Germany

Population

80,854,408

Population 0‑14

12.9%

Internet Users

88.0%

Facebook Users

22,000,000

Mobile Subscribers

108,200,000
* Statistics provided by CIA.gov, Internet World Stats and GSMA Intellligence

2004 – The School Project Mobile was launched to help teachers instruct their students on mobile communications skills areas. The project created teaching materials for different grade levels, which are available online, though the project ended in December 2015.

2008 – In a joint venture with jugendschutz.net and the Medienkompetenz Netzwerk (MKN) (media literacy network) Koblenz, the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture launched Media Scouts, a program aiming to educate a number of students at every public school to become fully-fledged digital and online media experts. The overall goal is to have mentors and contact persons at every school. Students can turn to them if they have questions about the responsible use of the Internet, specifically with Web 2.0 and the protection of minors in the media. After the initial two-year pilot phase, the program was rolled out statewide in 2010.

2010 – The Internet and Digital Society Committee of Inquiry investigated the development of media education in schools between 2010 and April 2013. Appointed by the German Bundestag, the committee also researched cybercrime, online privacy and the protection of minors online.

In North-Rhine Westphalia, Medienpass NRW (media passport NRW) is the result of the continuous efforts of cooperation between the Minister of Matters of the State, Europe and Media, the Ministry of Education and Further Education, and the Ministry of Families, Children, Youth, Culture and Sports of NRW. The program aims to improve the state’s educators ability to communicate the importance of media literacy to their pupils. With a focus on students in primary schools up to year 5/6, the initiative offers guidance and advice to educators with regard to what media skills, including Internet safety knowledge, can be expected of children at which age level, and how to integrate age-appropriate exercises and lesson plans into the everyday teaching- and learning process.

The Lower-Saxony Ministry of Education and the NLM, in collaboration with the Regional School Quality Development Institute (NLQ), also began offering primary school teachers the opportunity to gain a qualification in media literacy. The six course modules (one of which is about the safe use of the Internet) concentrate on the use of digital media in the classroom, aiming to enable teachers to competently educate their pupils in the subject in an age-appropriate manner.

The use of computers and ICT in the classroom is an area where some concerns have been highlighted nationally. A study conducted by TNS-Infratest (commissioned by Microsoft) and released in March 2010 reported that over 60 percent of pupils questioned said that the use of computers in class was the exception rather than the norm. 90 percent of parents and 86 percent of teachers agreed that children should learn how to use computers, software and the Internet at school but the study reported that only 39 percent of students actually did – with one in five children never using a computer at school.

2011 – The Internet and Digital Society Committee of Inquiry issued a progress report on media literacy. The report concludes that there is an ongoing debate about a link between media education and the protection of minors from harmful online content, namely that children who are media literate do not need to be protected as much as uneducated children; however there are certain types of content that children “cannot and must not be exposed to, no matter how media literate they may be.” The study commission hence sees the legal framework protection minors online and media literacy as overlapping, complementary approaches. They recommend that a regulatory approach systematically integrating media literacy into the national curriculum guidelines needs to be developed and implemented in order to further the online protection of minors. Further recommendations of the commission include the promotion of media literacy through viral campaigns, improved interlinking of media education activities at federal and state level, a laptop for every schoolchild, and initiatives to increase parent involvement, to name but a few.

Also in 2011, another TNS-Infratest study highlighted the discrepancy between the use of digital media at home and in an educational setting. Even though computers are used at school, their integration into the day-to-day teaching and learning process was deemed to be lagging behind. Computers are used by 73 percent of teachers in science subjects, and just 62 percent in other subjects. This is due to several factors, some of them being poor teacher education in the use and integration of digital media, inadequate hard- and software infrastructures, as well as lack of methodological and didactic concepts for the efficient use of computers in the classroom.

2012 – As of 2012, 10 out of 16 German states signed agreements with ECDL Germany to use the program’s curriculum for digital literacy and ICT competence. This included teacher and student training programs in ICT.

2013 – During this school year, Rhineland-Palatinate piloted their new project aimed at increasing media literacy in primary schools, called [email protected] (media compass). After the initial pilot phase and evaluation, the state hopes to extend the program to secondary schools. The [email protected] not only covers basic computer and digital media skills, but also issues concerning Internet safety and data protection. Educators can draw on a huge database of teaching material, free of charge, covering almost 50 subject areas across four educational levels, from primary through to higher education.

The annual iMedia further education event for teachers in Rhineland-Palatinate educates teaching staff on the use of media in the classroom and brings them up-to-date with the latest developments in the field. The 2013 conference entitled ‘Mobil und Vielfältig Lernen’ (Mobile and Versatile Learning) covered a range of subjects related to the use of connected mobile device for learning purposes, such as iPad apps for use in the classroom, social networks, and smartphones and data protection.

2015 – The Standing Committee of the German Ministry of Education last updated its database of the curricula of every federal state in 2015.

The same year, the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology released a new ICT strategy, which included components on education, media competency and digital inclusion. The plan encourages the use of digital media in education and encourages women and girls in particular to study ICT. Goals of the plan include advancing innovations in education and training, imparting media skills to the population and improving the public’s digital competency. The plan also aims to improve digital inclusion for people with disabilities.

Alliance Against Cyberbullying

The alliance, Buendnis Gegen Cybermobbing, was founded in 2011 and is a network of parents, educators, lawmakers and other dedicated individuals, committed to furthering the criminal prevention of cyberbullying and online violence.

Blinde Kuh

This is the first German-language search engine for children. The website also provides online safety tips for children, including data protection, photos on the Internet and youth rights.

Centre for Child Protection on the Internet (I-CZ)

The centre was created in 2012 by the Federal Ministry for Family Affairs, Seniors, Women and Youth. The I-CZ aims to minimize hazards on the Internet for young people, and continuously analyzes this policy space.

Chatten Ohne Risiko

A joint project between Jugendschutz.net and the Media Authority of Baden-Württemberg, Chatten ohne Risiko focuses solely on educating children, teenagers and parents in assessing the risks of online communication services.

Commission for the Protection of Minors in the Media (KJM)

The commission ensures that the Interstate Treaty on the Protection of Minors in the Media is adhered to. It aims to protect German young people from harmful content.

Deutsche Kinderhilfe e.V.

As the only charitable organization representing children in Germany acting independently of the government and state, the Deutsche Kinderhilfe e.V. aims to represent children’s interests in an active, non-partisan manner. Founded in 2000, its primary objective is to bring topics like child protection and children’s rights into the forefront of public awareness, to establish a more child-friendly Germany. They also lobby to increase penalties for downloading online child pornography and work towards the establishment of a more effective legal system to protect children from online predators.

Deutsche Telekom AG

The company provides software and resources to protect children and youth using the Internet and mobile phones. This includes child protection software, an age verification program and parental controls.

Deutschland Sicher im Netz

The association was founded in 2005 as a direct result of the first IT summit of the federal government. It is composed of companies, inter-trade organizations and associations. Its main objective is to increase awareness of the safe use of the Internet and Information Technology.

Digital Opportunities Foundation

The foundation aims to counteract the digital divide and promote digital inclusion for the development of an information society. Other areas of focus include online safety and media literacy.

Dunkelziffer eV

This organization works to combat child sexual abuse and pornography through therapy, counseling, prevention and education. It provides support services to survivors, advocates for tougher penalties for perpetrators of these crimes and works to break the silence surrounding these crimes.

ECDL Germany

ECDL, an international organization, supports the development of ICT skills in Germany through structured training and certification programs. It aims to improve digital competency in education, the workforce and society.

ECPAT Germany

This chapter of ECPAT was established in 1991, and is an alliance of 28 groups focused on child rights issues. The group works in the political, economic, legal and educational arenas toward the purpose of ending child sexual abuse.

Ein Netz für Kinder

The result of a collaborative effort between the Commissioner for Culture and Media and the German Federal Ministry for Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth (BMFSFJ) the site aims to provide a safer Internet for children ages 8 to 12. This is achieved by a creating safe surfing environment for kids, through the child-friendly search-engine fragFINN.de and by actively promoting best practice by sponsoring high-quality websites for children.

European School Network

This group was founded in 2006 to create an exchange network among nine European schools. ESN arranges one-to-one student exchanges for one to eight weeks, and also provides the possibility of teacher exchanges, group exchanges and student seminars.

Expert Group for Cooperation on Children at Risk (EGCC)

The group is the Children’s Unit at the Council of the Baltic Sea States Secretariat that aims to create safe and secure environment for children in the Baltic Sea Region by promoting cooperation on child rights and protection issues. The work is based on the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child and other relevant international and regional conventions, recommendations and guidelines.

Expert Group for Cooperation on Children at Risk (EGCC)

The group is the Children’s Unit at the Council of the Baltic Sea States Secretariat that aims to create safe and secure environment for children in the Baltic Sea Region by promoting cooperation on child rights and protection issues. The work is based on the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child and other relevant international and regional conventions, recommendations and guidelines.

Federal Criminal Police Office (BKA)

The police department works with Internet Service Providers to remove child pornography and also investigates serious cases of computer crime.

Federal Government Commissioner for Information Technology

The commissioner is the central point of contact for states and the private sector on IT issues. It is responsible for drafting the federal e-government and IT security strategy, overseeing IT security management, developing standards for IT in the federal administration and overseeing the federal IT infrastructure.

Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi)

The ministry sets the country’s digital agenda and innovation policy, including the High-Tech Strategy released in 2014.

Federal Ministry of Education and Research

The ministry is responsible for some aspects of education, though school and university education are primarily managed by each Länder. In terms of research, the ministry promotes a High-Tech Strategy to make Germany a leader in the fields of communication, security, mobility, climate and health.

Federal Office for Information Security (BSI)

This authority promotes IT security in Germany and is the foremost central IT security service provider for the federal government. Its IT services are also available to IT manufacturers, and private and commercial users.

fragFINN

This website offers a safe space for children to chat, play and surf the internet.

Gegen-missbrauch e.V.

This national campaign fights against child sexual abuse and provides support services to its victims.

German Children and Youth Foundation (DKJS)

DKJS brings together government, business, academia, schools, youth centers and the public to find solutions for improving the educational system. One of its areas of focus is digital education – it works toward the goal of developing a systematic approach to the use of technology in education across educational institutions.

German Federal Youth Council (DBJR)

The DBJR’s media and internet policy advocates for media literacy education instead of restricting youth access to content. The council also works to implement the Federal Child Protection Act, with the goal of protecting children from sexual violence.

German Safer Internet Centre

This center promotes a safer and better use of Internet and mobile technologies by children and youth. It raises awareness through its KlickSafe.de campaign.

GSMA Europe

This industry association represents the interests of European mobile network operators. The group engages in lobbying in areas such as children’s use of mobile phones, privacy, digital inclusion and reducing the digital gender gap. In 2008, the organization formed a mobile alliance against child sexual abuse content.

Handysektor

An information portal for teenagers, Handysektor explains the safe use of WLAN, mobile phones, notebook computers, games consoles and Bluetooth. It also provides specific information on cyberbullying and sexting.

Hans-Bredow-Institut

This research center within the University of Hamburg studies media usage, media effects and telecommunications law, among related topics.

Innocence En Danger

This international NGO brings together activists, Internet specialists, policy makers and the media to raise awareness of the sexual exploitation of children online, and support child victims and their families.

International Telecommunications Union (ITU) Europe

The ITU is is the UN agency for ICTs. Areas of focus in Europe include improving E-accessibility in Central and Eastern Europe, transitioning Europe to digital broadcasting, and sharing best practices for implementing e-applications.

Internauten

Under the patronage of the Federal Ministry of the Interior, the “Internauten” website is a project of “Deutschland sicher im Netz”, a group of companies and associations hoping to raise awareness of proficient use of the Internet and ICT. Although aimed primarily at children, the site also supplies teachers with important information, tips and documents, including a media kit containing three lessons’ worth of classroom material including posters, CD-ROMs, stickers and comics suitable for grades three to six.

Internet-ABC

The website is operated by UNESCO Deutschland and addresses children, parents and educators. It contains basic knowledge, educational and advisory articles and tips, as well as information about the secure use of the Internet. The website’s purpose is to support children and adults using the Internet in a competent and responsible way. In addition, teachers receive comprehensive documents and worksheets about how to incorporate the Internet into the curriculum, specifically in primary schools.

Internet Complaint Office

This joint project by the Voluntary Self Control Multimedia Service Providers (FSM) and eco – Association of the German Internet Industry, aims to protect users from online crime and safety issues, to promote responsible use of IT and to strengthen the trust in modern technologies. Users can report illegal activities or content from websites, email, file sharing networks, chat rooms, newsgroups or mobile content.

Internet Governance Forum

The IGF was founded by the UN in 2006 to serve as a discussion platform for internet governance policy issues. It brings together various stakeholders to determine best practices for internet policy. Past areas of focus include cybersecurity, human rights, inclusivity and openness.

INTERPOL

INTERPOL is the world’s largest international police organization, with 190 member countries. Its mission is to enable police forces to collaborate globally to fight crime in the Internet age. Three areas of focus are crimes against children (with a focus on internet crimes and travelling sex offenders), cybercrime and human trafficking.

Jugend.Beteiligen.Jetzt

This government project focuses on digital participation and a youth-friendly society. It highlights good examples of digital youth participation projects.

Jugendschutz.net

The center was founded in 1997 by the Federal States of Germany in order to restrict child pornography, cyberbullying, sexual harassment and any other harmful content endangering children and young people on the Internet. Jugendschutz.net operates a hotline for reporting criminal content on the Internet with funding from the EU Safer Internet Action Plan.

Jugend und Handy

This joint project of FSM and mobile communications companies informs the public on the potential uses of communications technology and potential risks for young people.

Juuuport

This is a self-protection online platform for adolescents from adolescents. When teenagers are victims of cyberbullying or online hatred, they can find help and support using Juuuport scouts, 15- to 21-year-old volunteers who have received special training in areas such as online law, psychology and the Internet.

Klicksafe.de

Klicksafe is an awareness campaign promoting media literacy and adequate handling of the Internet and new media. Fields of action of the project are Content/Qualification, Marketing/Public Campaign, and networking with partners and stakeholders.

Klick-tipps.net

Evaluated and reviewed by media experts, Klick-tipps.net publishes links to child-friendly websites. The experts are supported by a panel of children, who advise the panel on the topics in which they are especially interested.

Lehrer Online

A project designed solely for teachers, this website aims to support them in the use of digital media in the classroom. The main focus of Lehrer Online lies in providing course modules across all subjects for all key stages, as well as Internet tools that can be used at school. It also focuses on media literacy, providing teachers with lesson plans and helpful tips on how to educate their students in the safe use of digital media. Another section of the site, “lo-recht” provides legal advice on the use of digital media in the classroom. Teachers can create a virtual classroom and study with their pupils online, training them in the use of digital media and online safety in a learning-by-doing approach while studying other subjects through lo-kompakt.

Mebis Landesmedienzentrum Bayern

Provided by the Department of Media Education Bavaria, Mebis supplies products, findings and expert knowledge to teachers, providing support and ideas on how to integrate digital media into the classroom. A large section of the website is dedicated to the protection of children online and classroom materials, reports and links are listed and evaluated, making this a useful resource for educators.

Medienbewusst

This nationwide campaign is an online portal supported by media experts which strives to educate the public about the dangers and opportunities of modern digital media for children.

National Cyber Response Center

This center is tasked with evaluating IT security incidents and making recommendations for a more coordinated response.

Program Police Crime Prevention of the States and the Federal (ProPK)

ProPK works to prevent crime and educate the public about crime prevention. Areas of focus include online risks, youth crime, child pornogrpahy, child sex tourism and child sexual abuse.

Schau Hin!

This initiative by the German Federal Ministry for Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth (BMFSFJ) aims to raise the public’s awareness of issues generated by children and the media. Schau Hin! aims to educate parents by providing practical information and tips, as well as expert knowledge related to educating 3- to 13-year-olds in the area of media safety.

Seitenstark

The consortium Seitenstark advocates for a better Internet for children. Directly linking to educational sites and search engines for children, the initiative provides a safe surfing environment. As many of the websites aimed solely at children often lack public funding, Seitenstark is dedicated to raising funds and donations to keep these websites online.

Sicherheit macht Schule

This Microsoft initiative aims to actively support schools in promoting a strong safety awareness among students when using new media such as the Internet. The main topics the initiative covers are raising awareness of online safety and threats, cyberbullying, the promotion of IT security expertise in schools, and the protection of privacy. The initiative also provides teaching materials, a forum for teachers and a self-study program computer security and data protection.

Sicher Online Gehen – Kinderschutz im Internet

The federal Government, the federal states of Germany and industry leaders joined forces to launch this initiative in July 2012 in an effort to enable children and adolescents to explore the Internet safely. ‘Going Online Safely – Internet Child Protection’ engages ISPs, content providers and the government to contribute to the initiative, for example by educating parents and children, developing software solutions or providing child-friendly content.

Standing Conference of the Ministers of Education and Cultural Affairs (KMK)

The KMK sets standards for the use of ICT in education across Germany, which the Länder implement independently.

Surfen Ohne Risko

Since its inauguration in March 2011, this website by the BMFSFJ provides parents with information regarding media education. Children can gain safe access to the Internet via a homepage personalized by their parents.

Teachtoday

This initiative by Deutsche Telekom promotes online safety for all citizens. Through its educational resources for children, grandparents, parents, teachers and caregivers it advocates for safe use of online content and media.

The Federal Association of Child and Youth Protection (BAJ)

This NGO works with schools, kindergartens, parent initiatives and youth welfare offices and offers events relating to educational questions and media pedagogy.

The Federal Ministry for Family Affairs, Seniors, Women and Youth

Among other areas of focus, this ministry stands for the protection of children and adolescents on the Internet, particularly regarding sexual violence, exploitation and child pornography. It also works toward early intervention, child protection and adequate, universal early childhood education.

The Federal Ministry of the Interior (BMI)

The ministry’s Internet Policy aims to maximize the potential opportunities of the Internet while minimizing risks. Its digital agenda includes enhancing digital media literacy, expanding high-speed networks, and promoting IT safety and security.

The MKFS Foundation

This organization aims to empower minors to meet media challenges competently, and develops strategies and methods to promote projects committed to this goal.

The Voluntary Self Control Multimedia Service Providers (FSM e.V.)

Founded in 1997 by various media associations and media enterprises, the FSM also receives support funding from the EU Safer Internet Action Plan. Since 1997 the FSM has been operating a hotline for reporting criminal content on the Internet.

Think Big

This project of Telefónica Germany funds and supports young people’s digital and social entrepreneurship. Its website highlights examples of past successful projects.

Watch Your Web

This project was initiated by the International Youth Service of Germany, which works in the areas of youth politics and information under the authority of the German Federal Ministry for Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth (BMFSFJ) together with the European Commission. Watch Your Web gives tips on how to minimize online risks through the use of games and tutorials and is aimed at teenagers.

Ideas and Implementation of an Internet-Based System of Qualification for Teachers in a Federally Structured Education System: Using the Example of Economic Education Online (Germany) (2016)

M. Koch

On the basis of pedagogical as well as systematic requirements, the article formulates the cornerstones of an online training system, using the example of the Economic (General) Education in Germany.

A Survey on the Transposition of Directive 2011/93/EU on Combating Sexual Abuse and Sexual Exploitation of Children and Child Pornography (2016)

Together Against Sexual Exploitation of Children

The study examines how seven key provisions of Directive 2011/93/EU on the fight against sexual abuse and sexual exploitation of children and child pornography have been adopted by the 27 European Union (EU) Member States bound by the Directive.

Combatting Child Sexual Abuse (2015)

Petra Jeney

The study provides an overview of existing legislation at European Union, Member State and the international level related to online child sexual abuse, as well as the role of law enforcement agencies in combatting child sexual abuse online and other governmental and private sector initiatives.

Young Children (0-8) and Digital Technology: A Qualitative Exploratory Study Across Seven Countries (2015)

S. Chaudron

This report presents a pilot qualitative study designed and implemented in collaboration with a selected group of academic partners in different European countries that aims at pioneering in Europe the exploration of children younger than 8 years old and their families` experiences with new technologies.

The impact of internet and new media on the occurrence of violence against children in Europe and Cyprus (2015)

Rosella Sala

This document demonstrate that countries lack of expertise on child sexual exploitation and struggle combating this issue by their own. It suggests to establish an international legal framework to prosecute offenders and protect children.

Jugendschutzsoftware im Erziehungsalltag (Youth Protection Software in Everyday Education) (2015)

M. Rechlitz, C. Lampert

This quantitative study showed that most parents to about software to protect youth online, but few of them use it.

Global Research Project: A Global Landscape of Hotlines Combating Child Sexual Abuse Material on the Internet and an Assessment of Shared Challenges (2015)

Melissa Stroebe, Stacy Jeleniewski, PhD

This report examines hotlines combating Internet-facilitated Child Sexual Abuse Material.

How parents of young children manage digital devices at home: the role of income, education and parental style (2015)

Livingstone, Sonia, Mascheroni, Giovanna, Dreier, Michael, Chaudron, Stephane, Lagae, Kaat

The report compares strategies of parental mediation on the internet according to levels of parental education and household income. The aim was to inform policy-makers and practitioners on how to approach parental guidance and awareness raising.

The Realities of Cyber Parenting: What Pre-teens and Teens Are Up To Online (2015)

Family Online Safety Institute and Intel Security

This global study examined the online behaviors and social networking habits of pre-teens and teens aged between 8 and 16 years old, as well as looking at the concerns of parents.

Child Sexual Abuse in the Roman Catholic Church in Germany: Comparison of Victim-impact Data Collected through Church-sponsored and Government-sponsored Programs (2015)

M. Rassenhofera, A. Zimmerb, N. Spröbera, J.M. Fegerta

This paper compares the findings of critical incident reporting systems (CIRS) set up by the Roman Catholic Church in Germany and the German government to gather information on child sexual abuse that had taken place within the Church.

Coping with Cyberbullying: A Comparison Between Students from Luxembourg and Germany (2015)

G. Steffgen

This research presents a comparison of cyberbullying behaviors among students in Luxembourg and Germany.

Mapping Safer Internet Policies in the Member States (2014)

P. Baudouin, B. Mahieu, T. Dor, B. Good, J. Milayi, S. Nakajima

The purpose of the study was to set up a framework for analysing Better Internet for Children public policies covering EU Member States, and Norway and Iceland.

Policy Influences and Country Clusters: A Comparative Analysis of Internet Safety Policy Implementation (2014)

B. O'Neill

The report examines the policy context of internet safety and looks at how countries within each cluster approach implementation.

Final recommendations for policy (2014)

O’Neill, B., Staksrud, E

Combining all the EU Kids Online policy guidance into one resource, this report provides more than 30 proposed actions for making the Internet safer for children.

Net Children Go Mobile Final Report (2014)

Giovanna Mascheroni, Andrea Cuman

Final report on implementation of Net Children Go Mobile project.

Net Children Go Mobile: Final Report (2014)

G. Mascheroni, A. Cuman

The paper reports the findings of research in nine countries on children's use of technology, risky behaviors and parental mediation.

European Children and Their Carers’ Understanding of Use, Risks and Safety Issues Relating to Convergent Mobile Media (2014)

L. Haddon, J. Vincent

This study focuses on children’s experience of mobile media and the mobile internet, with an emphasis on smartphones and tablets, based on a qualitative study of children, their parents, teachers and others working with young people in nine European countries.

Children's Use of Online Technologies in Europe (2014)

K. Ólafsson, S. Livingstone, L. Haddon

This report reviews recent research on children’s use of internet and mobile technologies identified by the EU Kids Online network.

Microsoft Computing Safety Index (2014)

Microsoft

This annual survey of more than 10,000 adults in 20 countries around the world creates the data for the MCSI, which measures the actions that consumers take to help keep themselves and their families safe online.

Relevant Dimensions of Cyberbullying: Results from Two Experimental Studies (2013)

S. Pieschl, T. Porsch, T. Kahl, R. Klockenbusch

This paper presents findings from two experimental studies on cyberbullying.

Zero to Eight - Young Children and Their Internet Use (2013)

Holloway, D., Green, L., and Livingstone, S. with members of the EU Kids Online network,

This report reviews a number of other studies and provides recommendations as to how younger children can be protected from online risks.

Risks and safety on the internet: Comparing Brazilian and European children (2013)

Barbosa, A., O’Neill, B., Ponte, C., Simões, J.A., Jereissati, T.,

This study compares the results of the survey of Brazilian children and their parents/guardians, carried out by the Brazilian Internet Steering Committee. Using the same methodology as the EU Kids Online research, the results from Brazil are compared with those from Europe.

Country Classification: Opportunities, Risks, Harm and Parental Mediation (2013)

Helsper, E. J., Kalmus, V., Hasebrink, U., Sagvari, B. and De Haan, J. with members of the EU Kids Online network

With data from 25 of the European countries surveyed in EU Kids Online, the report examines the range and type of online opportunities, risks and harm which children from each country experience, as well as looking at ways in which parents control or mediate their children’s Internet use.

In their own words: what bothers children online? (2013)

Livingstone S., Kirwil, L., Ponte C. and Staksrud E., with the EU Kids Online network

The results of a survey of nearly 10,000 children in 25 countries across Europe, this report details what children say upsets them and their friends online

Microsoft Computing Safety Index (MCSI). (2013)

Microsoft

This annual survey of more than 10,000 adults in 20 countries around the world creates the data for the MCSI, which measures the actions that consumers take to help keep themselves and their families safe online.

Microsoft Computing Safety Index (MCSI) (2013)

Microsoft

The survey, Computing Safety Index, measures the steps people report taking to protect their computers, mobile phones, and info online in the categories of foundational, technical and behavioral.

Im Netz der Neuen Medien (In the Net of New Media) (2013)

Police Criminal Prevention of the Federal Government and the Federal States

This research document provides an introduction to online risks endangering adolescents via the Internet, mobile phones, and computer games. Aimed at educators, specialists youth workers and the police, it provides latest research results and details about the status quo, whilst also providing further information and links to more in-depth material.

Cyberlife – Spannungsfeld Zwischen Faszination und Gefahr (2013)

C. Schneider, C. Katzer, U. Leest

10,000 students, teachers and parents participated in this study designed to find a solution to address and reduce cyberbullying. The results of this study highlight how parents and schools influence students’ online behavior.

IM-Studie 2013 – Jugend, Informationen, (Multi-) Media (2013)

Mpfs

The annual JIM study questions 1,000 adolescents aged between twelve and nineteen years about their use of digital media. Areas covered include extent of computer and Internet use, media equipment, computers and school, and mobile phone use, to name but a few. The 2013 study found that the average time spend online in this age group is 179 minutes daily.

Engagement Report: Jugendliche Digital (2013)

J. Breidenbach, K. Ziemann, D. Buchmann, A. Ullrich, M. Müller, L. Plum, J. Eisenberg, C. von Bothmer, S. Roth, M. Hennicke, F. Glaser, C. Heuer

This report focuses on the economic, political and social engagement of Millenials through the use of the Internet.

Overview and Analysis of 1:1 Learning Initiatives in Europe (2013)

Intel

Intel 's report on the status of 1:1 Learning Initiative in Europe

Media Literacy in Europe: 12 Good Practices that will Inspire You (2013)

Evens Foundation

This document explores 12 cases across Europe of media literacy.

EU Kids Online: Excessive Internet Use among European Children (2012)

Smahel, D, Helsper, E, Green, L, Kalmus, V, Blinka, L, Ólafsson, K,

This report uses the data from the EU Kids Online study to examine excessive use of the Internet by children in the 25 participating countries.

Worldwide Online Bullying Survey (2012)

Microsoft

This survey explored children’s experience of online bullying in 25 countries across the globe.

Worldwide Online Bullying Survey. (2012)

Microsoft

This survey explored children’s experience of online bullying in 25 countries across the globe.

EU Kids Online: National perspectives. (2012)

Leslie Haddon, Sonia Livingstone and the EU Kids Online network

This report summarizes the Internet experiences of children in the 33 participating EU Kids Online countries and includes eight countries which have not appeared in previous reports

Excessive Internet Use by European Children (2012)

D. Smahel, E. Helsper, L. Green, V. Kalmus, L. Blinka, K. Ólafsson

This report presents new findings and further analysis of the EU Kids Online 25-country survey regarding excessive use of the internet by children.

Global Monitoring Status of Action AGainst Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children in Germany (2012)

ECPAT

The report is in response to the 2008 Rio deJaneiro Declaration and Call for action to prevent and stop sexual exploirtation of children and adolescents and provides a comprehensive look into Germany. It provides metrics, tactical steps to prevent CSEC and national plan of action.. Additionally it lists laws that are intended to fight CSEC.

Online Profile and Reputations Study (2012)

Microsoft and Edelman Berland

Commissioned to coincide with Privacy Day 2012, the study measured the respones of nearly 3,000 children and adults on their online activities.

This article aims to shed light on some of the critical legal questions faced by school administrators by reviewing several legislative actions and court cases involving problematic offline and online student speech or expressions. (2012)

Microsoft and Edelman Berland

Commissioned to coincide with Privacy Day 2012, the study measured the respones of nearly 3,000 children and adults on their online activities.

Report on risks faced by children online and policies to protect them (2012)

Kristina Irion

The report provides key findings and policy recommendations to keep children safe online as a follow up to the 2008 Seoul Ministerial Declaration on the Future of the Internet Economy.

KIM-Studie 2012 – Kinder + Medien, Computer + Internet (2012)

Mpfs

Since 1999 the mpfs has periodically conducted studies examining the significance of media in the daily routines of children between the ages of six to thirteen. Around 1,200 children and their parents are questioned on subjects such as computer and Internet use, media functions, and media equipment, among others. The most recent study from 2012 found that 62% of participating children used the Internet.

Global Digital Communication: Texting, Social Networking Popular Worldwide (2012)

J. Menasce Horowitz, K. Simmons, J. Poushter, C. Barker

The report is a part of the Pew Research Center's Global Attitudes Project, which conducts opinion surveys on subjects ranging from people's assessments of their own lives to their views about the current state of the world and important issues of the day.

EU Kids Online: National perspectives (2012)

Haddon, L., Livingstone, S., EU Kids Online Network

This report summarizes the Internet experiences of children in the 33 participating EU Kids Online countries and includes eight countries which have not appeared in previous reports.

Safety and Security on the Internet Challenges and Advances in Member States (2011)

World Health Organization

Evaluation of public health threat presented by the Internet in every Member States.

Risks and safety on the internet: The perspective of European children. Full Findings (2011)

Livingstone, S., Haddon, L., Görzig, A., Ólafsson, K

Building on the original study, EU Kids Online I, this second piece of research includes the findings from research which took place in 25 countries. Children in the 9 – 16 age group were surveyed on their experiences of online use, risk and safety

Safer Internet DE SIC (2011)

LMK, LfM, eco, FSM, jugendschutz.net, NgK

[no excerpt]

Online Behavior Related to Child Sexual Abuse (2011)

M. Ainsaar, L. Lööf

This report provides a review of studies, with a specific focus on sexually abusive online experiences and offline sexual abuse that have started with an online contact or where the contacts between the perpetrator and the young person have relied heavily on information and communication technologies.

Online Child Sexual Abuse Content: The Development of a Comprehensive, Transferable International Internet Notice and Takedown System (2011)

Internet Watch Foundation

Report analyzes the legislative frame in that regulates inlines child sexual abuse content.

2010 Norton Online Family Report (2010)

Norton by Symantec

The report reveals how children are spending more time online and have had more negative online experiences than parents realize. It highlights different approaches taken by families globally and uncovers the emotional impact of children’s negative online experiences.

Education on Online Safety in Schools in Europe (2009)

Eurydice

The study covers 30 European countries and provides information on whether online safety is taught and how it is taught in schools within the participating countries.

EU Kids Online: Final report (2009)

Livingstone, S., Haddon, L.

One of the foremost pieces of research into the online habits of children in the European Union is the EU Kids Online research, funded by the European Commission Safer Internet Plus Programme between 2006 and 2009.

Growing up with the Internet (2009)

Hans-Bredow Institute

The study reveals how teenagers and adolescents feel about the new ways of communication, how they utilize them in everyday life and which differences occur with regard to age, gender and social context. It provides an analysis of the features of the social web, group discussions and individual interviews and a representative poll among twelve to fourteen year old Internet users in Germany.

Towards a safer use of the Internet for children in the EU - a parents' perspective (2008)

Eurobarometer

The study covers 27 EU Member States and provides parental responses to a range of questions relating to Internet safety and their perception of risk.

Child Trafficking in Europe, A broad vision to put children first (2008)

Unicef Innocenti Research Centre

This Innocenti report was developed with assistance of many experts. The report's key findings addresses child trafficking patterns and flow, which is occuring all over Europe; discusses positive developments; lists challenges; lists international standards and national legislations to combat child trafficking; discusses policy responses; and finally shares different approaches to combat this epidemic.

Gewalt im Web 2.0 (2008)

P. Grimm, S. Rhein, E. Clausen-Muradian

This study analyzes how adolescents deal with violent content and cyberbullying as well as its legal consequences. Over 800 children and adolescents aged between twelve and nineteen participated in the survey that forms the cornerstone of the study. The study aims to provide advice on how to address issues such as online bullying and trolling.

Children's Rights in Germany: Internationla nd National Laws and Practice (2007)

Edith Palmer

The report focuses on the legal framework in Germany for protection and promotion of young people's rights and welfare.

Children's Rights in Germany: International and National Laws and Practice (2007)

Edith Palmer

The report focuses on the legal framework in Germany for protection and promotion of young people's rights and welfare.

U.S. /European Summit on Missing & Exploited Children (2005)

International Centre for Missing & Exploited Children

Participants from different governments, law enforcement, and nongovernmental organizations participated in the U.S. /European Summit on Missing & Exploited Children. They discussed successes and shortcomings of current efforts to address the global problem of missing and exploited children, and adopted a comprehensive Action Plan.

Stop Sex TRafficking of Children and Young People in Germany (0000)

ECPAT

The report focuses on sex trafficking of children in Germany. It provides statistics, explains the nature of the problem and talks about ways to stop this challenge.

This section contains details of the country’s laws as they relate to sexual offenses, children and the use of the Internet in the commission of criminal activity. Where possible, sentence details have been given, including whether an increased custodial penalty is imposed where the victim is a child.

The age of consent for marriage and the age of majority in Germany is 18 years old. The age for sexual consent is 14 years old.

  • Federal Child Protection Act 2012. The act provides a legal basis for early intervention and prevention efforts. It includes provisions for youth services, schools, public health departments, hospitals, doctors and police, and provides funding to expand these networks for early intervention. It also creates a certification process for people working or volunteering with children and/or adolescents.
  • The Interstate Treaty on the Protection of Minors in Broadcasting and in Telemedia (JMStV). This law provides for the consistent protection of children and adolescents against content in electronic media which may harm or impair their development or education, or violates human dignity, across all sixteen states. It defines telemedia as electronic information and communication media, but explicitly excludes email. The treaty defines illegal content, which includes presenting children or adolescents in unnatural poses (including virtual representations) as well as child pornography. The JMStV imposes the obligation to restrict access to content likely to impair the development of children or adolescents to the content providers transmitting or making accessible such content. ISPs are not held liable for third-party content. This can be achieved via technical means that allow for differentiated access to previously mentioned content according to age groups, or fulfill their functions in a similar manner. It stipulates that anyone who makes accessible or transmits content likely to seriously impair the development of children will be liable to up to one year’s imprisonment or a fine. In any other case the offense is deemed to be a misdemeanor, carrying a fine of up to €500,000.
  • Section 70, Penal Code. Order of Prohibition of Engagement in a Profession. This section states that someone convicted of an unlawful act, which was committed in abuse of his profession, or in gross violation of associated duties, the court may prohibit him from engaging in the profession for a period of one to five years if the perpetrator and act reveal a danger of him committing serious unlawful acts in the future. In doing so, this law may disqualify sex offenders from maintaining professions in teaching or childcare.
  • Section 174, Penal Code. Abuse of a Position of Trust. States that a person is guilty of this offense if they commit sexual acts on a person under the age of sixteen, when they have been entrusted with their upbringing, education or care. If the minor is under eighteen years of age, this is deemed to be a crime only if the sexual act abuses a position of authority in connection with the upbringing, education, care, service or employment of the minor. These offenses, as well as allowing a minor to perform a sexual act on them, will be punished by up to five years’ imprisonment. The section also defines the crime of performing sexual acts in the presence of a minor in his or her charge, or allowing the minor to do so in his or her presence in order to sexually arouse either themselves or the minor. The penalty for this offense is a maximum of three years’ imprisonment or a fine.
  • Section 176, Penal Code. Sexual Abuse of Children. States that anyone committing a sexual act on a child under fourteen years of age or who has a child perform such an act upon them is guilty of a felony and will be punished by imprisonment for between six months and ten years. The same penalty applies to anyone who induces a child to commit a sexual act on someone, or permits a third person to do the same. Particularly serious offenses are punishable by a minimum of one year’s imprisonment. This section also covers the offense of engaging in sexual activity in the presence of a child. This is deemed to be a felony and is punishable by a custodial sentence of between five months and five years. Presenting a child with pornographic written materials, illustrations, images, audio recordings or suggestive speech in order to persuade the child to engage in a sexual act is also included in the offense, as is presenting written material to the child to induce him/her to engage in sexual activity with or in the presence of the offender or a third person. In addition, the section also defines the offense of supplying or promising to supply a child for sexual activity as defined above, with penalties of between three months’ and five years’ imprisonment.
  • Section 176, Penal Code. Child Abuse. A person who engages in sexual activity with a person under 14 years old or allows the child to engage in sexual activity with himself is liable to imprisonment for six months to ten years. A person who induces a child to engage in sexual activity with a third person or vice versa shall incur the same penalty as above. In serious cases, the penalty shall not be less than one year imprisonment. In addition, anyone who engages in sexual activity in the presence of a child, induces the child to engage in sexual activity (unless accounted for in the sections above), presents a child with written materials to induce him to engage in sexual activity with or in the presence of the offender or a third person or allow the offender or a third person to engage in sexual activity with him, or presents a child with pornographic illustrations or images, audio recording media with pornographic content or pornographic speech, is liable to imprisonment between three months and five years.
  • Section 176a, Penal Code. Aggravated Child Abuse. This section states that anyone who repeatedly commits a sexual act on a child under 14 years of age will be liable to receive a minimum prison sentence of one year if they have been convicted of a similar offense within the previous five years. Less serious cases are punishable by between three months’ and five years’ imprisonment. The section also defines the offense of committing or inducing a sexual act on a child, with full penetration, by a person of more than 18 years of age. The crime is punishable with a minimum of two years’ imprisonment. The same penalty applies if the offense is committed jointly by more than one person, or if the child is put in danger of serious injury or substantial impairment - physically or emotionally. Less serious cases are punishable by between one and 10 years’ imprisonment. Anyone who acts as a principal or secondary participant (subject to certain conditions) with the intent of creating or participating in a pornographic act will be liable to imprisonment for a minimum of two years. The section also covers the crime of physically abusing a child or placing him/her in danger of death while committing a sexual act on the child. This offense renders the offender liable to imprisonment for a minimum of five years.
  • Section 176b, Penal Code. Child Abuse Causing Death. States that sexual abuse of a child is punishable by imprisonment for life or no less than ten years where it caused the death of the victim.
  • Section 177, Penal Code: Sexual assault by use of force or threats, Rape. This section states that whoever coerces another person into submitting or performing sexual acts, either by force or by exploiting a situation in which the victim is defenseless, will face imprisonment for at least one year. Full physical penetration, degrading the victim, or more than one perpetrator increase the sentence to a minimum of two years’ imprisonment. The penalty increases to a minimum of three years’ imprisonment if the offender carries a firearm or weapon which could be used to overpower the victim or place the victim in danger of serious physical injury. A minimum of five years’ imprisonment will be imposed if the firearm is used, if the victim is seriously physically harmed or is put in mortal danger.
  • Section 178, Penal Code. Sexual Assault by Use of Force or Threat of Force and Rape Causing Death. The offense of sexual assault is punishable by imprisonment for life or no less than ten years where it caused the death of the victim.
  • Section 180, Penal Code. Promoting the Engagement of Minors in Sexual Activity. Defines the crime of encouraging a person under sixteen to engage in sexual activity with or in the presence of a third person. It is also illegal to encourage sexual acts to be committed by a third person on a minor, through mediation or by creating an opportunity. The penalty for this offense is up to three years’ imprisonment or a fine. Where the child is under the age of eighteen and the offender offers a financial reward, the penalty will increase to up to five years’ imprisonment or a fine. The same applies to anyone who encourages such acts as an intermediary. This section also states that anyone who induces a person under eighteen who is entrusted to them for upbringing, education or care; or who is his subordinate within an employment or a work relationship, to commit sexual acts on them or in front of someone else shall be punished by up to five years’ imprisonment or a fine. Attempted acts are also punishable under this section.
  • Section 180a, Penal Code. Exploitation of prostitutes. A person who commercially maintains or manages an operation in which person engage in prostitution, and in which they are held in personal or financial dependency shall be liable to imprisonment for up to three years or a fine. A person who provides a dwelling to a person under 18 for the exercise of prostitution, or urges another person to whom he has furnished a dwelling for the exercise of prostitution to engage in prostitution, or exploits the person in that respect, incurs the same penalty.
  • Section 181a, Penal Code. Controlling Prostitution. States that exploiting or supervising a person who engages in prostitution is punishable by imprisonment for between six months and five years. This section also states that it is an offense to impair another person’s personal or financial independence by promoting that person’s engagement in prostitution. The penalty for these offenses is imprisonment for up to three years or a fine.
  • Section 182, Penal Code. Abuse of Juveniles. It is an offense to abuse a person under the age of 18 by taking advantage of an exploitative situation and engaging in sexual activity with them, or inducing the person to engage in sexual activity with a third person or to suffer sexual acts committed on their own body by a third person. The offender is liable to imprisonment for up to five years. The same penalty applies to a person over 18 who abuses an individual under 18 by offering them a financial incentive in exchange for a sexual act. If the offender is over 21 and the victim is under 16, the penalty is imprisonment for up to three years or a fine. The latter is only prosecuted upon request and may not be punishable if the court decides that the young person was not harmed by the relationship.
  • Section 183, Penal Code. Exhibitionism. States that a man who annoys another person by exhibiting himself will be punished by up to one year’s imprisonment or a fine. Prosecution is only carried out upon request.
  • Section 183a, Penal Code. Causing a Public Disturbance. This section defines the offense of knowingly causing a public disturbance by committing a sexual act in public and is punishable by imprisonment of up to one year.
  • Section 184, Penal Code. Dissemination of Pornographic Material. This section states that it is an offense to offer, hand over or make accessible any pornographic writings to a person under 18 years of age unless it is by the person in charge of the minor and that person is not grossly violating his duty of education through this action. It is also a crime to distribute pornography outside any retail space or business premises which customers do not usually frequent, to import it via a mail-order business or to show pornographic material at a film showing for a fee. Producing, obtaining, supplying, stocking or importing pornography to use for one of the previously defined purposes will also be prosecuted. The penalty is imprisonment for up to one year or a fine.
  • Section 184b, Penal Code. Distribution, Acquisition and Possession of Child Pornography. States that it is a criminal offense to disseminate, publicly display, present or otherwise make accessible any pornographic material showing sexual activities performed by, on or in the presence of a child. Producing, obtaining, supplying, stocking, offering, announcing, importing or exporting child pornography is also illegal. The punishment for any of these offenses is imprisonment for between three months and five years. Helping someone else to obtain child pornography will also be prosecuted under this section. The penalty increases to between six months and ten years if the offender acts on a commercial basis or as a member of an organized gang. Anyone trying to obtain child pornography or possessing it will be punished by up to two years’ imprisonment or a fine.
  • Section 184c, Penal Code. Distribution, Acquisition and Possession of Juvenile Pornography. It is a criminal offense to disseminate, publicly display, present or otherwise make accessible any pornographic material showing sexual activities performed by, on or in the presence of a person between the ages of 14 to 18. Producing, obtaining, supplying, stocking, offering, announcing, importing or exporting juvenile pornography is also illegal and punishment for any of these offenses is imprisonment for up to three years or a fine. Helping someone else to obtain juvenile pornography incurs the same penalty. The punishment increases to between three months’ and five years’ imprisonment if the offender acts on a commercial basis or as a member of an organized gang. Anyone trying to obtain juvenile pornography or possessing it is liable to imprisonment for up to one year imprisonment or a fine. No offense has been committed if the offender is under 18 years of age and had the consent of the juvenile depicted.
  • Section 184d, Penal Code. Distribution of Pornographic Performances by Radio Broadcasting, Media Services or Telecommunications Services. Defines the offense of distributing pornographic material via radio broadcasting, media services or telecommunications services. The punishment for this offense is as per sections 184 and 184c. However, if the media or telecom services use technical or other measures to ensure that pornographic content is not accessible to anyone under 18, no criminal offense has been committed.
  • Section 184f, Penal Code. Prostitution Likely to Corrupt Juveniles. States that prostitution in the vicinity of a school or place intended to be visited by minors, or in a house where a person under 18 lives, will be prosecuted. This offense is punishable by up to one year’s imprisonment or a fine.
  • Section 201a, Penal Code. Violation of Intimate Privacy by Taking Photographs. This section states that anyone who unlawfully takes or transmits pictures of another person located in a dwelling or a room especially protected from view, and thereby violates their intimate privacy, will be liable to imprisonment for up to one year or a fine. Using or making the picture(s) available to a third party will render the offender liable to the same sentence. The section also states that it is an offense to unlawfully and knowingly make available to another person a picture that was taken with the consent of the victim in a private setting, punishable by up to one year’s imprisonment or a fine.
  • Section 202a, Penal Code. Data espionage. Whoever unlawfully obtains electronic data for himself or another that were not intended for him and were especially protected against unauthorized access, if he has circumvented the protection, shall be liable to imprisonment not exceeding three years or a fine.
  • Section 202b, Penal Code. Phishing. A person who unlawfully intercepts electronic data not intended for him, for himself or another by technical means from a non-public data processing facility or from the electromagnetic broadcast of a data processing facility, shall be liable to imprisonment not exceeding two years or a fine, unless the offence incurs a more severe penalty under other provisions.
  • Section 202c, Penal Code. Acts preparatory to data espionage and phishing. A person who prepares the commission of an offence under section 202a or 202b by producing, acquiring for himself or another, selling, supplying to another, disseminating or making otherwise accessible passwords or software for the commission of the offence, is liable to imprisonment for up to one year or a fine.
  • Section 232, Penal Code. Human trafficking for the purpose of sexual exploitation. This section states that a person who exploits another person’s predicament or helplessness arising from being in a foreign country in order to induce them to engage in or continue to engage in prostitution, to engage in exploitative sexual activity with or in the presence of the offender or a third person or to suffer sexual acts on his own person by the offender or a third person shall be liable to imprisonment from six months to ten years. Whosoever induces a person under 21 years of age to engage in or continue to engage in prostitution or any of the sexual activity mentioned above incurs the same penalty. If the victim is a child, the offender is liable to one to 10 years’ imprisonment.
  • Section 235, Penal Code. Abduction of minors from the care of their parents etc. States that it is a crime for a person to remove a child under the age of 14 from the custody of his parents or guardian unless they are a relative. It is also an offense to remove a person under the age of 18 from the custody of his parents or guardian by force, threat of serious harm or deception. The offense is punishable by imprisonment for up to five years. The same penalty applies to anyone who removes a child from the custody of his parents or guardian in order to take them abroad or to anyone who denies access to the child after having removed them abroad. Attempted breaches of this section are also punishable. This section also states that the penalty increases to imprisonment for between one and ten years if the offender places the victim in danger of death or serious injury whilst in the commission of the offense. The same increased penalty applies where the offender commits the offense for material gain or with the intent of enriching himself or a third person. If the offender causes the death of the victim, the minimum term of imprisonment rises to three years. The abduction is usually only prosecuted upon request unless the prosecuting authority considers prosecution is required due to special public interest.
  • Section 236, Penal Code. Trafficking in Children. This section states that anyone who, with gross neglect of his duties of care and upbringing, leaves his child under 14 years of age with another indefinitely for compensation, or with the intent of enriching himself or a third person, shall be punished with imprisonment for not more than five years or a fine. Whoever takes the child in indefinitely under these circumstances and gives compensation therefor, is subject to the same punishment. Anyone who, without authorization, procures the adoption of a person under 18 years old, or engages in procurement activity which has as its goal that a third person takes in a person under 18 years of age indefinitely, and thereby acts for compensation or with the intent of enriching himself or a third person, shall be punished with imprisonment for not more than three years or a fine. If the perpetrator causes the procured person to be brought into Germany or abroad, then the punishment shall be imprisonment for not more than five years or a fine. Attempts are punishable, and a prison sentence between six months and 10 years will be imposed if the perpetrator acts for profit, professionally or as a member of a gang, which has combined for the continued commission of trafficking in children; or if he places the child or the procured person in danger of a substantial impairment of his physical or mental development.
  • Section 263a, Penal Code. Computer fraud. A person who, with the intention of obtaining for himself or a third person an unlawful material benefit, damages the property of another by influencing the result of a data processing operation through incorrect configuration of a program, use of incorrect or incomplete data, unauthorized use of data or other unauthorized influence on the course of the processing, shall be liable to imprisonment of up to five years or a fine. A person who prepares such an offence by writing computer programs the purpose of which is to commit such an act, or procures them for himself or another, offers them for sale, or holds or supplies them to another shall be liable to imprisonment for up to three years or a fine.
  • Section 303a, Penal Code. Data tampering. States that a person who unlawfully deletes, suppresses, renders unusable or alters data is liable to imprisonment not to exceed two years or a fine. Attempts are punishable.
  • Section 303b, Penal Code. Computer sabotage. This section states that a person who interferes with data processing operations which are of substantial importance to another by committing an offence against section 303a; or entering or transmitting data with the intention of causing damage to another; or destroying, damaging, rendering unusable, removing or altering a data processing system or data carrier is liable to imprisonment for up to three years or a fine. If the data processing operation is of substantial importance for a business, enterprise or public authority, the penalty is imprisonment for up to five years or a fine. Attempts are punishable. Specific serious cases are punishable by imprisonment for six months to ten years.

1995 – The Central Child Pornography Office was established within the Federal Criminal Police Office to perform a nationally coordinated evaluation of all child pornography material.

2006 – The Länder and Federal Police Crime Prevention Programme was launched to raise awareness about crimes and educating public about prevention. One of the areas of focus has been to combat the sexual exploitation of children online. It has awareness campaigns on child sex tourism and child online safety.

2009 – The Federal Court of Justice (BGH) delivered a judgment relating directly to child abuse online: that sexual offenders could be punished for child abuse even if they contacted their victims solely via the Internet. According to the judgment, immediate ‘close proximity’ was not a prerequisite for child abuse. Under law, “children have to be protected fully against such perceptions to protect their undisturbed overall development.” This applies even if offender and victims are not in immediate proximity to each other, but interact on the Internet.

2014 – The Family Minister presented a master plan for protecting children and adolescents from sexual violence. The plan builds upon recommendations from the roundtable on “Sexual Abuse in Dependency and Power relations in private and public institutions and within the family” and the Action Plan 2011 for the protection of children against sexual violence and exploitation.