France

Population

66,553,766

Population 0‑14

18.7%

Internet Users

83.8%

Facebook Users

32,000,000

Mobile Subscribers

64,700,000
* Statistics provided by CIA.gov, Internet World Stats and GSMA Intellligence

2011 - France’s Minister for Education, Luc Chatel, signed a framework agreement with e-Enfance: a nonprofit organization, which works within the country to educate parents and children about Internet and multimedia safety issues. The agreement relates to cyber-bullying on Facebook and provides guidance for students and teachers on how such issues should be handled and encourages schools to increase awareness and causes of cyber-bullying.

2014 - For Safer Internet Day 2014, 875 events took place throughout France, held by schools, non-formal education centers, businesses, charitable organizations and the government. More than 1,500 children took part in workshops held by 20 Young Ambassadors for the Rights of Children in eight institutions, where they learned about online dangers and ways to protect themselves. To mark the annual event, a new website targeting teenagers was launched, where they can learn about digital citizenship via the Online Voting Booth. Teachers were supplied with lesson plans and resources throughout the month, to enable them to teach multiple Internet safety lessons.

2015 - The French Network and Information Security Agency (ANSSI) adopted the National Cybersecurity Strategy, which contains five objectives for managing how France will progress through its “digital transition”. The objectives include fundamental interests, defence and security of State information systems and critical infrastructures, major cybersecurity crisis; digital trust, privacy, personal data, cybermalevolence; awareness raising, initial training, continuing education; environment of digital technology businesses, industrial policy, export and internationalization; Europe, digital strategic autonomy, cyberspace stability.

Ongoing - French educators use Eduscol, a national online portal that has a variety of resources and micro-sites for a range of topics, including online safety. The portal is available to students, teachers, members of the school community and also to parents, but is aimed primarily at education professionals and teachers.

The Ministry of Education also hosts PrimTICE, a website to support the use of digital technologies in primary education and promote the exchange of good practices. PrimTICE is an online directory of more than 1,000 lesson plans, developed by teachers for teachers, for use in Kindergarten through to Cycle 3. Under the PrimTICE project, several other projects promoting ICT development in primary schools have also been executed. These include the deployment of over 1,200 interactive whiteboards in kindergartens and elementary schools, and the KidSmart program: which saw more than 650 kindergartens equipped with digital workstations in partnership with IBM France.

Individual schools are required to protect and empower students on the Internet. Schools are expected to protect students by implementing a filtering device to select the information made available to students. Training measures and student accountability are also measured through a charter of use of ICT and the Internet in every school, college, and high school.

After training, students receive the B2i (Brevet Informatique et Internet – National Certificate of ICT Standards) that validates students’ digital skills. The B2i covers five topics (French), with Area 2 concentrating on adopting a critical and responsible attitude towards computers and the Internet. This area expects students, amongst other things, to respect others in the context of electronic communication and online publications, refraining from online bullying, defamation, or invasion of privacy. The equivalent certificate for teachers is the C2i2e (Computers and Internet Certificate Level 2 Teacher – Certificat Informatique et Internet Niveau 2 Enseignant), which C2i2e certifies professional skills in the pedagogical use of digital technologies by examining educators’ knowledge in areas such as solving problems and issues related to ICT in general, and in education in particular; research and use of resources; teamwork and networking; and digital workspaces.

Supported by the Ministry of Education, European Commission and the Safer Internet Centre, Vinz and Lou on the Internet is a series of fifteen interactive episodes contains challenges that children 7-12 must navigate while learning about blogs, IM, chat rooms, online games and their pitfalls: who can be hiding behind a computer screen, secrets being spread on the web, fake information and data theft. The site was originally created for Safer Internet Day 2012.

The game 2025 Ex Machina, which is aimed at children aged 12 - 17, is the first serious game promoting a critical approach to Internet. The program takes advantage of a video game interface to incite teenagers to think critically about their online mobile usage, and to encourage them to adopt responsible online behavior. For educators, lesson plans and hand-outs have been created to enable them to further discuss the topic with their students.

Confederation of Family Organizations in the European Union (COFACE)

This non-profit organization aims at promoting family policy, solidarity between generations and the interests of children within the European Union. Specifically, COFACE has policies and resources about education, ICT and online safety and an anti-cyberbullying project called #DeleteCyberbullying.

Digital Society Forum

Established by telecommunications operator, Orange, the Digital Society Forum aims to bring together interested parties, both online and with workshops and events, to discuss how technology impacts our lives and influences our behavior.

e-enfance (e-Child)

A non-profit organization provides parents with advice on a range of Internet safety issues, including blogging and social networks. It advises parents on parental control options and filtering software and provides links to the pages of ISPs who are obliged to offer such tools.

European School Network

This group was founded in 2006 to create an exchange network among nine European schools. ESN arranges one-to-one student exchanges for one to eight weeks, and also provides the possibility of teacher exchanges, group exchanges and student seminars.

French Network and Information Security Agency (ANSSI)

The agency was created in July 2009 to address the increasing challenge of cyber attacks and is an interministerial agency attached to the Prime Minister’s office. The Agency has became the national authority for information systems defense.

GSMA Europe

This industry association represents the interests of European mobile network operators. The group engages in lobbying in areas such as children’s use of mobile phones, privacy, digital inclusion and reducing the digital gender gap. In 2008, the organization formed a mobile alliance against child sexual abuse content.

Innocence En Danger

This international NGO brings together activists, Internet specialists, policy makers and the media to raise awareness of the sexual exploitation of children online, and support child victims and their families.

International Telecommunications Union (ITU) Europe

The ITU is is the UN agency for ICTs. Areas of focus in Europe include improving E-accessibility in Central and Eastern Europe, transitioning Europe to digital broadcasting, and sharing best practices for implementing e-applications.

Internet Governance Forum

The IGF was founded by the UN in 2006 to serve as a discussion platform for internet governance policy issues. It brings together various stakeholders to determine best practices for internet policy. Past areas of focus include cybersecurity, human rights, inclusivity and openness.

Internet Sans Crainte (Internet Without Fear)

This national project forms part of the European Safer Internet Plus project, falling under remit of the Ministry of Higher Education and Research and the Secretariat of State for the Digital Economy. The site provides advice for parents and children – split by the age of the child or young person, with content tailored to each group. Teachers are also able to obtain information packs for students and to arrange workshops at their schools. It is also the coordinator of Safer Internet Day in the country, and each year the site is updated with content relating to that year’s theme.

Internet Signalment (Internet Reporting)

A government-run portal for reporting online any suspected illegal content found on the Internet.

INTERPOL

INTERPOL is the world’s largest international police organization, with 190 member countries. Its mission is to enable police forces to collaborate globally to fight crime in the Internet age. Three areas of focus are crimes against children (with a focus on internet crimes and travelling sex offenders), cybercrime and human trafficking.

Ministry of National Education, Higher Education and Research

The Ministry supports the integration of ICT into the teaching process via their B2i certificate. They also supply teachers with educational resources via their portal Eduscol.

Net Ecoute (Net Listen)

The site is a partnership between various online safety bodies, including e-Child and Internet Without Fear, and provides ways for children to obtain advice on topics such as sexting, online games and cyber-bullying via text message, online chat, email, Skype and phone.

No To Harassment

The Ministry of Education has created this anti-bullying site (previously Act Against Bullying in School), which provides information for parents, teachers and children. It also advises how to get help and report bullying.

Point de Contact

Run by the French Internet Service Provider Association (AFA), Point de Contact is a hotline against child porn and racial hatred, which enables Internet users to find useful information and help to understand how to deal with such contents.

Respect Zone

Established out of the Hate Prevention Initiative, Respect Zone fights against the negative excesses posted online.

A Survey on the Transposition of Directive 2011/93/EU on Combating Sexual Abuse and Sexual Exploitation of Children and Child Pornography (2016)

Together Against Sexual Exploitation of Children

The study examines how seven key provisions of Directive 2011/93/EU on the fight against sexual abuse and sexual exploitation of children and child pornography have been adopted by the 27 European Union (EU) Member States bound by the Directive.

The Realities of Cyber Parenting: What Pre-teens and Teens Are Up To Online (2015)

Family Online Safety Institute and Intel Security

This global study examined the online behaviors and social networking habits of pre-teens and teens aged between 8 and 16 years old, as well as looking at the concerns of parents.

Global Research Project: A Global Landscape of Hotlines Combating Child Sexual Abuse Material on the Internet and an Assessment of Shared Challenges (2015)

Melissa Stroebe, Stacy Jeleniewski, PhD

This report examines hotlines combating Internet-facilitated Child Sexual Abuse Material.

The impact of internet and new media on the occurrence of violence against children in Europe and Cyprus (2015)

Rosella Sala

This document demonstrate that countries lack of expertise on child sexual exploitation and struggle combating this issue by their own. It suggests to establish an international legal framework to prosecute offenders and protect children.

Combatting Child Sexual Abuse (2015)

Petra Jeney

The study provides an overview of existing legislation at European Union, Member State and the international level related to online child sexual abuse, as well as the role of law enforcement agencies in combatting child sexual abuse online and other governmental and private sector initiatives.

How parents of young children manage digital devices at home: the role of income, education and parental style (2015)

Livingstone, Sonia, Mascheroni, Giovanna, Dreier, Michael, Chaudron, Stephane, Lagae, Kaat

The report compares strategies of parental mediation on the internet according to levels of parental education and household income. The aim was to inform policy-makers and practitioners on how to approach parental guidance and awareness raising.

Children’s Rights in the Digital Age (2014)

A. Third, D. Bellerose, U. Dawkins, E. Keltie, K. Pihl

This study found unequal access to digital media among youth from 16 countries, among other key findings on children's digital usage.

Policy Influences and Country Clusters: A Comparative Analysis of Internet Safety Policy Implementation (2014)

B. O'Neill

The report examines the policy context of internet safety and looks at how countries within each cluster approach implementation.

Microsoft Computing Safety Index (2014)

Microsoft

This annual survey of more than 10,000 adults in 20 countries around the world creates the data for the MCSI, which measures the actions that consumers take to help keep themselves and their families safe online.

Children's Use of Online Technologies in Europe (2014)

K. Ólafsson, S. Livingstone, L. Haddon

This report reviews recent research on children’s use of internet and mobile technologies identified by the EU Kids Online network.

Final recommendations for policy (2014)

O’Neill, B., Staksrud, E

Combining all the EU Kids Online policy guidance into one resource, this report provides more than 30 proposed actions for making the Internet safer for children.

Microsoft Computing Safety Index (MCSI) (2013)

Microsoft

The survey, Computing Safety Index, measures the steps people report taking to protect their computers, mobile phones, and info online in the categories of foundational, technical and behavioral.

Zero to Eight - Young Children and Their Internet Use (2013)

Holloway, D., Green, L., and Livingstone, S. with members of the EU Kids Online network,

This report reviews a number of other studies and provides recommendations as to how younger children can be protected from online risks.

Risks and safety on the internet: Comparing Brazilian and European children (2013)

Barbosa, A., O’Neill, B., Ponte, C., Simões, J.A., Jereissati, T.,

This study compares the results of the survey of Brazilian children and their parents/guardians, carried out by the Brazilian Internet Steering Committee. Using the same methodology as the EU Kids Online research, the results from Brazil are compared with those from Europe.

Country Classification: Opportunities, Risks, Harm and Parental Mediation (2013)

Helsper, E. J., Kalmus, V., Hasebrink, U., Sagvari, B. and De Haan, J. with members of the EU Kids Online network

With data from 25 of the European countries surveyed in EU Kids Online, the report examines the range and type of online opportunities, risks and harm which children from each country experience, as well as looking at ways in which parents control or mediate their children’s Internet use.

In their own words: what bothers children online? (2013)

Livingstone S., Kirwil, L., Ponte C. and Staksrud E., with the EU Kids Online network

The results of a survey of nearly 10,000 children in 25 countries across Europe, this report details what children say upsets them and their friends online

Microsoft Computing Safety Index (MCSI). (2013)

Microsoft

This annual survey of more than 10,000 adults in 20 countries around the world creates the data for the MCSI, which measures the actions that consumers take to help keep themselves and their families safe online.

Overview and Analysis of 1:1 Learning Initiatives in Europe (2013)

Intel

Intel 's report on the status of 1:1 Learning Initiative in Europe

Media Literacy in Europe: 12 Good Practices that will Inspire You (2013)

Evens Foundation

This document explores 12 cases across Europe of media literacy.

Risks and safety for children on the Internet: the FR report (2012)

C. Blaya, S. Alava

This report presents initial findings from the French survey of children and their parents designed to provide a unique insight into the balance of opportunities and risks experienced by children in France on the Internet.

Mobile Education in France (2012)

GSMA

This is one of a series of country specific reports from the GSMA which considers the demand for mobile education from the formal education sector perspective.

EU Kids Online: National perspectives (2012)

Haddon, L., Livingstone, S., EU Kids Online Network

This report summarizes the Internet experiences of children in the 33 participating EU Kids Online countries and includes eight countries which have not appeared in previous reports.

EU Kids Online: Excessive Internet Use among European Children (2012)

Smahel, D, Helsper, E, Green, L, Kalmus, V, Blinka, L, Ólafsson, K,

This report uses the data from the EU Kids Online study to examine excessive use of the Internet by children in the 25 participating countries.

Report on risks faced by children online and policies to protect them (2012)

Kristina Irion

The report provides key findings and policy recommendations to keep children safe online as a follow up to the 2008 Seoul Ministerial Declaration on the Future of the Internet Economy.

Worldwide Online Bullying Survey (2012)

Microsoft

This survey explored children’s experience of online bullying in 25 countries across the globe.

Global Digital Communication: Texting, Social Networking Popular Worldwide (2012)

J. Menasce Horowitz, K. Simmons, J. Poushter, C. Barker

The report is a part of the Pew Research Center's Global Attitudes Project, which conducts opinion surveys on subjects ranging from people's assessments of their own lives to their views about the current state of the world and important issues of the day.

Online Profile and Reputations Study (2012)

Microsoft and Edelman Berland

Commissioned to coincide with Privacy Day 2012, the study measured the respones of nearly 3,000 children and adults on their online activities.

This article aims to shed light on some of the critical legal questions faced by school administrators by reviewing several legislative actions and court cases involving problematic offline and online student speech or expressions. (2012)

Microsoft and Edelman Berland

Commissioned to coincide with Privacy Day 2012, the study measured the respones of nearly 3,000 children and adults on their online activities.

Excessive Internet Use by European Children (2012)

D. Smahel, E. Helsper, L. Green, V. Kalmus, L. Blinka, K. Ólafsson

This report presents new findings and further analysis of the EU Kids Online 25-country survey regarding excessive use of the internet by children.

EU Kids Online: National perspectives. (2012)

Leslie Haddon, Sonia Livingstone and the EU Kids Online network

This report summarizes the Internet experiences of children in the 33 participating EU Kids Online countries and includes eight countries which have not appeared in previous reports

Worldwide Online Bullying Survey. (2012)

Microsoft

This survey explored children’s experience of online bullying in 25 countries across the globe.

Risks and safety on the internet: The perspective of European children. Full Findings (2011)

Livingstone, S., Haddon, L., Görzig, A., Ólafsson, K

Building on the original study, EU Kids Online I, this second piece of research includes the findings from research which took place in 25 countries. Children in the 9 – 16 age group were surveyed on their experiences of online use, risk and safety

2010 Norton Online Family Report (2010)

Norton by Symantec

The report reveals how children are spending more time online and have had more negative online experiences than parents realize. It highlights different approaches taken by families globally and uncovers the emotional impact of children’s negative online experiences.

EU Kids Online: Final report (2009)

Livingstone, S., Haddon, L.

One of the foremost pieces of research into the online habits of children in the European Union is the EU Kids Online research, funded by the European Commission Safer Internet Plus Programme between 2006 and 2009.

Education on Online Safety in Schools in Europe (2009)

Eurydice

The study covers 30 European countries and provides information on whether online safety is taught and how it is taught in schools within the participating countries.

Towards a safer use of the Internet for children in the EU - a parents' perspective (2008)

Eurobarometer

The study covers 27 EU Member States and provides parental responses to a range of questions relating to Internet safety and their perception of risk.

U.S. /European Summit on Missing & Exploited Children (2005)

International Centre for Missing & Exploited Children

Participants from different governments, law enforcement, and nongovernmental organizations participated in the U.S. /European Summit on Missing & Exploited Children. They discussed successes and shortcomings of current efforts to address the global problem of missing and exploited children, and adopted a comprehensive Action Plan.

This section contains details of the country’s laws as they relate to sexual offenses, children and the use of the Internet in the commission of criminal activity. Where possible, sentence details have been given, including whether an increased custodial penalty is imposed where the victim is a child.

2001 - France has signed, ratified and entered into law the Council of Europe’s Convention on Cybercrime.

2004 - The French government passed the Law on Confidence in the Digital Economy (Law No. 2004-575) which obliged Internet Service Providers to provide filtering software to their customers, free of charge. Article 6 of the law also requires ISPs to work towards the fight against broadcasting infringements, such as the distribution of child pornography, amongst other things. They are obliged to implement a procedure that is easily accessible and visible, enabling anyone to communicate to them the presence of illegal content, whilst also taking any measures necessary to prevent or to put an end to harm caused by a online content. On request, ISPs have to allow the judicial authority access to data allowing the identification of anyone who has contributed to the creation of illegal content.

2005 - The AFA (Association of Internet Providers) issued a public commitment, reinforcing the agreement to provide filtering software at no charge by the first quarter of 2006.

  • Article 222-17, Penal Code. This Article states that it is a criminal offense to threaten to commit a felony or a misdemeanor against a person. This incurs a prison sentence of up to six months or a fine of €7,500. If it is repeated (or is evidenced in written form) and the threat is of death, the penalty increases to three years’ imprisonment or a fine of up to €45,000.
  • Article 222-18, Penal Code. States that a threat to commit a felony or a misdemeanor against a person if they fail to complete a specified task is punished by up to three years’ imprisonment and a fine of €45,000. The penalty is increased to five years’ imprisonment and to a fine of €75,000 where the threat is one of death.
  • Article 222-22, Penal Code. States that where sexual aggression was committed abroad against a minor by a French national or a person habitually resident in France, French law applies.
  • Article 222-23, Penal Code. Defines rape as any act of sexual penetration committed against another person by violence, constraint, threat or surprise. It is punishable by fifteen years’ imprisonment.
  • Article 222-24, Penal Code. Imposes an increased penalty of 20 years’ imprisonment when, amongst other definitions, the rape is committed against a minor under the age of fifteen or where it has been brought about though the use of a communications network.
  • Article 222-25, Penal Code. States that rape is punishable by thirty years’ imprisonment where it caused the death of the victim.
  • Article 222-26, Penal Code. Further increases the penalty for rape to imprisonment for life when it is preceded, accompanied or followed by torture or acts of barbarity.
  • Article 222-27, Penal Code. This Article states that any sexual aggression other than rape is punishable by five years’ imprisonment and a fine of €75,000.
  • Article 222-28, Penal Code. Imposes an increased penalty of up to seven years’ imprisonment and a fine of €100,000 if, amongst other definitions, the victim of sexual aggression has been brought into contact with the perpetrator through the use of a telecommunications network; where the offense has caused injury; or where the crime was committed jointly by two or more persons.
  • Article 222-29, Penal Code. An aggravated penalty of up to seven years’ imprisonment and a fine of €100,000 applies if sexual aggression was committed against a minor under the age of fifteen.
  • Article 222-30, Penal Code. This Article states that where an act of sexual aggression is perpetrated against a minor under the age of fifteen and injury results, or where the offender is in a position of authority over the minor victim, the sentence increases to ten years’ imprisonment and a fine of up to €150,000.
  • Article 222-31, Penal Code. States that any attempt to commit an offense under Articles 222-27 to 222-30 is punishable by the same penalties.
  • Article 222-32, Penal Code. States that where a person exposes their sexual organs in a public place they may be sentenced to up to one year’s imprisonment and a fine of €15,000.
  • Article 222-33, Penal Code. Imposes a penalty of one year’s imprisonment and a fine of €15,000 for anyone who harasses another person for the purpose of obtaining sexual favors.
  • Article 222-33-2, Penal Code. This Article deals with the offense of harassing another person by repeated conduct, causing emotional distress or impeding their ability to work. The offense is punishable by up to a year’s imprisonment and a fine of €15,000.
  • Article 225-4-1, Penal Code. Defines human trafficking as the recruitment, transport, transfer, accommodation, or reception of a person in exchange for remuneration or any other benefit, in order to subject the victim to procuration, sexual assault or attack, exploitation for begging, or the imposition of living or working conditions inconsistent with human dignity, or to force this person to commit any felony or misdemeanor. Human trafficking is punished by seven years’ imprisonment and by a fine of €150,000.
  • Article 225-4-2, Penal Code. Imposes an aggravated penalty of ten years’ imprisonment plus a fine of €1,500,000 if, amongst other circumstances, human trafficking is committed against a minor.
  • Article 225-4-3, Penal Code. States that where human trafficking is committed by an organized gang, the penalty will increase to 20 years’ imprisonment and a fine of €3,000,000.
  • Article 225-4-4, Penal Code. Further increases the penalty for human trafficking to life imprisonment and a fine of €4,500,000 where it is committed with recourse to torture or acts of barbarity.
  • Article 225-5, Penal Code. Defines procuring as to help, assist, protect, or make a profit from the prostitution of others, or to train or corrupt a person with a view to exercise pressure on that person to engage in prostitution. Procuration is punishable by seven years’ imprisonment and a fine of €150,000.
  • Article 225-6, Penal Code. States, among other things, that the penalty imposed in the preceding Article also applies to anyone who acts as an intermediary between two person, one of whom is engaged in prostitution and the other exploits or remunerates prostitution.
  • Article 225-7, Penal Code. Increases the penalty for procuration to ten years’ imprisonment and a fine of €1,500,000 where procuration is committed in respect of a minor, among other offenses.
  • Article 225-7-1, Penal Code. States that where the victim of procuration is a minor under the age of fifteen, the offender will be liable to imprisonment for fifteen years and a fine of €3,000,000.
  • Article 225-8, Penal Code. This Article further increases the penalty for procuration to 20 years imprisonment plus a fine of €3,000,000 when it has been committed by an organized gang.
  • Article 225-9, Penal Code. States that where procuration is committed by resorting to acts of torture or barbarity, the offender will be liable to imprisonment for life and a fine of €4,500,000.
  • Article 225-12-1, Penal Code. This Article covers the offense of soliciting, accepting or obtaining, in exchange for remuneration, sexual relations with a minor who engages in prostitution. The offense is punishable by three years’ imprisonment and a fine of €45,000.
  • Article 225-12-2, Penal Code. Imposes an aggravated penalty of five years’ imprisonment and a fine of €75,000 for an offense under Article 225-12-1 if the victim was put in contact with the offender by the use of a computer network; where the offense is committed habitually or against more than one person; where the offense was committed by a person abusing their position of authority. This is further aggravated to seven years’ imprisonment and a fine of €100,000 if the victim is under fifteen years of age.
  • Article 226-1, Penal Code. This Article imposes a penalty of one year’s imprisonment and a fine of €45,000 where a person records, photographs or transmits an image of a person who is in a private place and where the recording is made without consent.
  • Article 226-2, Penal Code. Applies the same penalty as above to anyone who keeps or brings to the knowledge of the public any recording or document obtained as set out in Article 226-1.
  • Article 227-21, Penal Code. States that the direct provocation of a minor to commit a felony or misdemeanor is punishable by five years’ imprisonment and a fine of €150,000. Where it concerns a minor under the age of fifteen and the minor is provoked habitually, or where the offense is committed inside a school or educational institution, an increased penalty of up to seven years’ imprisonment plus the same fine will apply.
  • Article 227-22, Penal Code. This Article imposes a penalty of five years’ imprisonment and a fine of €75,000 for anyone who assists in the corruption of a minor. This will be increased to seven years’ imprisonment and a fine of €100,000 where the minor is under fifteen years of age; where the minor was put into contact with the offender by the use of a telecommunication network; or where the offense is committed inside an educational institution. The same penalties apply to any adult organizing meetings involving indecent exposure or sexual relations at which minors are present or participating. Where the offense was committed by an organized gang, the penalty will be increased to ten years’ imprisonment and a fine of €1,000,000.
  • Article 227-23, Penal Code. States that taking, recording or transmitting a picture of a minor with a view to circulating it, where that image is of a pornographic character, is punishable by five years’ imprisonment and a fine of €75,000. The same penalty applies to offering or distributing such a image by any means. The penalty is increased to seven years’ imprisonment and a fine of €100,000 where communications networks were used to distribute the image to an unrestricted public audience. Attempted offenses carry the same penalties as above. Possessing such an image is punishable by two years’ imprisonment and a fine of €30,000. Where any of the offenses under this Article were committed by an organized gang, a penalty of ten years’ imprisonment plus a fine of €500,000 will apply. The provisions of this Article also apply to the pornographic images of a person whose physical appearance is that of a minor, unless it is proved that the person was over eighteen on the day his picture was taken or recorded.
  • Article 227-24, Penal Code. This Article states that it is a criminal offense to transport, distribute or manufacture any message that is pornographic in nature. This is punishable by three years’ imprisonment and a fine of €75,000, where the message may be seen by a minor.
  • Article 227-25, Penal Code. States that it is an offense to engage in a sexual offense against a minor under the age of fifteen, even without the threat of violence or the use of constraint. The penalty for this is five years’ imprisonment and a fine of €75,000.
  • Article 227-26, Penal Code. States that it is a crime to commit a sexual offense against a minor who is under fifteen in the following circumstances: the offender is in a position of authority over the victim; the minor was contacted by the offender by way of a telecommunications network; the offense was committed jointly by two or more persons, among other definitions. This is punishable by up to ten years’ imprisonment and a fine of €150,000.
  • Article 227-27, Penal Code. Imposes a penalty of imprisonment for two years and a fine of €30,000 for anyone committing sexual acts without violence against a minor over the age of fifteen where the offender is in a position of authority over the victim.

2003 - France ratified the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children child prostitution and child pornography.

2008/2009 - The French Ministry of the Interior works with ISPs to block internet content that is related to child pornography, terrorism and racial hatred, or attempted fraud. These efforts are implemented under laws such as the somewhat controversial LOPPSI 2 law brought before Parliament in 2009 and adopted in 2011, which authorized the blacklisting of sites with harmful content, criminalised online identity theft, and allowed police to tap Internet connections and phone lines during investigations of child pornography. The Ministry also maintains international collaboration by passing information about illegal sites run from overseas to the host countries, Europol, and/or Interpol.

2011 - The French Internet Resilience Observatory was established under the National Information Security Agency (ANISSI) to monitor internet implementation and “resilience,” which it defined as “the ability to operate during an incident and return to the nominal state.” The organization works to monitor and adopt safe and efficient internet practices.

2013 - 2016 - In response to the Rio Call for Action, France has undertaken increased efforts to address child exploitation, particularly with regard to sex tourism. For example, ECPAT France is participating in a European project called “Don’t Look Away!” that aims to suppress child sexual exploitation by providing resources for reporting and encouraging people to act when they see signs abuse taking place.

2015 - The French Association of Internet Providers (AFPI, also referred to as the AFA) received an award for its Contact Point project, which provides a reporting mechanism for harmful content online, such as child pornography. The AFA presented its initiative Point de Contact for this 2015 edition with the theme “Cyber ​​crime and prevention in the digital space.” Contact Point has a close cooperation with the Central Office for the Fight against Crime related to Information and Communication Technologies (OCLCTIC) and is a founding member of the international association of “hotlines” Internet INHOPE, who fight against child pornography.

Also in 2015, AFPI released a report on its work, noting recent challenges with monitoring online content and reporting record high rates of elimination of child pornography based on hotline reports.

2016 - In honor of Safer Internet Day, the AFPI published resources on the topic of “Sextortion,” referring to online blackmail using sexual images or information. The sources published a cartoon representation of the issue, along with information about safety tips and the laws that may be violated by such behavior (including extortion/blackmail, cyber harassment, publishing of photos without consent, child pronography, etc.). Previous cartoon resources published by AFPI addressed issues such as online grooming, sexting, and child pornography.