamation will be punished by imprisonment for between two and five years.

The United States Embassy in Guatemala presented on 2009 a report on the matter of human trafficking . It talks about the situation of that year while it gives some recommendation on how Guatemala deals prosecution, prevention, protection. The United States Department provides two similar reports on the years 2014 and 2015.

The attorney General’s office of Guatemala, the institution charged with the provision of counsel and consultation to state bodies and agencies, presents a report on Sexual Exploitation of children in Guatemala. It highlights the different initiatives and action plans by the government as part of a national commitment with the international community to solve this issue.

In 2010, Consideration of reports submitted by States Parties under article 44 of the Convention was published as a periodic review with observations of Guatemala. This recognizes the successful judicial reforms of the country of Guatemala in their effort to protect the rights and needs of the children. However, it also identifies the still existing difficulties and problems the country faces. On each report, the CRC, gives recommendations for the government to consider for their national plan of action.